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betic writing was first carried to Greece hy Phoenician adventurers : and it may be safely affirmed, that this was the greatest boon any people ever received at the hards of another.
Before quitting this subject, we may briefly advert to the statement of Herodotus with respect to the circumnavigation of Africa by Phænician sailors. The venerable father of history mentions, that a fleet fitted out by Necho king of Egypt, but manned and commanded by Phonicians, took its departure from a port on the Red Sea, at an epoch which is believed to correspond with the year 604 before the Christian æra, and that, keeping always to the right, they doubled the southern promontory of Africa; and returned, after a voyage of 3 years, to Egypt, by the Pillars of Hercules. --( Herod. lib. iv. § 42.) Herodotus further mentions, that they related that, in sailing round Africa, they had the sun on their right hand, or to the north, -- a circumstance which he frankly acknowledges seemed incredible to him, but which, as every one is now aware, must have been the case if the voyage was actually performed.
Many learned and able writers, and particularly Gosselin ( Recherches sur la Géogra. phie Systémutique et Positive des Anciens, tome i. pp. 204--217.), have treated this account as fabulous. But the objections of Gosselin have been successfully answered in an elaborate note by Larcher (Hérodote, tome iii. pp. 458-464. ed. 1802. ; and Major Rennell has sufficiently demonstrated the practicability of the voyage ( Geography of Herodotus, p. 682, &c.). Without entering upon this discussion, we may observe, that not one of those who question the authenticity of the account given by Herodotus, presumes to doubt that the Phænicians braved the boisterous seas on the coasts of Spain, Gaul, and Britain ; and that they had, partially at least, explored the Indian Ocean. But the ships and seamen that did this much, might, undoubtedly, under favourable cire cumstances, double the Cape of Good Hope. The relation of Herodotus has, besides, such an appearance of good faith; and the circumstance, which he doubts, of the navigators having the sun on the right, affords so strong a confirmation of its truth; that there really seems no reasonable ground for doubting that the Phænicians preceded, by 2,000 years, Vasco de Gama in his perilous enterprise.
Present State of Syria. — The principal modern ports on the coast of Syria are Alexandretta, Latakia, Tripoli, Beyrout, Seyde, and Acre. The cominerce which they carry on is but inconsiderable. This, however, is not owing to the badness of the ports, the unsuitableness of the country, or to any natural cause, but wholly to long continued oppression and misgovernment. There is a passage in the dedication to Sandys' Travels, that describes the state of Syria, Asia Minor, Egypt, &c. about two centuries ago, with a force and eloquence which it is not very likely will soon be surpassed :
“ Those countries, once so glorious and famous for their happy estate, are now, through vice and ingratitude, become the most deplored spectacles of extreme misery; the wild beasts of mankinde having broken in upon them and rooted out all civilitie, and the pride of a sterne and barbarous tyrant possessing the thrones of ancient and just dominion ; who, ayming onely at the height of greatnesse and sensualitie, hath in tract of time reduced so great and goodly a part of the world, to that lamentable distresse and servitude under which to the astonishment of the understanding beholders) it now faints and groneth. Those rich lands at this present remain waste and overgrowne with bushes, receptacles of wild beasts, of theeves and murderers ; large territories dispeopled or thinly inhabited; goodly cities made desolate; sumptuous buildings become ruines; glorious temples either subverted, or prostituted to impietie; true religion discountenanced and oppressed; all nobilitie extinguished; no light of learning permitted, nor vertue cherished : violence and rapine insulting over all, and leaving no securitie save to an abject mind and unlookt on povertie."
Those who compare this beautiful passage with the authentic statements of Volney - incomparably the best of the modern travellers who have visited the countries referred to — will find that it continues to be as accurate as it is eloquent.
U. V. VALONIA, a species of acorn, forming a very considerable article of export from the Morea and the Levant. The more substance there is in the husk, or cup of the acorn, the better. It is of a bright drab colour, which it preserves so long as it is kept dry: any dampness injures it; as it then turns black, and loses both its strength and value. It is principally used by tanners, and is always in demand. Though a very bulky article, it is uniformly bought and sold by weight. A ship can only take a small proportion of her registered tonnage of valonia, so that its freight per ton is always high.
Of 163,983 cwts. of valonia imported in 1840, 143,095 cwts, were brought from Turkey, 15,195 cwts. from Italy, and the residue from Greece and the Ionian islands. The entries for home consumption amounted, during the 3 years ending with 1842, to about 8,200 tons, or 164,000 cwt. a year. The duty was reduced in 1842 from 20s. to 55. a ton. The price of valonia in the London market in 1843 varied frora 181. to 22. a ton.
VALPARAISO, the principal sea-port of Chili, lat. (Fort St. Antonio,) 33° 1'91 S., lon. 71° 41' 511 W. Population perhaps 28,000 or 30,000. The water in the bay is deep, and it affords secure anchorage, except during portherly gales, to the violence of which it is exposed; but as the holding ground is good, and the pull of the anchor against a steep hill, accidents seldom occur to ships properly found in anchors and cables. There is no mole or jetty; but the water close to the shore is so deep, that it is customary for the smaller class of vessels to carry out an anchor to the northward, and to moor the ship with the stern ashore by another cable made fast to the shore. Large ships lie a little further off, and load and unload by means of lighters. The best shelter is in that part called the Fisherman's Bay, lying between the castle and fort St. Antonio, where, close to a clear shingle beach, there is 9 fathoms water. In the very worst weather, a landing may be effected in this part of the bay. — (See Miers's Chili and La Plata, i. 440., where there is a plan of Valparaiso.)
The harbours of Valdivia and Concepcion are much superior to that of Valparaiso ; the former being, indeed, not only the best in Chili, but second to few in any part of the world. But Valparaiso, being near the capital, Santiago, and being the central dépôt for the resources of the province, is most fre. quented. The town is conveniently situated, at the extremity of a mountainous ridge; most part of the houses being built either upon its acclivity or in its breaches. Large quantities of corn and other articles of provision are shipped here for Callao and San Francisco, but principally for the latter. The principal articles of export are the precious metals, copper in bars and ores, callow and hides, wheat and flour, wool, saltpetre, sarsaparilla, &c. The productiveness of the Chilian mines of gold and silver has materially increased during the last few years, and their average produce may now be taken at about 3,500,000 doll. or 700,0001. a year. But the increase in the production of copper has been the most extraordinary, as is evinced by the subjoined
Account of the Quantities exported from Chili from 1841 to 1849, both inclusive.
Bars at 14 Dollar.
Quintals. Value in Dolls. Quintals Value in Dolls. Quintals. Value in Dolls. 1801 95,331 1,534,634
645,347 1512 76,437 1,070,115
919,910 1843 73,98 1,031,372
497,435 1815 100,994 1,413,216
417,598 1516 130,576 1,829,064
464,042 1817 140,593 1,972,502
387.909 1848 150,145 2,106,2.30
38 2,396 1849 178,716 2,502,024
267,1.56 A large trade is beginning to grow up between Chili and California, the latter being indebted to the former for supplies of wheat, four, and provisions. Account of the total Imports into, and of the total Exports from, Chilj in 1849, specifying the
Amount of the Trade with each Country.
20,523 1,835,460 Belgium
17,195 Central America
23.327 England 4,431,075 4,295,359 Brazil
44,508 Swerlen and Norway
63,597 United States 1,070,542 1,754,428
10,722,840 10,605,404 The exports of silver amounted in the above year to 3,223,633 doll., and those of gold to 263,070 doll.
The exports from the U. Kingdom to Chili amounted, in 1849, to 1,089,9:41. Among other items they comprised, cottons worth 545,8461., woollens 194,7141., linens 90,9531., hardware and cutlery 38,1011., iron and steel 32,9501., apparel and slops 13.9161., coal 18,2171., &c. Exclusive of gold and silver, we import from Chili considerable quantities of copper ore and copper, salt petre, hides and tallow, wool, &c.
We subjoin a late decree relating to foreign vessels: -
"Art. 1. After the 1st of January, 1851, foreign vessels of blished by article 1. shall be returned) from the day in which those nations which have not adopted the terms of recipro the equality of flags shall be put in practice by the nation to city established by the law of the 16th of July last, shall be which the vessel belongs, as may be made to appear by the charged oh their entrance to the poris of Chili, si reals, in official notice given by the respective governmeots to that of addition to the two reals which they now pay, for each ton in Chili. measurement.
"Art. 4. If the equality granted to Chilian vessels should "Art. 2. Merchandise imported after the date above named, only be in respect to certain kinds of merchandise, as, for inin such vessels, shall pay an additional duty of ten per cent. on stance, the products of the country, this reciprocity will not the amount of duties established, or which hereaftet may be hold except in respect to merchandise of tbe same sort, that is, established.
the product of the soil, or of the industry of the nation to “ Art. 3. For this additional charge, bills shall be signed at six which the vessel may belong in which it is iinported; and only months under competent security, which shall be cancelled 2a respects these will the bill and security, of which the pre(and in like manner the additional charge on tonnage, esta ceding article speaks, be cancelled."
In 1847, 669 vessels of the agg. burden of 156,686 tons entered Valparaiso, 150 of these vesseis belonging to England, and 45 to the U. States. But the commerce of the port has since been greatly extended; and owing to the extensive intercourse with California, the American arrivals begin to preponderate over those of every other country. In 1850, no fewer than 1,465 ships of the agg. burden of 412,240 tons arrived at the port, of which 122 of the agg. burden of 138,078 tons were American, The arrivals of English ships are not specified; but they were not so numerous. (Private Information.!
Perhaps no part of S. America has profited more than Chili by the establishment of independence. The contrast between her present state and that in which she was found by M. de la Perouse is most striking. “ The influence of the government," said that accomplished navigator, " is in constant or position to that of the climate. The system of prohibition exists at Chili in its fullest extent. This kingdom, of which the productions would, if increased to their maximum, supply all Europe ; whose wool would be sufficieni for the manufactures of France and England; and whose herds, converted into
salt provisions, would produce a vast produce; - this kingdom, alas ! has no commerce. Four or five small vessels bring, every year, from Lima, tobacco, sugar, and some articles of European manufacture, which the miserable inhabitants can obtain only at second or third hand, after they have been charged with heavy customs duties at Cadiz, at Lima, and lastly, at their arrival at Chili; in exchange they give their tallow, hides, some deals, and their wheat, which, however, is at so low a price, that the cultivator has no inducement to extend his tillage. Thus Chili, with all its gold, and articles of exchange, can scarcely procure sugars, tobacco, snuits, linens, cambrics, and hardware, necessary to the ordinary wants of life.' (Perouse's loyage, vol. i. p. 50. Eng. ed.)
Instead, however, of 4 or 5 small ships from Lima, we have already seen that Valparaiso only is now annually visited by between 1,400 and 1,500 ships of all nations, exclusive of those visiting the other ports! All sorts of European goods are carried direct to Chili, and are admitted at reasonable duties. The advantages resulting from this extensive intercourse with foreigners, and from the settlement of English and American adventurers in the country, have been already immense, and will every day become more visible. It was impossible, considering the ignorance of the mass of the people, that the old system of tyranny and superstition could be pulled to pieces without a good deal of violence and mischief; but the foundations of a better order of things have been laid; and there cannot be a doubt that Chili is destined to become an opulent and a flourishing country.
Monies, Weights, and Measures of Chili are the same as those of Spain ; för which, see Cadiz. The quintal of 4 arrobas, or 100lbs., 101-44 lbs, avoirdupois. The fanega, or principal corn measure, contains 3,439 English cubic inches, and is therefore = 1.599 Winch. bushels. Hence 5 fanegas =) Winch. quarter very nearly. The yara, or measure of length,=33-384 Eng. inches.
VAN DIEMEN'S LAND, or TASMANIA, a large island belonging to Great Britain, forming part of Australia, lying between 41° 20 and 43° 30' S. lat., and 144o 40 and 148° 20 W, lou. It is supposed to contain about 27,000 square miles. - (See the Mercator's Chart prefixed to this work.)
This land was discovered by the Dutch navigator Tasman, in 1642, and was named in honour of Anthony Van Diemen, at that time governor-general of the Dutch posses. sions in the East Indies; but it is now frequently called Tasmania, from its discoverer. Previously to 1798, it was supposed to forin part New Holland, but it was then ascertained to be an island. It was taken possession of by the British in 1803 ; and in 1804 Hobart Town, the capital, was founded.
The surface is generaily hilly and mountainous; but, though none of the land be of the first quality, there are several moderately fertile plains, and a good deal of the billy ground is susceptible of being cultivated. On the whole, however, it is not supposed that more than about a third part of the entire surface of the island can be considered arable: but about a third more may be advantageously used as sheep pasture. As compared with New Holland, it is well watered. The climate, though variable, is, generally speaking, good, and suitable for European constitutions; and it is not exposed to the tremendous droughts that occasion so much mischief in New South Wales. Wheat is raised in considerable quantities; though wool is at present the staple produce of the colony.
Van Diemen's Land, like New South Wales, was originally intended to serve as a penal colony, and convicts are still sent to it. Latterly, however, it has received a very considerable number of free settlers. In 1847, the total population of the island, exclusive of aborigines, (who perhaps do not exceed 3,000 or 4,000), amounted to 70,104, of whom 45,916 were free, and 24,188 convicts.
The prosperity of the colony was for a good deal retarded by the enormities committed by a banditti of runaway convicts, known by the name of bush-rangers; and more recently by the hostilities of the natives. Vigorous measures were, however, adopted for the suppression of such outrages, by confining the natives within a limited district; and these, we are glad to say, appear to have been effectual for their object.
Hobart Town or Hobarton, as it is now usually termed, is situated in the southern part of the island, on the west side of the river Derwent, near its junction with Storm Bay, lat. (Fort Mulgrave) 42° 53' 5'' S., lon. 147° 21' 5'' E. The water is deep, and the anchorage good. A jetty has been constructed, accessible to the largest ships. The situation appears to have been very well chosen ; and the town has been judiciously laid out. In 1848, the district of Hobarton contained 21,467 inhabitants, of whom 5,265 were convicts. The houses are supposed to be worth, at an average, 501. a year. There are several printing establishments in the town, and various newspapers, some of them very well conducted. There is also a Book Society, a Mechanics’ Institute, and several respectable schools and academies. The Van Diemen's Land Banking Company, the Australasian Bank, the Union Bank, the Commercial Bank,&c. have offices in Hobarton, They are joint stock companies. A light-house, with a fixed light 70 ft. in height, has been erected on Cape Direction, on a small island about 6 m. S. from Hobarton.
Launceston, the second town in the island, is situated in the northern part, at the head of the navigable river Tamar, which falls into Port Dalrymple. Its population may amount to about 10,000. It has a considerable trade with Sydney and Hobarton, and with England
Trade of Van Diemen's Land. - Hardware, haberdashery, apparel, cotton and linen goods, woollens, malt liquor, spirits, wine, &c. form the principal articles of import.
Here, as in New South Wales, wool forms by far the most important article of export ; next to it is whale oil, and then follows wheat and flour, live stock, timber, whalebone, mimosa bark, and various less important articles. The usual excess of the imports over the exports is accounted for by the remittances to defray the cost of the convict establishment.
Population, Trade, &c. of Van Diemen's Land from 1839 to 1848, both inclusive.
1840 1841 1842
Tornage. 1839 44,121 746,887 875,165 79.23 77,556
156.769 46,057 988,336 867,007 85,081 86,701
126,210 31,499 85!,981 630,501 84,211 85,201
121,733 58,902 387,453 582,509 82,983 82.866
150,474 594,154 490,281 91,583 93,988
129,315 In 1848 about 171,500 acres were said to be under crop, including about 64,700 in wheat, 14,042 in barley, 29,463 in oats, 3,916 in potatoes, 8,836 in turnips, and 49,000 or upwards in grasses. The returns of the produce for the same year are also given, and, provided they may be depended upon, they show that the yield of wheat is 171 bush. to the acre, of barley 23 do., and of oats 25 do., being not much more than half the produce of the same crops in England. This deficiency of produce may be ascribed partly, we believe, to the backward state of agriculture, and the want of care in the preparing of the land, and partly to the inferior fertility of the latter. In fact, Van Diemen's Land, though superior as a corn-growing country to New S. Wales, is notwithstanding better fitted for grazing than cropping. Wool, indeed, is here, as well as in Australia, the staple produce of the colony; and the increase in the breed of sheep has been so very great that the stock, which, in 1828, amounted to 553,698 head, bad, in 1848, increased to 1.800,000 head. And while the imports of wool from Van Diemen's Land into the U. Kingdom, in 1820, did not exceed 993,979 lbs., they amounted, in 1849, to 4,999,043 lbs. Maize is not raised in the colony, the climate being too cold. Apples, currants, gooseberries, &c., attain per. fection, but the orange, citron, and pomegranate are not raised, and the grape and peach attain only an inferior degree of maturity.
In 1848, the stock of cattle was estimated at 85,000 head; of horses, at 17,196 ; and goats, at 2,900. All kinds of stock attain a much greater size than in the neighbourhood of Sydney. During the half dozen years previous to 1836, there was a great deal of over-trading in the colony, the revulsion consequent on which was productive of a great deal of suffering. But the
continued importation of convicts has been the great drawback on the colony; and, besides preventing the influx of free settiers, has filled the island with vice and crime. And supposing the future importation of convicts to be prevented, it will require a lengthened period to efface the deep taint it has already impressed on the population. In 1848, 209 vessels of the aggregate burden of 18,412 tons, belonged to Van Diemen's Land: of these 29, of about 6,000 tons burden, employed in the whale fishery, imported oil, &c., to the gross value of 104,0001. We subjoin an
Account of the Import and Export Trade of the Colony in 1848. Countries from and to which Imports and Exports were made. Value of Imports
Value of Exports.
Ships :- Inwards
: The subjoined Table gives the Arrivals and Departures of Vessels from Hobart Town during
the same period.
6,654 British Colonies
70,159 Foreign States
19,195 United States
95,988 The number of men employed in the vessels which arrived was 7,287, and of those employed on board the ships which left the port, 7,901. Hobarton has now some trade with San Francisco.
Custom-HOUSE REGULATIONS, RATES OF PILOTAGE, HARBOUR DUES, ETC.
- 0 10 0 (Hours for public business from 10 to 3 daily, excepting on On hollands or geneva, per gallon
0 10 0 Saturday, from 10 to 12.)
On rum, per gallon, the produce of the West £ 8. d.
Indian colonies Entry of a British vessel, not colonial, with mer.
. 0 7 6
On British gin, per gallon chandise
. 076 1 10 0 On tobacco, per lb.
0 1 6 Entry of any foreign vessel
3 0 0 Permission to trade
1 1 0 The duty on all spirits, either British or foreign, is increased Dues on each bond
0 10 6 in proportion to strength, if over proof, according to Sykes's Dues on port clearance and fee
0 7 6 hydrometer Transports are free from port charges.
On all merchandise of foreign produce or manufacture, an Colonial Vessels. - Entry, and clearance to the out
ad Heren daty of 5 per cent. on importation, agreatly to ports
0 4 0 the act of 4 Geo. 4. c. 96., with the exception of wine, which Pee on ditto
0 2 0
is subjected to a duty of 15 per cent. Goods of British many Entry and clearance to the fishery, or to the out
facture are not subjected to any duty. setilement
. 0 10 0 Fee on ditto
. 0 2 0 Wharfage. - On landing each cask, bale, or package 0 0 9 Clearance of an open boat
. 0 1 0 On landing iron, per ton Annual licence for a boat
On landing salt, per ton
. 03 0
week, at 1 o chvek, on which days the dutses must be paid Om landing timber, per 1,000 feet
prior to 12 o'clock. Tobacco to issued on the sune days, fron On shipping each cask, bale, or package
0 0 3 lo to 12 o'clock. Oni shining iron, per ton
- 030 On shijinalt, per ton
. 0 1 0 Coloniai produce, when landed or shipped, is not subjected
Rates of Pilotage at the Derwent. to any charge, except for a sufferince.
Dranght of water.
Into. Out. Fets. - A sufferance to land or ship goods • 0 1 0 10 feet and under
3 0 11 2 7 4 A warrant to remove poods from ur der bond • 0 1 0 11 ditto
2 93 On landing each cask or package of spirits of wine 00 6 12 ditto
% 13 1 On the registry of vesels not exceeding 40 tons . 3 0 0 15 ditto
3 15 69 9 18 99 On the ng! try of vessels atve 40 for, pel ton 0 1 0
14 ditto To the chicf clerk, on the registry of vessels - 0 10 0 16 ditto
4 19 11 3 17 8 On indorsing change of master - 0 10 0 16 ditto
5 17 0 411 0 Warehouse Rent and charges.-A government order pub
5 9 11 Bished theith of February, 1526, fires the following rents on
$ 1300 6 14 74 spirits and t bacro, in the king's bonded stores, viz.
. 10 14 6 8 6 10 20 ditto
13 3 3 1st. All pirituous liquorn, 14. 36. per ton of 252 gallons,
10 9 for every week, or any wriod less than a week, during which the sane shall be deposited.
At Port Dalrymple.
Remaining Ydy. Tobiaco, 6d. per ton for every week, or any period
telw Whirl leas than a week during which the same shall be deposited.
Proceeding above Whirlpool Reach.
pool Raah. July. The amount of all such warehorse rent, in respect
7 feet and under
2 5 6 of any cask or package required to be delivered, must be paid
1 10 4
Above 7 feet per foot : before the same can be so delivered.
0 6 6 41hly. No allowance whatsoever will at any time be made, If the pilot does not board the vessel outside the middle in respect of, nor will the corernment be answerable for, any QTOUR ! at the leads at George Town, or, the weather not per. loss by fire, leakage, robbery, or casualty of any kind.
mitting his Ring outside, if he be not ready to show the Gorenman Order, 28th February, 12). Representations channel by keeper his bat in the fair way until the ship can having been reade to the lieutenant poremor, of the incon be boarded, he shall forfeit hall the pilotage inwards. ven ence and delay attending the stoving and unstowing of For every number of inches below 6, no charge is to be roads in the bonded warehouses, king of men has been made: for a frot and upwards, I fuct is to be charged. appointed be employed Ender the storekeener for this par. ('oloniu vessels are excinpted from the payment of pilotage, pese exclusively, and the following scale of charges will be unless the master shall make the signal for a pilot and accept required to be paid i
Harbour Dues of the Derntent. * Spirits. Per pipe, i pipe, or puncheon, each stowing d., un towing 1.. bd.
Per pipe, hogshend, or barrel, stowing 6d., unstow. For mooring and unmooring a vessel within the ing 25.
harbour, per register ton
- 0 0 1 Per case containing 3 or more dozen bottles, stowing 3d., For each removal of the ship within the harbour, unstowing 4d.
PT register ton
0 0 1 Per case containing a less quantity than 3 dozen, stowing 2d., Colonial vessels under 80 tons per register to be exempted unstowing d.
from the payment of the foregoing dues, unless the services of For Tobacco. - In large serons, each, stowing 6d., unstov. the harbour master be specifically required. ing 9d.
Al Port Dalrymple.
For each removal of a ship or vessel from anchorage
or moorings, to other anchorage or mooring, In consequence of this arrangement, it is to be understood
under 200 tons
0 15 0 that no labourers are to be admitted into or employed at the
200 tons and under 300
1 0 0 bonded warehouse, except the storekeeper's gang
300 tons and under 40)
. 1 100 Goods intended to be warehoused under bond must be
400 tons and under 300
. 2 0 lorded before 12 o'lock.
500 tons and upwards
. 2 10 0 Hoans of attendance at the Custom-house quay, from Each vesset entering the harbour will be charged with o'chuck till & from the 1st of September to the both of April, 2 renoves and from 9 till 4 from the 1st of May till the 31st of August. Vessels belonging to the port are not to pay harbour dues.
The appointed days for opening the bonded warehouse for No vessels w be deemed colonial that are not registered in the delivery of goods are Monclays and Thursdays in every Van Diemen's Land.
These details have been principally derived from the Statistics of the Colony, published at Hobart Town in 1843 ; and partly from Lieut. Breton's book, and different Parliamentary Papers.
VANILLA, the fruit of the Epidendrum Vanilla, a species of vine extensively cultivated in Mexico. It has a trailing stem, not unlike the common ivy, but not so woody, which attaches itself to any tree that grows near it. The Indians propagate it by planting cuttings at the foot of trees selected for that purpose. It rises to the height of 18 or 20 feet; the flowers are of a greenish yellow colour, mixed with white; the fruit is about 8 or 10 inches long, of a yellow colour when gathered, but dark brown or black when imported into Europe; it is wrinkled on the outside, and full of a vast number of seeds like grains of sand, having, when properly prepared, a peculiar and delicious fragrance. It is principally used for mixing with and perfuming chocolate; and is, on that account, largely imported into Spain; but as chocolate, owing to oppressive duties, is little used in England, vanilla is not much known in this country.
Vanilla is principally gathered in the intendancy of Vera Cruz, in Mexico, at Mi. santla, Colipa, Vacuatla, and other places. It is collected by the Indians, who sell it to the whites (gente de razon), who prepare it for market. They spread it to dry in the sun for some hours, then wrap it in woollen cloths to sweat. Like pepper, it changes its colour in this operation - becoming almost black. It is finally dried by exposing it to the sun for a day. There are four varieties of vanilla, all differing in price and excellence; viz. the vanilla fina, the zacate, the rezacate, and the vasura. The best comes from the forests surrounding the village of Zentila, in the intendancy of Oaxaca. According to Humboldt, the mean exportation of vanilla from Vera Cruz may amount to from 900 to 1,000 millares, worth at Vera Cruz from 30,000 to 40,000 dollars. — Vanilla is also imported from Brazil, but it is very inferior. The finest Mexican vanilla is extremely high priced. All sorts are subjected in this country to a duty of 5s. per lb. - (See Humboldt, Nouvelle Espagne, 2d edit. tome iii. pp. 37. 46.; Poinsett's Notes on Merico, p. 194. gc.)
VELLUM, a species of fine parchment. (See PARCHMENT.)
VENICE, a famous city of Austrian Italy, formerly the capital of the republic of that name, on a cluster of small islands towards the northern extremity of the Adriatic, in lat 45° 25' 59" N., lon. 12° 20' 31" E. Population about 100,000. The commerce of Venice, once the most extensive of any European city, is now comparatively trifling; and the population is gradually diminishing both in numbers and wealth