Imatges de pÓgina

Mommy. - Aeroants are kept here, in Gottenburg, and gene 1 Tun

41-6th Winch, busk. rall throughout Sselen, in paper money, consisting of nir. A last of rye from Riga

18 Tuns. doilars bosco; I rixduilar being equal to 49 skillings, and

Ditto Lichatt 1 kiling to 12 rundsticks. The exchange with limon is at


Stettin. about 12 vixdollars banco prey 1l., so that the rixdollar is worth

Ditto Stralsund 24 about 1:. Nd sterling Rixdollara banco may be exchanged for The tun f 34 kappor contains 4 1-6th Winchester bushels. specie rixdouars at the rate of 27 the former for I of the latter. In liquid reasure : But there are very few coins, except of copper, in circulation;

2 Stup

- 1 Ranna. the currency consisting almost wholly notes, varying from

15 Kannor

1 Anker 5 stalling to wrix dollars banco

2 Ankers

1 Eimer. Weights and Measures. The victuali or commercial weights

2 Eimers

= 1 Ahm. are pands, lispunds, and skippunds; 20 punds being equal to

14 Abm

1 Oxhoft. I lispund, and 2) lispunds I skippund : 100 lbs. Suedish

2 Ohoft

1 Pipe. commercial weight 931 tbs. arcirdupois = 4z kilog. = The pipe = 12% English wine gallons; and, consequently, 87) lbs. of Hamburg

the ahm 41 5.lxths ditto, and 1) kannor =69 1.5th dito. the iron weights are 3-5ths of the victuali or commercial The Swedish foot = 116N4 English inches; the ell or aina weizhts 20 marks = l mark pund; 20 mark punds = ! = 2 feet; the fathom = 3 ells; tie rod = 8 ells. skippund; and 7 skippunds = 1 ton English. Hence, 100 In estimating by lasts :puns Swedish iron weight = 75 lbs. avoirdupois, and 100 lbs. 1 Last of pitch, ashes, &c.

= 12 barrels. avoirdupis = 133 1/3 lbs. Swedish iron weight.

I ditto tar, oil, &c.

= 13 ditto. In corn measure:

1 Last of hemp, flax, tallow, &c. = 6 skippunes. 4 Quarts = Span.

i Tun of Liverpool common salt . 7 tuns Swell. :i'uo or barrel 2 Spann Pro forma Invoice of 150 Shippounds or 20 Tons of Iron shipped from Stockholm for London in 1843.

[blocks in formation]

Account of the official Value of the Articles imported into and exported from Sweden in 1841.






Finland -
Bremen -
Hanover and

Holland -
Britain -


Banco riad.

Aance rin!
Bar iron, pig iron, sugar, grain, &c. 711,120 Wood, tar, provisions, hides, skins 1,26,5)
Com, alum, &c.
207,960 Hemp, bides, furs, taliew, vool

Iron, copper, deals &c.
2,32,274 Colonial produce, grain, wool, &c.

1,679,250 Iron, steel, capper, alum, tar, and wood 1.510,950 Grain, &c.

279,430 Ditto

1,084,096 Colonial produce, manufactures, wine, 3,116,8981 Iron, &c.

31,530 wool, &c. Same as to Prussia



Iron, &c.
329,480 Grain, wool, hides, skins

20.5,870 Ditto

160,200 Tobacco
Iron, copper, tar, rock more, ashes 1,090,490 Dve staffs, olls, paper, cherre, &c.

Irun, wond, steel, oats, linseed
38,700 Hides, machinery, cotton, &c. .

195,710 Iron, steel, manganese, linseed, bones,

Cotton yarn, coals, manufactures, machi. wood, oats, &c.

4,931,700 nery, wine, indigo, colonial goods, &c. - 2,684,7001 Iron, wood, lar 1,4,$10 Wine, brandy, manufactures, salt

361,970 W od 199,770 Wine, salt, fruits

181,910 Iron, steel, rood, tar

606,110 Wine, salt, fruits, leather
Iron, wood, tar

131.150 Salt, wine, oils, fruits.

79,790 Iron, tar

52,710 Iron, wood, glass

14,370 Wood

Wood, Iron

Iron -
2,887,990 American and colonial produce

1,132,090 Wood

Iron, steel, wood

36,470 Sugar, coffee.
Iron, deals
529.970 Sugar, coffee, and hides

23,1 10 Hides, wool, &c.

36,520 Ditto

299,370 Sugar, hides, coffee, arrack, spices,
rice, &c.

Iron, grain, tar, sugar, paper, &c.
1,027,830 Fish, oil, &c. .

2,679,693 Banco rixd, - 21,008,908

Banco rixd.

19,797,031 Bullion and coined money 1,818,158 Bullion and coined money

865,759 Banco rixd. - 22,927,360!

Banco rixd. - 120,662,790

France -
l'nited States
West Indies
River Plate
East Indies




Shipping of Sweden in 1841.
Employed in the foreign trade

771 ships of 117,628 tons.
Interior and coasting trade

1,411 ships of 62,210 tons. Belonging to private individuals

51 steamers of 2,010 horsepower. Regulations as to the working of Mines in Sweden. -- The mines of Sweden, though inconsiderable as compared with those of this country, are a considerable source of national wealth. They are principally situated in the central provinces, which have no fewer than 261 out of the 586 mines said to exist in the kingdom. Swedish iron is of a very sliperior quality, and that of the Danemora mines is especially well fitted for conversion into steel ; but, owing to injudícious restrictions and the want of coal, the production in Sweden is not supposed (including what is licensed and what is made for home consumption without a licence) to exceed 85,000 or 90,000 tons bar iron, of which about 70,000 are exported. In 1839 we imported 17,049 tons of Swedish iron. The copper mines produce, in all, only about 750 tons a year ; the metal is not so good as that of England, and is impregnated with iron. Fahlun, the chief mine, has long been in a declining state, the number of workmen at present employed not exceeding 500. 'The works of this mine are conducted entirely by water power, and are remarkable for their completeness; connected with them is a manufactory of sulphuric acid. The smelting furnaces and iron works are licensed to produce certain quantities, some being as low as 50 tons, and others as high as 400 or 500 tons; and some fine bar fron works have licences for 1,000 tons each. These licences are granted by the College of Mines, which has a control over all iron works and mining operations. The iron masters make annual returns of their manufacture, which must not exceed the privileged or licensed quantity, on pain of the overplus being confiscated. The college has established courts of mines in every district, with supervising officers of various ranks. All

iron sent to a port of shipment must be landed at the

public weigh-house, the superintendent of which is a delegate of the college ; so that it is impossible for an iron master to send more iron to market than his licence anthorises. It is true that sales are made to inland consumers at the forges, of which no returns are made out, and in so far the licences are exceeded; but it is not supposed that the quantity so disposed of exceeds a few thousand tons a year. Every furnace and forge pays a certain annual duty to the crown. Its amount is tixed by the college when the licence is granted ; and care is taken not to grant the licence to any one unless he have the command of forests equal to the required supply of charcoal without encroaching on the supply of this material required for the existing forges in the neighbourhood. As the supply of pig-iron is limited to the quantity licensed to be made, the college, in granting new licences to bar-iron works, always takes into consideration how far this may be done without creating a scarcity of pig-iron. Hence, the erection of new forges depends – Ist, on having a supply of charcoal, without encroaching on the forests which supply your neighbours; and 2d, on the quantity of pig-iron which the college knows to be disposable. The courts of the mines decide all disputes that arise among the iron masters regarding the exceeding of their licences, encroachments, &c.; an appeal to the college lying from their decision, and ultimately to the king in council, or to the supreme court of the kingdom.

It is needless to dwell on the impolicy of such regulations. No doubt it is quite right for government to interfere to prevent the waste and destruction of the forests ; but, having done this, it should abstain from all other interference, and leave every one at liberty to produce as much iron as he may think proper, Mines of any importance are usually held by a society of shareholders. So ne of them are ouly worked occasionally; and, as the labour is performed by peasants, who live ostensibly by busbandry, it is impossible to form any correct estimate of the numbers engaged in mining industry.

STOCKINGS, as every one knows, are coverings for the legs. They are formed of only one thread entwined, so as to form a species of tissue, extreinely elastic, and readily adapting itself to the figure of the part it is employed to cover.

This tissue cannot be called cloth, for it has neither warp nor woof, but it approaches closely to it; and for the purposes to which it is applied, it is very superior.

1. Historical Sketch of the Stocking Manufacture, It is well known that the Romans and other ancient nations had no particular clothing for the legs During the middle ages, however, hose or leggins, made of cloth, began to be used ; and at a later period, the art of knitting stockings was discovered. Unluckily, nothing certain is known as to the individual by whom, the place where, or the time when, this important invention was made. Howell, in his History of the World (vol. iii. p. 222.), says, that Henry VIII. wore none but cloth bose, except there came from Spain hy great chance a pair of silk stockings; that Sir Thoinas Gresham, the famous merchant, presented Edward VI. with a pair of long silk stockings from Spain, and that the present was much taken notice of; and he adds, that Queen Elizabeth was presented, in the third year of her reign, with a pair of black knit silk stockings, and that from that time she ceased to wear cloth hose. It would appear from this circumstantial account, that the art of knitting stockings, or at least that the first specimens of knit stockings, had been introduced into England from Spain about the middle of the 16th century; and such seems to have been the general opinion, till an allusion to the practice of knitting, in the pretended poems of Rowley, forged by Chatterton, made the subject be more carefully investigated. The result of this investigation showed clearly that the practice of knitting was well known in England, and had been referred to in acts of parliament, a good many years previously to the period mentioned by Howell. But it had then, most probably, been applied only to the manufacture of woollen stockings; and the general use of cloth hose shows that even these had not been numerous. There is no evidence to show whether the art is native to England, or has been imported. --(See Beckmann's Inventions, vol. iv. art. Knitting Nets and Stockings.)

It is singular that the stocking frame, which, even in its rudest form, is a very complex and ingenious machine, that could not be discovered accidentally, but must have been the result of deep combination and profound sagacity, should have been discovered so early as 1589, before, in fact, the business of knitting was generally introduced. The inventor of this admirable machine was Mr. William Lee, of Woodborough, in Nottinghamshire. He attempted to set up an establishment at Calverton, near Nottingham, for the manufacture of stockings, but met with no success. In this situation he applied to the queen for assistance ; but, instead of meeting with that remuneration to which his genius and inventions so well entitled him, he was discouraged and discountenanced ! It need not, therefore, excite surprise that Lee accepted the invitation of Henry IV. of France, who, having heard of the invention, promised him a magnificent reward if he would carry it to France. Henry kept his word, and Lee introduced the stocking frame at Rouen with distinguished success; but after the assassination of the king, the concern got into difficulties, and Lee died in poverty at Paris. A krowledge of the machine was brought back from Frano to England by some of the workmen who had emigrated with Lee, and who established themselves in Nottinghamshire, which still continues to be the principal seat of the manufacture. (See Buckmunn's Inventions, vol. iv. pp. 313–324. ; and Letters on the Utility and Policy of Machines, Lond. 1780.)

During the first century after the invention of the stocking frame, tew improvements were made upon it, and 2 men were usually employed to work 1 frame. But in the course of last century, the machine was very greatly improved. The late ingenious Mr. Jedediah Strutt, of Derby, was the first individual who succeeded in adapting it to the manufacture of ribbed stockings.

Statistical liew of the Stocking Tradie. - We subjoin, from a paper by Mr. Felkin. of Nottingham, who is advantageously known by this statistical researches, the following view of the state of the British bosiery trade in 1832.

Worsted hosiery is chiefly made in Leicestershire; fik ho- | Argola, 1,450lambswool, 1,900 ; shirts, 500 frames 3,750 siery in Derby and Netranchan; and cotton basier throughout Wille frames, on with worsted soods the counting of Nottingham and Derty, at Hinckley, ard at Sulk, 2,300; gloves, 390, and knots, 350 Tewkesbury. "The analysis furnished by Blackner, in 1812, may be, perhaps, molded as follows, so as to show the kinds

Total of frames . 33,000 and qualities of goods which the frames are now employed ull, "iz, Plain cotton, 14 to 22-luge, 1,600 ; 24 to 28.gauge,

The following statement, it is believed, prevents a sufficiently 1.600); 30 to 34-gauge, 9,790; 36 to 60-gauge, 1,600

accurate approximation to the annual amount in quanuty and frames.


value of the goods manufactured in this trade, to answer all Gauze, 600; gloves and caps, 1,000; drawers, 500 ;

practical purposes: sundrien, 560

2,669) Each narrow cotton frame produces about 40 dozen of bose Wie fraines, making cut-ups and various other kinds

a year, if u women's size; wide cotton frames, 300 ; narrow Worsted, 12 to 21-e, 1,100; 12 to 26-gange,

Worsto, 75; wide worsted, 150, and mock, 30. There are 3,600), 28 to 34-gauge, 1,130 frames

: 9,450 Frames.

Donen. fashioned cor10,300 420,000

73.000 290,000 32,000 (325,000 ton have

yarn 6,10 eut ut', .tc. 1,961,00 2,940,000


285,000 98,000 525,000 ta hone! 9,500 710,000

213,000 11,100

5:0,18 Worsted 1,00 cut up, &c.


0,00 10,00

SON) 1,500 Angola 95.00


Tuinbs' wool

84,4WOO 54.00 16,000 3.000) i silk

105,000 silk

120,000) 105,00 13,000) 241,00 33,000 3,510,000 8,137,000

811,000 948,00 229,00 1,991,000

880,000 otton


2,510,000 worst

According this calculation, the value of the cotton bosiery annually made is $80,0004.; that of worstel, &c. ix 870,0001. ;

of are used; and 140,000 lbs, of raw silk 12-3th China and 3-5ths Nuvi), valu 91,.; a'so, 6,318,000 lbs. of English wool, value 316,0001. The total original value of the materials used is, therefore, 560,0001., which, it appears, become of the ultimate cost value of 1,991,4l, in this manufacture.

There are emploged in the various processes, as follows, viz. In cotton spinning, doubling, &c., 3,000; worsted carding, spinning, &c., 2,00; silk winding, throw

In wool and varn in process and stock

$5,000 ins, &c., 1.100. 6,500

131), In making stockings, 13,000 men, 10.oo women, and


39.00) 100 youth; and women and children in seaming, winding, &c., 27,


Floating capital in spinning, &c. • £170,00 In eit brodering, mending, bleaching, dyeing, dressing, putting-up, S., probably about

Capital in narrow cotton frames

62, no Total persons emplosed • 73100

narrow worsted frames

76.) The capital emploved in the various branches of the trade


11.16M) may be thus est matel, taking the machinery and frmes at

wilk fraines

36,10 neither their orginal cust, nor actual seiling price, that their working aine, and the stocks of bosiery on an average of

Fixed capital in franes • £115,00 VOUS The rapiial in tills and machinery, for preparing Cotion, ia 70,000 In goods in process and stock


54.(NO) wursted, &c.

345, **) silk 18,00

*5, Fixed capital in mil's, &c.

140.00 Floating capital in making hase
in frames -

in spinning, &c, .

2707.10 Total of fixed capital -£155,000

Total of floating capital £1,00

We have no more recent account of the manufacture, on which any reliance can be placed ; but we are informed by Mr. Felkin, that the number of frames may at present (1843) be taken at 36,000, and that wages, though low, are rising.

According to the above estimate of the total value of the stocking manufacture in 1833 (1,991,0001.), it would not give more than 28. 5d. for the average expenditure on stockings of each individual of the then existing inhabitants of Great Baitain. There can, however, be little or no doubt that this sum is decidedly under the mark; and its insufficiency will appear the more striking when it is recollected that a large portion of the hosiery whose value is included in the above estimate, does not consist of stockings, but of woollen and cotton shirts and drawers, gloves, mitts, night-caps, shawls, &c. Perhaps we shall not be far wrong in estimating the total average expenditure per individual of the population of Great Britain on stockings and other articles of hosiery, at 4s. each ; which, taking the population at 18,500,000, would give 3,700,000l. for the total value of the manufacture. And this estimate, we incline to think, will be found to be pretty near the mark.

In the estimate given above, by Mr. Felkin, no notice is taken of the hosiery made in Westmoreland and Cumberland, and in Scotland, where, however, it is rather extensively produced. In fact, there are at present (1843) between 600 and 700 stocking frames at work in Dumfries and its vicinity, and about 1,300 in Hawick, exclusive of a farther number in Aberdeen, &c., and of the knitted stockings made in the Orkney and Shetland islands.

In our customs returns, cotton hosiery and lace are mixed up together, so that the value of the exports of each cannot be separately specified. The exports of both have, however, increased considerably of late years, and we are well assured that the increase has been as great in the hosiery as in the lace branch. The Germans, it is true, have succeeded in disposing of considerable quantities of hosiery in South America, partierlarly in Brazil; a consequence, partly, of the low price at which the goods are produced in the cottages of peasants who derive the principal part of their subsistence from other

sources; but more, we are informed, from the German stockings being better adapted to the taste of the people to whom they are offered, the English stockings being all too long. This, however, is a defect that, one should think, might be easily obviated ; and if so, English hosiery would have the same preference in Brazil that it has in most other markets.

STORAX. See Balsam.

STORES, MILITARY AND NAVAL, include arms, ammunition, &c. It is enacted, that no arms, ammunition, or utensils of war, be imported by way of merchandise, except by licence, for furnishing his Majesty's public stores only.—(6 Geo. 4. c. 107.)

STORES, in commercial navigation, the supplies of different articles provided for the subsistence and accommodation of the ship's crew and passengers.

It is laid down, in general, that the surplus stores of every ship arriving from parts beyond seas are to be subject to the same duties and regulations as those which affect similar commodities when imported as merchandise; but if it shall appear to the collector and comptroller that the quantity of such stores is not excessive, nor unsuitable, under all the circumstances of the voyage, they may be entered for the private use of the master, purser, or owner of such ship, on payment of the proper duties, or be warehoused for the future use of such ship, although the same could not be legally imported by way of merchandise. - (3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 52. 35.) A List, by which to calculate the Amount of Stores, of the estimated Average Number of Days' Dura

tion of a Voyage from the U. Kiugdum to the different Ports enumerated, and back.


Azores Isles
Augustine's Bay
Alexandria -
Ascension Isle
Archipelago Isles
Archangel -
Acapulco, Mexico
Bay of Roses
Bahama Isles
Buenos Ayres
Bay of Campeachy
Botany Bay
Cape de Verde Islands,

viz. 1-
St. Antonio
St. Vincent
St. Jago
Canary Isles
Christiania -
Civita Vecchia
Corsica Isle -
Cape Hayti -
Chesapeake Bay
Candia Isle
Corfu Isle
Cape Coast Castle
Carthagena, Spanish
Cape St. Mary
Colombia iliver

110 Rbodes Island

180 110 River Gainbia

190 130 St. Andero

80 130 St. Ubes

80 150 Salee

120 140 Stettin

100 180 Stockholm

100 180 St. John's, Newfound. 120 100 St. Mary's

95 180 St. Michael's, Azores 80 180 St. John, New Bruns. 120 230 St. Andrew, do

110 270 Salerno

130 Sardinia Isle

180 Susa

120 105 Savannah

150 270 Syracuse

140 400 St. Augustine's Bay 150 365 St. Helena

210 400 Sydney, N. S. Wales 420 Sumatra

400 365 Society Islands

420 Swan River

565 365

Singapore -
SO Surat

120 Sandwich Isles
100 South Sea Fishery 3 years
130 St. Bartholomew

180 150 St. Crois

180 130 St. Christopher's

180 180 St. Domingo

210 120 St. Eustatia

186 120 St. Lucia

180 165 St. Martin

180 190 St. Thomas

180 400 St. Vincent's

180 400 Salonica

180 400 Santa Martha

240 400 St. Salvador, or Bahia 200 120 St. Sebastian

210 120 Senegal

180 80 Sierra Leone

180 240 Scandaroon

150 420 Syra

180 420 Smyrna

180 100 Tangler

120 100 Trinity Bay

120 120 Tunis

120 Tarragona

110 120

Tonningen 210 Toulon

130 130 Tripoli

120 190 Tenerife 120 Tortola

ISO 210 Tobago

180 Trinidad

180 160 Trieste

160 190 Truxillo

410 240 Timor

420 185 Tellicherty

365 120 Tranquebar

400 400 Trincomalee

380 420 Vigo

80 -400 Valencia

110 420 Venice

160 150 Vera Cruz

250 180 Venezuela

940 200 Valdivia

400 200 Valparaiso

400 80 Van Diemen's Land 363 100 Wyburg

100 100 Zara

160 100 Zen

160 150 Zante Isle


Por such places as are not included in the List, the same all yw ince should be granted as is given to the place nearest thereunto.

No stores shall be shipped for the use of any ship bound to Wine, 1 quart per day for the master, each mate, and calin parts beyond the seas, nor shalany koodis de dermed to be such рактует. stores, except such as shall be borne upon the victualling bill. Wine bottled in the bonded warehouses for exportation may 13 & 4 Will 4. c. 52. sect. 16.)

be shipped as stores, in packages containing not less than 3 doz. Gonds delivered into the charge of the searchers to be shipped reputal quart, or 6 doz. reputeri pint battles. as stores, may be so shipped without entry or payment of any Spirils, vir. brandy, geneva, ruin (British plantation), pint duty, for any ship of the burden of 70 tons at leat loound apon per day for each person on board. & voyage to forenim parts, the probable duration of which out British plantation rum to be in the proportion of of the and home will not the less than 40 days provided such stores whole quantity of spirits shipped. Eauh description of spirits be duly bome upon the ship's victualling bili, and be shipped in intended as stores io te shired in one cask capable of consuh quantities, and subject to such directions and regulations, faining the entire quantity of brandy, or of geneva or ruin, as the commissionets of customs shall direct and appoint. - allowed for the voyage, or in casks containing not less than 10 (3& I Will. 4. c. 57. sect. 16.)

gallons of brandy or geneva, or 20 galluns of British plantation Kum of the Brush pl nations may be delivered to the tum, as the case may be provided that if spirits shall have been Beart her, to be shipped as stores for any ship, without entry or imported in bottles, or bottled in the boncie warehouses for ex. payment of any duty; and any surplus scores of any ship may be portation, the same may be shipped as stores, in packages con delivered to the searcher, to be re-shipped as stores for the same laining not less than 3 dos reputed quart, or doz. reputed ship, or for the $1 me master in another ship, without entry or pint bottles. payment of any daty, - such rum and such surplus stores being 1 Han Segar and Molasses (together of separate), 2 oz. per day duly borne upon the victualling bills of such ships respectively; for exh person on board. and if the ship, for the future use of which any surplus stores Dried Fruits, 2 lbs. per week for each person on board. have been warehouset, shall have been broken up or sold, such Rice, 2 lbs. per week for each person on board. stres may be so delivered for the use of any other ship teluge Foreign Segars, 1 oz. per day for the master, each mate, and Ing to the same owners, or may be entered for payment of duty, each cabin passenger. and delivered for the private use of such ownen or any of them, The entire quantity of foreign segars allowed as stores for or of the master or purit of the ship. - Sect. 17.

each voyage to be shipped in one package. The war in landon, on clearance of vessels coast vise to take in carxoes for foreign parts, are to apprise the collectors and comptrollers at the outports where the vessels may be

A List of British manufactured Goods to be allowed to be shipped bound, of the quantity and den ription of the goods which may

as Store on the usual Bounty or Drawback. have been shipped as stores on board such Vessels, and that

British refined Engur, 3 oz. per day for the master, each bund has been given by the masters of the vels that no part mate, and each cabin passenger. of such stores shall be consumed by the crews, or any package British manufacturell Tubacco, oz. per day per man. opened or altezed, until the vessels have actually been cleared British erciseuble cu da, viz. beer, ale, and porter (together on their fure mn voyages, and the collectors and comptrollers at the out-forts are in like manner to cause a similar commu

or parate), 1 quart per day for the master, each mate, and

each passenger: nication to be made to the port, where th: outward cargoes are Vinegar, pint per week for each person on board. to be taken on board, and the officers at such ports are to take Scap or per day for each person on board. The same care to ascertain that the several geochs so shipped are actually

indu.gence, in respit of the ship'nent of store, which has been on tard the vessels on their arrival, and have neither been con

kranted to merchant vessels under the 2&3 Will. 4. c. 84. se ned or ruil on shore during the cranting voyage, and if so,

and by subsequent orders, is granted to transports under the fol. to report the same to the Board. - (Min. by Cum of Customs,

lowing conditions, viz. : - On a certificare being produed for 19th of Feb. 1933.)

each Fessel, from the office of a co.nptroller for victual and

transport services, stting forth the destination of the vessel, List of Foreign Goods allowed to be shipped as Stores, from the

and the number of the crew and passer gers on board, who are buded Warehouss free of Dry. - 1 Customs Minute, 29th

not to be messed by the vitualling shipped by the public; and of Nov. 1832.)

as respects soldiers embarked as guard in ships chartered for Tea, of an oz. ; Coffee or cocoa, 1 oz. per day for each per. the transportation of convicts, on a certifcate being pruduced non on board, with the option ship the entire quantity re from the proper department, specifying the number of soldiers quired for the voyage of e the species of these articles, huils an to be embarked in each case; but do indulgence can be granted oz. of tea being considered equal to one oz. of coffee or crena; in regard to the article of snap. - 'Treas. Order, 6th of March, the tea to be shipped in the original packages in which it was 1833; see also Ellis's British Tar 11:) imported.

STRANDING, in navigation, the running of a ship on shore, or on the beach.

It is the invariable practice to subjoin the following memorandum to policies of insurance executed by private individuals in this country :-“ N.B. — Corn, fish, salt, fruit, flour, and seed are warranted free from average, unless general, or the ship be stranded ; sugar, tobacco, hemp, flax; bides, and skins are warranted free from average under 51. per cent. ; and all other goods, also the ship and freight, are warranted free of average under 31. per cent., unless general, or the ship be stranded.

It is, therefore, of the greatest importance accurately to define what shall be deemed a stranding But this is no easy matter; and much diversity of opinion has been entertained with respect to it. It would, however, appear that merely striking against a rock, bank, or shore, is not a stranding; and that, to constitute it, the ship must be upon the rock, &c. for some time (how long?). — Mr. Justice Park has the following observations on this subject:—“ It is not every touching cr striking upon a fixed body in the sea or river that will constitute a stranding. Thus Lord Ellenborough held, that in order to establish a stranding, the ship must be stationary; for that merely striking on a rock, and remaining there a short time (as in the case then at the bar, about a minute and a half), and then passing on, though the vessel may have received some injury, is not a stranding. Lord Ellenborough's language is important. - Ex vi termini stranding means lying on the shore, or something analogous to that. To use a vulgar phrase, which has been applied to this subject, if it be touch and go with the ship, there is no stranding. It cannot be enough that the ship lie for a few moments on her beam ends. Every striking must necessarily produce a retardation of the ship's motion. If by the force of the elements she is run aground, and becomes stationary, it is immaterial whether this be on piles, on the muddy bank of a river, or on rocks on the sea shore; but a mere striking will not do, whererer that may happen. I cannot look to the consequences, without considering the

There has been a curiosity in the cases about stranding not creditable to the law. A little common sense may dispose of them more satisfactorily.”

This is the clearest and most satisfactory statement we have met with on this subject; still, however, it is very vague. Lord Ellenborough and Mr Justice Park hold, that to constitute a stranding, the ship must be stationary ; but they also hold, that if she merely remain upon a rock, &c. for a short time, she is not to be considered as having been stationary. Hence every thing turns upon what shall be considered as a short time. And we cannot help thinking that it would be better, in order to put to rest all doubts upon the subject, to decide either that every striking against a rock, the

causa causans.

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