« AnteriorContinua »
ascertained, and the rest are estimated. Such accidents, by explosions and other disasters to steam-boats, appear to have constituted a great portion of the whole, and are supposed to have equalled 230, of which 215 are ascertained. The first of these is believed to have occurred in the Washington, on the Ohio river, in 1816.
“Since the employment of steam-boats in the U. States, it is computed that quite 1,300 have been built here. Of these, about 260 have been lost by various accidents, as many as 240 worn out, and the rest are now running.
“ The first steam-boat used for practical purposes here (or indeed in any part of the world) was in 1807, on the Hudson River, in the State of New York. She was built
Fulton, called the North River, with an engine of only 18-horse power, and made the passage between Albany and New York in thirty-three hours. Though with a steam engine manufactured abroad by Boulton and Watt, yet no boat was launched in Europe that proved successful in practice, till five years after, by Mr. Bell, at Glasgow, in 1812. At that time, the Car of Neptune, built in 1808, the Paragon, in 1811, and the Richmond, in 1812, were all, in addition to the boat first built, running from New York. Rumney is known to have made experiments on a small scale as to steamboats, in Virginia, as early as 1787; but they were not reduced to any practical use, Both he and Fitch commenced trials in this country as early as 1783 and 1784, and Oliver Evans in 1785 and 1786. They had been preceded in France, in 1762, by the Marquis d'Jeaffrey; and the idea of applying steam in boats had been suggested in England as early as 1736, by Jonathan Hulls.
“ The whole number of steam-boats ascertained and estimated to be now in this country, is 800. In England, in 1836, the whole number is computed to have been 600. On the Western and South-western waters alone, near 400 are now supposed to be running, where none were used till 1811, and where, in 1834, the number was computed to be only 234. Of these 400, about 141 are estimated. On the Ohio river alone, in 1837, about 413 different steam-boats are reported to have passed through the Louisville and Portland Canal, besides all below and above, which never passed through. But it deserves notice, that of those 413, near 60 went out of use by accidents, decay, &c., within that year; and several of the others, viz., 104, were new, and many of them probably were destined to run on other rivers. As an illustration of the rapid increase of business in steam-boats on the Ohio, the number of passages by them through the Louisville canal increased from 406, in 1831, to 1,501, in 1837, or nearly fourfold in six years. About 70 boats were running the present year on the Northwestern lakes, where a few years since the number was very small, having been in 1835 only 25. Of the 800 steam-boats now in the U. States, the greatest number ascertained to be in any State is 140, in the State of New York.
“ It is a matter of surprise that so few of these are sea-going ressels, considering that the first steam-boat which ever crossed the Atlantic was built in New York, so long ago as 1819, and went from Savannah (the place after which she was called) to Liverpool in 26 days; and that the Robert Fulton, as early as 1822, made several trips to New Orleans and Havannah. A similar remark applies to the circumstances that only one of the whole number is a public vessel of war, when the first steam vessel of that kind ever launched was the Fulton, and was built in this country, so long ago as 1815. The Government of the U. States never owned but two steam vessels of war
- both called the Fulton.” The first was lost by accident, in 1829; and now there is only the other before alluded to, built in 1838. It has, however, 13 other steam vessels, employed in the war department, on the public works, and in the transportation of troops and stores.
“Of the whole number of locomotives in the U. States propelled by steam, being about 350, the most which have been ascertained in any State is 96, in the State of Pennsylvania,
“ None of them were introduced here till 1831, though they now run on nearly 1,500 miles of railroad. The first, it is believed, was in the State of Delaware on the Nev. castle railroad; the second, in Maryland, on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad; and the third, between New Orleans and Lake Pontchartrain, in the State of Louisiana. They had been tried in this country, by Oliver Evans, as early as 1804. and in England as early as 1805 ; but not reduced to useful practice in the latter till 1811 for freight, and in 1830 for passengers and speed. One succeeded on a common road, from London to Bath, in 1829. Of the whole number of other steam machines in the U. States, (being about 1,860), the state of Pennsylvania has the most, being 383. The number in some States is not accurately ascertained; but near 300 are ascertained and computed to exist in Louisiana alone. The introduction of them here, and especially with the high pressure machinery, was much promoted by Oliver Evans, about 1804. The first of them in use in the U. States was put up in 1787, in the State of New Jersey, for raising water and earth from mines. The next were about 1791, in a cotton factory at Kensington, near Philadelphia ; and soon after in saw-inills, and iron slitting
and rolling mills, at Pittsburg. The power has been known in England to be applicable to mechanical uses since the experiments of the Marquis of Worcester, in 1663. It is said by some that he was preceded in France (and a pamphlet published on the subject as early as 1615,) by Solomon de Caus. But the views of the latter, like many who preceded him in the knowledge of steam as a moving power, are supposed to have been rather theoretical than practical. Several machines were made in England as early as 1720; and Watt's first patent was taken out, for improvements in them, as early as 1769. But they were not, even there, very extensively and successfully applied to mills and manufactories, till 1785, though 18 large engines were employed in the mines of Cornwall as early as 1770; and a four mill, with 20 pairs of stones, was moved by steam in London in 1784.
“ The greatest employment of these in the South is in the sugar manufacture, and in cleaning and pressing cotton; in the West, in grist and saw mills, and in various manufactures of iron machinery and tools; and in the East, in mills, in printing, in cotton manufactories, and the public works at navy yards and armouries.
“ The government of the U. States owns 17 of these; they being employed at their navy yards, to empty docks, saw timber, &c.; and at some arsenals and armouries, in manufacturing arms.
“ The tonnage of all the steam-boats in the U. States is computed to exceed 155,473. Of this, 137,473 is in boats ascertained or reported. By the official returns, the whole tonnage would now, probably, equal near 160,000 tons, having been, in 1837, equal to 153,660. Many boats included in those returns have been lost or worn out, and several new ones built since. In England, the tonnage is estimated to have been 67,969 in 1836. The tonnage of each boat here averages about 200; and the estimates, where the returns have been defective, were made on that basis. The power employed in all the steam engines in the U. States is ascertained and estimated at 100,318 horsepower: of this, 12,140 only is in engines estimated and not returned. In the aggregate, all this new mechanical force would be equal to the power of 601,808 men. Of this force, 57,019 horse-power is computed to be in steam-boats; 6,980 in railroads; and the rest, being 36,319, in other engines. This averages about 70 horse-power to each boat, or one horse to between two and three tons, and less than 20 horse-power to each of the other engines. It is a striking fact, that the steam-power employed in standing engines is equal to about two-thirds of all that is used in steam-boats. The argest boat in the U. States is supposed to be the Natches, of 860 tons, and near 300 horse-power, destined to run between New York and Mississippi ; the Illinois and the Madison, on Lake Erie, are the next in size, the former being 755, and the latter 700 tons; the Massachusetts, in Long Island Sound, is the next largest, being 626 tons ; and the Buffalo, on Lake Erie, next, being of 613 tons. The largest boats passing Louisville, in 1837, were the Uncle Sam, of 447 tons, and the Mogul, of 414 tons ; though below Louisville, the Mediterranean, of 490 tons, and the North America, of 445 tons, on the Ohio, and the St. Louis, of 550 tons, on the Mississippi, are running. The greatest loss of life well authenticated on any one occasion in a steam-boat appears to have been by collision, and consequent sinking, in the case of the Monmouth, in 1837, on the Mississippi, by which 300 lives were lost. The next greatest were by explosions : of the Oronoka, in 1838, on the same river, by which 130, or more, lives were lost; and of the Moselle, at Cincinnati, Ohio, by which 100 to 120 persons were destroyed. The greatest injury to life by accidents to boats from snags and sawyers appears to have been 13 lost, in 1834, in the case of the St. Louis, on the Mississippi river. The greatest by shipwreck was in the case of the Home, in 1837, on the coast of North Carolina, where 100 persons were lost. The greatest by fire happened in the Ben Sherrod, on the Mississippi river, in 1837, when near 130 perished. The number of steam-boats built in the U. States in 1834 was 88; but in 1837 it was 184; or had increased over 200 per cent. in three years. The places where the greatest number of steam-boats and other steam machines appear to have been constructed in this country, are Pittsburg, Cincinnati, and Louisville, on the Western waters; and New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, on the Atlantic. At Louisville alone, from 1819 to 1838, there appear to have been built 244 steam engines; of which 62 were for boats. The fuel originally used in steam-boats in the U. States was wood; but of late years bituminous coal has, in many instances, been substituted ; and, in several, anthracite coal: the latter, from the small space it occupies, would seem to possess a decided advantage in sea-going vessels, as well as in locomotives.
“ Some steam-boats made of iron are believed to be in use in Georgia, if not in other parts of this country, though none of that material have been manufactured here ; but it is computed that their cost is less than those of wood; and as they draw less water with the same freight, they are more useful on shallow streams.'
STEEL (Fr Acier; Ger. Stahl ; It. Acciajo ; Lat. Chalybs; Rus. Stal ; Sp. Acero; Sw. Stál) is iron combined with a small portion of carbon; and has been, for that
reason, called carburetted iron. The proportion of carbon has not been ascertained wita much precision. It is supposed to amount, at an average, to ridih part. Steel is so hard as to be unmalleable while cold; or at least it acquires that property by being immersed, while ignited, in a cold liquid: for this immersion, though it has no effect upon iron, adds greatly to the hardness of steel. It is brittle, resists the file, cuts glass, affords sparks with fint, and retains the magnetic virtue for any length of time. It loses this hardness by being ignited, and cooled very slowly. It is malleable when red hot, but scarcely so when raised to a white heat. It may be hammered out into much thinner plates than iron. It is more sonorous ; and its specific gravity when hammered is greater than that of iron — varying from 7.78 to 7-84. Steel is usually divided into 3 sorts, according to the method in which it is prepared ; as natural steel, steel of cementation, and cusl steel. The latter is the most valuable of all, as its texture is the most compact, and it admits of the finest polish. It is used for razors, surgeons'instru. ments, and similar purposes. Steel is chiefly employed in the manufacture of swords, knives, and cutting instruments of all sorts used in the arts; for which it is pecuniarly adapted by its hardness, and the fineness of the edge which may be given to it. — (Thomson's Chemistry; and see Iron.)
STETTIN, a city of Prussia, on the left bank of the Oder, about 36 miles from its mouth, in lat. 53° 23' 20" N., long. 14° 33' E. It is well built, strongly fortified, and had a population, in 1838, of 31,100.
Stettin is the seat of an extensive and growing commerce; and is now, indeed the principal port of importation in Prussia. She owes this distinction mainly to her situation. The Oder, which Aows through the centre of the Prussian dominions, is navigable as far as Ratibor, near the extreme southern boundary of Prussian Silesia ; and is united, by means of canals, with the Vistula, the Elbe, the Spree, &c. Steitin ís, consequently, the principal emporium of some very extensive and tourishing countries; and is not only the port of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Breslaw, &c., but also of Berlin. A railway from the latter to Stettin is nearly (1843) completed. Hence, at the proper seasons, its wharfs are crowded with lighters that bring down the produce of the different countries traversed by the river, and bring back colonial products, and other articles of foreign growth and manufacture. Vessels of considerable burden, or those drawing above 7 or 8 feet water, load and unload, by means of lighters, at the mouth of the river, at Swinemunde, the out-port of Stettin, on the east coast of the isle of Usedom, in lat. 63° 55' N., long. 14° 15' 15" E. Formerly there were not more than 7 feet water over the bar adjacent to Swinemunde ; but the harbour of the latter has recently been so much improved, by the construction of piers and breakwaters, dredging, &c., that it is now the best on the Prussian coast, and admits vessels drawing from 18 to 19 feet water. A lighthouse has been erected at the extremity of the eastern pier. Stettin is a free port ; that is, a port into and from which all sorts of goods may be imported and reexported free of duty. If goods brought through the Sound be imported at Stettin, and entered for home consumption in the Prussian states, they are charged with 24 per cent. less duty than if they liad been imported through any other channel. This is intended to reimburse the merchant for the Sound duties, and to encourage importation by this direct route in preference to that carried on through Hamburg and Embden. There is a great wool fair
in the month of June each year. Monies, Weights, and Measures, same as at Dantzic, which see. The Bank of Berlin has a branch at Stettin, and there is also an insurance office. Imports and Erports. -- The principal articles of import at
the two teacons completely covered, the captains tail into the Stettin aru slagar, cotlee, dye-woods, wine, iron, and hard
port up to the second landing berth of the estem mole, four ware, oil, tailow cotton and cotton goods, herrings, spirits,
cable length beyond the lighthouse, keeping off the molé half
a cable's length. linseed, coal, salt, &c. The principal exports are com, especially what; spirits, rapeseed, spelter, timber, &c.; bones, man 4. At that place, the captains taking care to remain a little ganese, fruits, &c.
South, are expected by the pilots to go on board of their vese's.
5. On entering the port all the white buoys are to remain on Account of churges incu rel by a British ship, of about 200
the starboard de nf the vessel (see 2.. tons burden, at Swinemunde and Stettin :
6. For facilitating the finding and keeping the directions
given in this instruction in case the buoys should have been Rixd. S. gr.
Pf. removed by sea, or taken up on account of the advanced sea.
son, signals will be given with a red flag from the direction
beacon on the castern mole. Stettin. - Pilotage and fee
7. The captains must follow the signals in so far as to steer Town dues and clerances
99 Poor rates
to that part where the flag is hoisted popcndicularly.
8. Should there be no pilot at sea, and no flaz hoisted on the Muster roll
beckoning beacon, the captains must not attempt to enter the Brokerage and charter party
port at all, but either anchor in the roads or remain at sea. Broker' commission
Stettin, November 12, 153).
The following regulations apply to all the Prussian ports:Harbour dues
Notifications to Captains of Ships respecting Importation and Counın ission
Exportation by Sea in the Prussian Dominions -Prussian dollars, or about 100 Span
As soon as a ship arrives in the road, and has complied with ish dollars
151 12 25
the police regulations of the port (which are communicated to
her), the captain repairs to the custom-house, and drivets Navigation - Stettin is the principal shipping port in the complete list or manifest of curio. This list bears the title of Prussian dominions. In 1811 there belonged to it 200 ships, a chiet deriaration or manifest, and in preparing it, the fol of the burden of 49,892 tons, being alout a third part of the lowing conditions are to be observed :shipping belonging to Prussia.
If the whole carro he not destined for the port, that part Port Regulations.-All vessels are prohibited entering Swine which is to proceed further with the ship, is to be placed under munde, unles forced he stress of weather, without previously
a distinct division. heaving-to for, and receiving, a pilot on board. But when The goods accompanied with bills of lading are entered in compelled to enter without a pilot, the master is tools rve the rotation after each other for every bill of landing. signals made from the beacons erected on the eastern and The account (or statement is made out in kind and quanWestem moles as follows:
tity, agreeable to those mear res and divisions adopted in the
tarift for the payment of duties. Notice.
If there be a number of packages of similar articles, and 1. When pilots cannot put to sea, and captains of ships are each package contains an equal quantity, the may he entert nevertheless resolved to enter the harbour, a red flag will summarily, according to their number and size, and a general be hosted on the direction beacon of the eastem mole.
statement of the contents will suffice. 2. The captains will then steer until they find themselves, If the contents of the packages be different, then the conS.E. by S. on the compass, from the lighthouse placed on tents of each must le specified. the utmost point of the east mole, taking care to keep the out. The luggage of the passengers must be marked as such in eTMOSI great white buoy, situite on the end of the western the report. if it consist of general travelling lugzige, it will pound in a depth of 16 feet, on the starloani, and the next be enough to state the particular boxes or parcels, but if it black buoy, in an oblique line towards the lighthouse, on the Consist of goods, then must these be stated, according to numlarlioard.
ber and kind. 3. In that situation of the vessel the two new beacons cover The individual property of the captain, with the exception themselves in the direction of S S. E., and this course, keeping of the provisions, is stated like other tradesmen's property, with
5 18 8
omnison of the declarilon of receiver, and it is also stated the ship, so that the cargo may be exported in tis original uit drilion bat urticar main out of the ship's holl. state. Thaantain have not brought with him a report, he may
The cargo of reesels which put in to winter must be anhav. one completed in the port, is a castoms officer in which nources soon as possible, in as far as the bojo's parts case he gives up all his papers to the and officer, who then ve information and the knowledge of the captain extends straps and nen kerstbein, the last oun bet tving muked as upon the subject. The inxt»ction of the external parts of the Buch. The captain, at the same time, informs the oficer of resapl, and the articles contained there in, take place directly, the property blonining to uself and passengers, of whica and the entrance to the ship's hold are locked. Unni the the art 10 ounts; who thereupon makes out a link thereof, declaration, inspection, and locking up of the versel take which is signed by the captain, and returned, in order to be place, she is guaruled at the expans of the captain; which una in preparing the report.
guard, in particular cases, may last as long as the customs In eve the report has to be prepared on shore, it must be department may derm necewary: delivered up in 21 hours, at lalet, after the arrival of the Vessels which only anchur in the roads, and do not enter a captun in the road: if not, possession is taken of the ship, at port, are out of control of the customs officers, they must his expense, which according to the jud nent of the custours, not, however, hold any intercourse with the store or the port, mas tike place evet sooner, but free of expense.
chat will they must give in reports beforehand, and present Rspecting the provisions, if they consist of articles which their papers. pay a runsuinption duty, a distinct or separate report must be If the vessel remain in the roade longer than 24 hours after ngen in duplicate (ine is rutumet to the captain after a declaration is made, before proxecting to put in or unload, if Rental revision, in order that he may take with him an equal the ow or the other be not presented by stress of weather, then quantity of the article periferi in it when he sails. If this lo an oficer pairs to the ship, examines the deck and the ar. not tippen, or if the de, arture do not take place within a ticle there, and locks up the trances, &c. to the hai. twivemonth, then the consumption duty is to be paid on the To the others who are ordered for service on board the stice remaining on band. The captain is, however, at vel is afforded a proper maintenance or treatment, the same liberty tn de pamil the provisions, subject to the consumprion a is en Lot Arellen of the traditi. duty, at the custom-house, until he al.
If the pation of the vessel takes place at the cost of the Othet artic'es, 1 but properly belonang to the caren, are in so l'alt11, he is then obligated to give the ottice the daily pay far dimitted, that they wnionesdiy tulong to the ship's inveti of their rank, as teculated, and to prorade for their return to ty, anul are utensils for the voy use. Articles which are not their dwelling places counted as such are tired if they be subject to a consumption | If it happen that officers, owing to an interrupted commutax, or, in order tot ke them again away, they are deposited nication with the bore, are forced to remain beyond %d on at ulenhuse.
buard, then the captain pun give them their meals, on their It the abipreman in the mad, and do not enter the harbour, paying for the sane; and in any d theulty arise about the but convey there the cargy by ligters, the consumption in charge, it is to be decided by the police authorities. the road fi tax free. A report of the provisions sutfits, and In all cases, the captain must row back the officers from the further control over it onl; takes place wheti, in particular road to the hartur. cax, it is ciansiderul necesary.
The direction of the officers, touching the discharge of the If the captain have another destination, and only visit the vessel, in order that they may be able to exercise properly the barbour through necesity, then, in oriler to the security of the duties of their oite, must le followed. verse! and carg'), a general in prition only takes place, so that If a captain has a well-founded cornpi sint to make about the no art of the card maybe soft or dispend eť. Then, hon. conduct of the efficers, he must prevent it at the head custoineser, sub security has been given, i report is made of the house; and may, after previous examination, expert, without carro, in as far as the sup's papers and the knowledge of the delay, their dismissal (ahstellung). Te every captain, after Captain adinit.
clearing out, the rester of complaints (which, acconling to ke perting the further treatment of the business, the cus. $. 107 of the regulation of taxt, inuist he in every custom. tort use will take ch other measures, carding to circun. house) is presenetl, in order that he may enter therein his stance, tiz. whether the carku remin untcuched, or whether the same must be wholly or partly discharged for the repair or samme, and whaltver complaint he may have to make.
Table of Fees payable to the Brokers of Stettin, as fixed the 8 January, 1834.
Dull Sil PS
0 15 0
0 7 6 On the corn trad., vizi:
Wheat, rye, pas, and linseed (in so far as the latter is sold by the wipei), per cent.
0 7 6 Barley, cats, and malt, per cent.
0 15 0 N.B,- The items to 1, inciosive, are to be paid both by the bar and the seller. On sale by anction, from the seller, per cent. - 0 15 0
If the same le withirawn previous to the feed patiod, as reinuneration
1 0 0 On oertiticate or extract of the journal, exclusive of the slaup
020 6 Fes payable to Ship Brokers, For freighting vessels reckoned Becording to
Prussian normal last, parable by the owner as well as the aflreicliter, perlust
016 For the charter-ftarty froin both parties, the affreighter and charterer
1 0 0 The stamp is to be paid separately by the par. ties interested. For repartmz a vessel arriving with cargo, per Prusian normal last.
(Without distinction as to the numher of per-
per Prusian normal last -
going out, per Pruaian nonnal last
Note. If a vexel, coming in or going out, he
the lender as well as the borrower, for every 100)
partes, buyer and seller, whether by auction
period, on whole vessels
statements of averages, or fruna the log book,
Account of the Exports of Corn and Grain from Stettin in each of the 9 Years ending with 1842.
Account of the Value of the Imports and Exports at Stettin for each of the 9 Years ending with 1842.
Account of the Quantities of the principal Articles exported from Stettin by Sea in 1842, distinguishing
the Quantities shipped for the U. Kingdom and all other Countries, with their aggregate Value.
of the total value of the imports, amounting, in 1842, to 1,624,4002, goods valued at 515,6601. were supplied by England. These consisted principally of iron, salt, coal, herrings, sugar, and other colonial products.
Account of the Export of Linseed and Rapeseed Cakes in 1834
115,416 cwt. 1835 47,039
162, 457 1836
STOCKHOLM, the capital of Sweden, situated at the junction of the lake Maelar with an inlet of the Baltic, in lat. 59° 20' 31" N., lon. 17° 54' E. ; a well-built, handsome city. Population, in 1839, 83,885. The entrance to the harbour is intricate and dangerous, and should not be attempted without a pilot; but the harbour itself is capacious and excellent, the largest vessels lying in safety close to the quays. Stockholm possesses from a third to a half the foreign trade of Sweden ; but this is confined within comparatively narrow limits. The government has long been accustomed to endeavour to promote industry by excluding foreign products; latterly, however, this system has been considerably relaxed, with great advantage to the trade of the country, and the well-being of the people. Iron, timber, and deals form the great articles of export. Swedish iron is of very superior quality, and is rather extensively used in Great Britain; the imports of it amounting, in ordinary years, to about 16,000 tons exclusive of 600 tons of steel. In addition to the above leading articles, Stockholm exports pitch, tar, copper, &c. The timber is inferior to that from the southern ports of the Baltic. The imports principally consist of colonial products, cotton, dye stuffs, salt, British manufactured goods, hides, fish, wine, brandy, wool, fruit, &c. In seasons of scarcity corn is imported, but it is generally an article of export.
Pilotage.- Vessels bound for Stockholm take a pilot at the small island of Oja. Lands-bort lighthouse is erected on the southern extremity of this island, in lat. 58° 44' 30' N., lon. 17° 52' 15" E. It is painted white, and is furnished with a fixed light, elevated 158 feet above the level of the sea, which may be seen, under favourable circumstances, 5 leagues off. The signal for a pilot is a flag at the fore-topmast head, or firing a gun. Account of the principal Articles imported into and exported from Stockholm in 1842.
EXPORTS Rum and other spirits kann. 102,593 Hides
Ths. 1,486,024 Iron, bar
shippounds 250,865 Cotlee lbs. 3,011,265 Herrings
pig Indigo 50,617 Salt
Dails kaw angar 7,504,308 Coals
shippounds 2,269 Steel
barrels 25,352 Cotton 548,368 Fish, dried
66,924 Planks and boards dozens 29,872 Cotton yarn (white): 465,780
Ils. 1,012,759 There belonged to the port, în 1841, 149 ships, measuring 25,566 toos.