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Boors, foothooks, ceiling, and breast hooks, the rudder in all its parts and hangings ; and if, after such examination, the owner should consent to take out all planks, timbers, beams, knees, water-ways, fasten. ings, and other parts that may be found defective, or objected to, and replace them with materials of the same species, or of equal quality, with those of which the ship was originally constructed, such ships to be entitled to restoration to the first description of the first class for a period proportionate to their real condition and the extent of the repairs performed ; or if timber of an inferior description, or second. hand English or African oak or teak be used, then for a period not exceeding that for which such materials would have entitled a new ship to stand A I. according to the tables, subject in either case to the ship being at all tirues thereafter kept in a state of efficient repair.
27. Second Kule. -- If at any age of a vessel, an owner be desirous to have his ship restored to the first description of the first class, such restoration (on his consenting to the special survey hereinafter de scribed, to be held by two surveyors, and performing the repairs thereby found requisite) will be granted for so long a period as may be deemed expedient by the committee, not exceeding, in any case, the term of six years.
28. Requisites for Restoration. – The whole of the outside plank of the vessel to be taken off as low as the second footbook heads, and the remainder of the planking, either outside or inside, together with all the decks, to be removed, 80 as to expose the timbers of the frame entirely to view, and in that state the ship to be submitted to a special survey and examination by the surveyors appointed by this society; and if, after surh examination, all timbers, beams, knees, kelsons, transoms, breasthooks, remaining planks, inside or outside, or other parts found to be defective, be replaced with materials of the same species, or of equal quality with those of which the ship was originally constructed, and all the treenails driven out and renewed, such ship may be restored to the first description of the first class. But if timber of an interior description, or second-hand English or African oak or teak, be used, then for a period not exceeding that for which such materials would have entitled a new ship to stand A 1. according to the tables, subject, in either case, to the ship being at all times thereafter kept in a state of tfficient repair.
29. On the same principle of giving to ships which shall be actually proved to be superior of their class and in excellent condition, every advantage that can be extended to them consistently with the maintenance of the general principles on which the society was established, ships which have been re. stored to the class A, shall be entitled to an extension oi the time, subject to the same conditions of survey and examination as are prescribed for ships proposed to be continued in the first description of the first class, at the expiration of the period first assigned to them ; but, in like manner, the term of such extended continuance shall be limited to a perod not exceeding one third of the number of years for which the ships may respectively have been restored, without any reference whatever to the period originally assigned to them.
FIRST CLASS Ships.--Second Description. 30. Will comprise all ships which having passed the prescribed age, but have not undergone the repairs which would entitle them to be continued in or restored to the first description or having been continued or restored, and the additional period thus assigned having expired, shall appear on survey to be still in a condition for the sale conveyance of dry and perishable cargoes; and they will be designated by the diphthong &: but such of the ships of this class as shall be found on survey to be of superior description, being it for the safe conveyance of dry and perishable goods to and from all parts of the world, shall be distinguished by inserting their character in red with an asterisk thus prefixed, * Æ. Those ships, however, the original construction of which may not have entitled them to be classed in the first class A for a longer period than five years, will not be allowed the distinction of the asterisk.
31. For the purpose of continuing a ship on the list of ships of the second description of the first class, a careful survey will be required to be made annually, or on the return of the ship from every foreiga voyage, by one of the surveyors to this society, who is to state distinctly and separately the actual condition of the upper deck fastenings, water-way's, spirketting, plankshears, topsides, upper deck with its appendages, lower deck fastening, wales, counter, plank, and treenails outside to the water's edge, rudder, windlass, and capstan, beams, breast-hooks, and inhers; but is not surveyed within twelve months after entering the second description of the first class, such ship having been during that time in some port in the United Kingdom, the character will be omitted until such survey be held; or as the case may be, she will be allowed to pass into the class E. Whenever it shall appear to the surveyors that a veasci classed Æ with the asterisk shall no longer be in a condition to deserve that distinction, notice of the proposal to reduce her shall be given in writing to the owner, master, or agent.
British North American Built Ships, and Fir Ships. 32. Ships built in the British North American colonies, and all ships, wherever built, the frames of which are composed of fir, of 300 tons and above, shall, in order to entitle them to be classed in the register book of the society, be secured in their bilges by the application of iron riders to cover the joints of the floor and foothook heads, to extend from the height of the hold beams to the floors so as to receive not less than two bolts in a substantial part of the floors; the number of iron riders to be not less than one on every fourth Poor on each side from two feet abast the mainmast to two feet abast the foremast, the size thereof to be not less than 34 inches by 14 inches at the joints of the timbers for ships of from 300 to 400 tons, and to be increased one quarter of an inch each way, for every 100 tons of increased size. That all such ships shall also be secured by iron hanging knees to the hold beams, one knee to every alternate hold beam, provided the distance of the said beams from each other does not exceed 1 feet 6 inches, and the tonnage be less than 400 tons ; but if the distance exceeds 4 feet 6 inches, or the ship is 400 tong and above, then one to every hold beam. The knees to be connected with the riders or not, at the option or convenience of the owners; but if not so connected, the side arins are to be long enough to receive at least four bolts; the whole to be securely bolted with bolts of sufficient sire. In cases of refusal, the words “not fastened as per rule, section 62.,” will be inserted against the vessels' names.
33. All British North American built ships, which have gone or may go off the list of ships of the first description of the first class, or which may be of an age exceeding the period for which they might have had claims to be put upon that class (whether classed or not), shail, as from time to time they come under examination, be subjected to a careful survey, to be made by one of the surveyors to this Boxiety, and no further character shall be assigned them unless a survey shall be held as thus prescribed, and a strake of the planking, either inside or outside, be removed from stem to sternpost (on both sides) immediately above the turn of the bilge in midships, and in such range forward and aft as to expose the timbers of the frame to view ; that a special report of the state of these timbers, and of the general state and condition of the upper deck fastenings, water-ways, spirketting, plank shears, topsides, uprer deck with its appendages, lower deck fastenings, wales, counter, plank and treenails outside to the water's edge, rudder, windlass, and capstan, beams, and breasthooks, shall be transmitted by the sur. veyors to the committee ; and on the receipt of such report the classing shall take place. If the diphthong character be then assigned, it shall be continued (subject to an annual survey) for a period not exceeding the number of years originally assigned for the ship's remaining in the first description of the first clasz; at the expiration of which the character will be discontinued, unless a similar survey and examination of the frainc be again submitted to. 34. Second class ships will comprise all ships which shall be found on survey unfit for carrying dry
cargoes, but perfectly fit for the conveyance, on any voyage, of cargoes not in their nature subject to sea damage ; and they will be designated by the letter E.
35. Subject to occasional inspection, at least once in every two years, ships will continue in this class so long as their condition shall, in the opinion of the committee, entitle them thereto.
36. Third class ships will comprise ships that are in good condition, and which shall be found on survey fit for the conveyance, on short voyages (not out of Europe), of cargoes iu their nature not subject to sea damage ; and they will be designated by the letter I.
37. The bottom of every ship is to be caulked once in every five years, unless wood sheathed and felted, and then once in every seven years, except in the case of teak-built ships, upon which a special survey may have been requested, and the surveyors having ascertained, by the removal of a strake of sheathing fore and aft under the wales, and a strake at the first foothook heads, and by causing listings to be cut out at the wood's ends, that such caulking is not required, the same may then be dispensed with. If any ship shall be stripped within the periods above mentioned, her bottom is to be caulked.
38. In all cases in which it shall satisfactorily appear to the surveyors to this society that doubling of sufficient thickness (not less than two inches) properly wrought and fastened, may be allowed as a substitute for the shifting of plank, either in the wales or bottom, the surveyor is to make a special report thereof, together with his reasons, to the committee, who will determine thereon.
39. Iron fastened Ships. – All ships (except those built in India) although iron fastened, shall be classed in the same manner as copper fastened ships, so long as they remain unsheathed with copper, provided they are, in all other respects, constructed in accordance with the rules; but when sheathed with copper over the iron fastenings, the words “ coppered over iron fastenings” shall be added to the character in the register book, and continued until the ship be thoroughly copper fastened.
40. Ships built in India, although fastened with iron, shall be permitted to be copper sheathed with out any mark being placed in the book, provided the bottom be felted or chunamed, and wood-sheathed, and subject to a careful examination of the iron fastenings on every occasion on which the sheathing is stripped off, for which purpose some of the bolts and nails are to be taken out of the lower part of the bottom, and to be seen by the surveyor ; but no such ship shall be permitted to continue either on the A or on the £ class for a longer period than one-half the number of years beyond the term originally assigned for her remaining on the first description of the first class, unless the bottom shall have been doubled, or the whole of the iron fastenings taken out or properly secured, and the bottom fastened with copper bults, or treenails, or both.
Ships' Anchors, Cables, and Stores. 41. All vessels are required to have their masts, spars, and standing rigging in good order, and sails in sufficient number and good condition; and every ship is to be supplied with a good hempen stream cable or tow line, of sufficient size and length, and with at least one good warp ; and all vessels are to be provided with anchors of proper weight, and cables of approved quality, in number and length accord. ing to the undermentioned scale :
42. Anchors. - All vessels under 200 tons to have at least two bower anchors; and all vessels of 209 tons and above, to be provided with at least three bower anchors.
700 and upwards 45. But in all cases where hempen cables are used, then one-sixth more in length will be required.
46. Boats. - All vessels under 150 tons to be provided with one good boat; and every vessel of 150 tons and above to be provided with at least two good boats.
47. The efficient state and condition of ships' anchors, cables, and stores will be designated by the figure 1.; and where the same are found insufficient in quantity, or defective in quality, by the figure 2.
4. In all cases in which the application of the rules must necessarily be regulated by the ship's admeasurement, the least toupage (whether the result of the old or new method) is to be adopted,
Ships navigated by Sleam. 49. All sea-going vessels navigated by steam shall be required to be surveyed twice in each year, when a character will be assigned to them, according to the report of survey, as regards the classification of the hull and materials of the vessel.
50. That with respect to the boilers and machinery, the owners are required to produce to the surveyors to this society, at the above-directed surveys, a certificate from some competent master engineer, de. scribing their state and condition at those periods; and to which certificate it is desirable there should be added a description of the particulars of the same as far as may be practicable, in the manner and form directed by the Society ; to be appended to the report of survey, and delivered to the committee, who will thereupon insert in the register book the letters * M.C.," denoting that the boilers and machinery have been inspected, and certified to be in goud order and safe working condition ; but if no certificate of their condition be furnished by the owner or master, then no character can be assigned for the machinery,
51. Hull.-- The surveyors to this society are directed to examine and report the scintling of timbers, plank, and fastenings, and to state where built, and by whom, in the same manner as directed for sailing vessels.
52. Scantlings. The scantlings for a steam vessel under 300 tons register are to be deemed sufficient, if equal to those required by the scale prescribed in the rules of this society for a sailing vessel of two thirds of the registered tonnage of such steam vessel.
53. But for a steain vessel above 300 tons register, the scantlings are to be equal to those required by the scale for a sailing vessel of three fourths of the registered tonnage of such steam vessel.
54. Floors. ---Where the vessel is not filled in solid to the floor heads in the engine room, an exception will be specially made against any reduction of the scantling of the foors, which, in such cases, will 1100 be permitted to be upon the reduced scale of two thirds or three fourths of the dimensions for the scantJings of sailing vessels as before stated ; but the floors will then be required to be equal to the dimensions bet forth in the rules for ships of the actual registered tonnage of the steam vessel.
55. The surveyors are required to report the number, size, length, fastenings, and mode of arrangement of the engine and boiler sleepers, and the description of timber of which they are composed, and whether diagonally trussed with wood or iron, and to what extent; the length, size, and fastening of shelf-pieces and paddle beans: and whether the vessel be constructed with spoucings, and how they are formed; and to give the length and shifting of the plank outside and inside.
56. Materials and Storcs. The surveyors are to examine and report the number and description of the masts, sails, anchors, cables, hawsers, warps, and boats, as directed to be done for sailing vessels; but the anchors and cables will not be required to exceed in weight and length those of a sailing vessel of two thirds of the registered tonnage of the steam vessel,
57. The surveyors are to be particular in examining and reporting the condition of the boats of all vessels employed in carrying passengers.
The committee having, in consequence of various applications, given their serious attention to the
peculiarities in the construction of steam vessels, came to a resolution, on the 26th May, 1942, lo allow of the following relaxation in favour of vessels of that class, subject to the conditions of survey hereinafter mentioned.
Thul gir (to be either pitch pine, Baltic red fir, or American red pine), larch, hackmatack, or juniper, mar be used for upper deck beams, to an extent not exceeding one-hall the nuinber of beans required, according to the vessel's tonnage.
** That the same materials may be used in the outside planking from the first foothook heads upwards, excepting for the wales, shearstrakes, and plankshears.
* T'hat the same materials be likewise allowed to be used in the inside planking, excepting for the bilze planke, shelf pieces and stringers, and clamps.
** That steam vessels built in all other respects in conformity with the annexed tables shall be classed for the terms of years therein respectively prescribed, subject to the following conditions:-
" That the rule requiring a survey twice a year' be rigiilly enforced, and that whenever the boilers are taken out, the vessel shall be subjected to a particular and special survey, in order to ascertain her general condition, and particularly the state of the fir, or other materials herein allowed to be used.
** That unless such surveys be held, the characters which may have been assigned to steam vessels shall be stru k out annually on reprinting the register book."
In pursuance of this resolution, the characters of such steam vessels as have not been surveyed as prescribed, have this year been struck out accordingly.
By order of the Committee.
CHARLES GRAHAM, Secretary. No. 2. White Lion Court, Cornhill, London, 1st Juiy, 1843.
Iron Ships. Notice is hereby given, that in pursuance of a resolution this day passed by the committee for managing the affairs of Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, the character of A 1. will in future be ganted to such ships as shall be constructed of iron under the survey of the surveyors to this society, and be reperted, on their completion, to have been built of good and substantial materials, and with good workmanship.
Tron ships already built, upon being subject to a careful and minute survey, and being reported to be in a high state of repair and ethciency, will also be classed as above : but if not so reported, they will be allowed such other character as, on a due consideration of their respective claims, they may be found to deserve.
In every instance in which a character may be assigned to ships built of iron, it must be understood that such ships must be subjected to a careful annual survey, and that the continuance or otherwise of the character assigned will depend entirely upon the result of this survey. Vessels not survey ed annually will lose their character.
By order of the Committee.
CHARLES Granam, Secretary. 2, White Lion Court, Cornhill,
4th January, 1841. No one can question the advantages that will result from carrying a plan of this sort completely into execution, or those that have already been derived from the extent to which it has been carried. We confess, however, that we incline to think that the classification of ships should be effected by government agents. It is invidious to impose on one set of merchants and ship owners the task of deciding upon the condition of the ships or other property belonging to others; and, though we have every confidence in the integrity of the gentlemen composing the committee, the most honourable men are liable to be influenced by an esprit du corps, and by insensible biasses. We, therefore, cannot help thinking that the scheme would have a much better chance of success, and that the classification would be more likely to be correct, were it managed by individuals nowise connected with business. The surveyors, on whose capacity and honesty the whole scheme principally depends, should be quite independent of the good or ill will of those on whose property they have to report. But can that be said to be the case at present ? and can it be fairly presumed that merchants or ship owners will deal by the property of their friends and neighbours as it might be dealt with by officers appointed by, and responsible only to, government? We appre. bend that both those questions must be answered in the negative; and hence our conviction that this is matter in which government should interfere. No one can doubt that it is bound to do every thing in its power to promote the safety of navigation, and to preserve the lives of our seamen. In this view it erects lighthouses, and prescribes regulations as to pilotage, &c. But, how indispensable soever, these are not more essential to the interests of navigation than a proper classification of ships; and, if other means should fail fully to effect this desirable purpose, government will certainly neglect a most important duty if it do not interpose. In the mean time, however, the mercantile and shipping interests are deeply indebted to the gentlemen who have done so much to obviate the abuses of the old system. — (For a further discussion of this important question, see the article on the Frequency of Shipwrecks in the 122d number of the Edinburgh Review ; secalso the Reports of the Commons Committees of 1836 and 1843, on Shipwreck.)
SHIPS' PAPERS, the papers or documents required for the manifestation of the property of the ship and cargo, &c. They are of 2 sorts; viz. 1st, those required by the law of a particular country
-as the certificate of registry, licence, charterparty, bills of lading, bill of health, &c. —-(see these titles) -- required by the law of England to be on bourd British ships ; and, 2diy, those required by the law of nations to be on board neutral ships, to vindicate their title to that character. Mr. Serjeant Marshall, following lubner ( De la Saisie des Bâtimens Neutres, i. 241–252.), has given the following description of the latter class of documents :
1. The Passport, Sea Brief, or Sea Letter. This is a permission from the neutral state to the captain or master of the ship, to proceed on the voyage proposed, and usually contains his name and residence; the name, property, description, tonnage, and destination of the ship; the nature and quantity of the cargo, the place whence it comes, and its destination ; with such other matters as the practice of the place requires. This document is indispensably necessary for the safety of every neutral ship. Hubner says that it is the only paper rigorously insisted on by the Barbary corsairs; by the production of which alone their friends are protected from insult.
2. The Proofs of Property. - These ought to show that the ship really belongs to the subjects of a neutral state. If she appear to either belligerent to have been built in the enemy's country, proof is generally required that she was purchased by the neutral before, or captured and legally condemned and sold to the neutral after, the declaration of war; and in the latter case the bill of sale, properly authenticated, ought to be produced. Hubner admits that these proofs are so essential to every neutral vessel, for the prevention of frauds, that such as sail without them have no reason to complain if they be interrupted in their voyages, and their neutrality disputed.
8. The Muster Roll. - This, which the French call rôle d'équipage, contains the names, ages, quality, place of residence, and, above all, the place of birth, of every person of the ship's company
This document is of great use in ascertaining a ship's neutrality. It must naturally excite a strong suspicion, if the majority of the crew be found to consist of foreigners; still more, if they be natives of the enemy's country. - (See SEAMEN.)
4. The Charterparty. - Where the ship is chartered, this instrument serves to authenticate many of the facts on which the truth of her neutrality must rest, and should therefore be always found on board chartered ships.
5. The Bills of Lading. - By these the captain acknowledges the receipt of the goods specified therein, and promises to deliver them to the consignee or his order. Of these there are usually several duplicates ; one of which is kept by the captain, one by the shipper of the goods, and one transmitted to the consignee. This instrument, being only the evidence of a private transaction between the owner of the goods and the captain, does not carry with it the same degree of authenticity as the charterparty.
6. The Invoices. — These contain the particulars and prices of each parcel of goods, with the amount of the freight, duties, and other charges thereon, which are usually transmitted from the shippers to their factors or consignees. These invoices prove by whom the goods were shipped, and to whom consigned. They carry with them, however, but little authenticity; being easily fabricated where fraud is intended.
7. The Log Book, or Ship's Journal.. This contains a minute account of the ship's course, with a short history of every occurrence during the voyage. If this be faithfully kept, it will throw great light on the question of neutrality; if it be in any respect fabricated, the fraud may in general be easily detected.
8. The Bill of Health. - This is a certificate, properly authenticated, that the ship comes from a place where no contagious distemper prevails; and that none of the crew, at the time of her departure, were infected with any such disorder. It is generally found on board ships coming from the Levant, or from the coast of Barbary, where the plague so frequently prevails.
A ship using false or simulated papers is liable to confiscation. — (Marshall on Insurance, book i. c. 9. $ 6.)
SHOES (Du. Schoenen ; Fr. Souliers ; Ger. Schuhe ; It. Scarpe ; Rus. Baschmaki; Sp. Zupatos), articles of clothing that are universally worn, and require no description. The shoe manufacture is of great value and importance. The finest sort of shoes is made in London; but the manufacture is carried on upon the largest scale in Northamptonshire and Staffordshire. The London warehouses derive considerable supplies from Nantwich, Congleton, and Sandbach, in Cheshire. During the late war, the contractor for shoes generally furnished about 600,000 pairs annually. — (For an estimate of the value of the shoes annually manufactured in Britain, see LEATHER.)
SHUMAC OR SUMACH (Ger. Schmack, Sumach ; Fr. Sumuc, Roure, Rour ; It. Sommaco; Sp. Zumaque ; Rus. Sumak). Common shumac (Rhus Coriaria) is a shrub that grows naturally in Syria, Palestine, Spain, and Portugal. That which is cultivated in Italy, and is improperly called young fustic, is the Rhus Cotinus. It is cultivated with great care: its shoots are cut down every year quite to the root; and, after being dried, they are chipped or reduced to powder by a mill, and thus prepared for the purposes of dyeing and tanning. The shumac cultivated in the neighbourhood of Montpellier is called rédoul or roudo. Shumac may be considered of good quality when its odour is strong, colour of a lively green, is well ground, and free from stalks. Italian shumac is used in dyeing a full high yellow, approaching to the orange, upon wool or cloth ; but the colour is fugitive. Common shumac is useful for drab and dove colours in calico printing, and is also capable of dyeing black. --(Bancrofl on Colours, vol. ii. p. 100.)
Of 187.629 cwts. of shumac imported in 1840, no fewer than 182,097 cwts. were from Italy. The entries for consumption in 1942 amounted to 184,637 cwts. The price of shumac varies (duty 1s. per tou paid) from 78. to 128. a cwt.
Shumar, the produce of Europe, may not be imported for home consumption except in British ships, or in ships of the country of which it is the produce, or from which it is imported, under penalty of confis. cation, and forfeiture of 1001. by the master of the ship. — (3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 54. || 2. and 22.)
SIERRA LEONE, an English settlement, near the mouth of the river of the same name, on the west coast of Africa, lat. 8° 30' N., lon. 19° 5' W.
Objects of the Colony. – This colony was founded partly as a commercial establishment, but more from motives of humanity. It was intended to consist principally of free blacks, who, being instructed in the Christian religion, and in the arts of Europe, should become, as it were, a focus whence civilisation might be diffused among the surrounding tribes. About 1,200 free negroes, who, having joined the royal standard in the American war, were obliged, at the termination of that contest, to take refuge in Nova Scotia, were conveyed thither in 1792: to these were afterwards added the Maroons from Jamaica ; and, since the legal abolition of the slave trade, the negroes taken in the captured vessels, and liberated by the mixed commission courts, have been carried to the colony. The total population of the colony in 1839 amounted to about 42,000, all black or coloured, with the exception of about 100 whites.
Success of the Efforts to civilise the Blacks. - Great efforts have been made to introduce order and industrious habits amongst these persons. We are sorry, however, to be obliged to add, that these efforts, though prosecuted at an enormous expense of blood and treasure, have been signally unsuccessful. There is, no doubt, some discrepancy in the accounts of the progress made by the blacks. It is, however, sufficiently clear, that it has been very inconsiderable, and we do not think that any other result could be rationally anticipated. Their laziness has been loudly complained of, but without reason. Men are not industrious without a motive; and most of those motives that stimulate all classes in colder climates to engage in laborious employments, are unknown to the indolent inhabitants of this burning region, where clothing is of little importance, where sufficient supplies of food may be obtained with comparatively little exertion, and where more than half the necessaries and conveniences of Europeans would be positive incumbrances. And had it been otherwise, what progress could a colony be expected to make, into which there have been annually imported thousands of liberated negroes, most of whom are barbarians in the lowest stage of civilisation ?
Influence of the Colony upon the illicit Slave Trade. - As a means of checking the prevalence of the illicit slave trade, the establishment of a colony at Sierra Leone has been worse than useless. That trade is principally carried on with the countries round the bight of Biafra and the bight of Benin, many hundred miles distant from Sierra Leone ; and the mortality in the captured ships during their voyage to the latter is often very great. The truth is that this traffic will never be effectually put down otherwise than by the great powers declaring it to be piracy, and treating those engaged in it, wherever and by whomsoever they may be found, as sea robbers or pirates. Such a declaration would be quite conforunable to the spirit of the declaration put forth by the Congress of Vienna in 1824. — (See SLAVE Trade.) But the jealousies with respect to the right of visitation and search are so very great, that it is exceedingly doubtful whether the maritime powers will ever be brought to concur in any declaration of the kind now alluded to; unless, however, something of this sort be done, we apprehend there are but slender grounds for supposing that the trade will be speedily suppressed.
Climate of Sierra Leone. — The soil in the vicinity of Sierra Leone seems to be but of indifferent fertility, and the climate is about the most destructive that can be imagined. The mortality among the Africans sent to it seems unusually great ; and amongst the whites it is quite excessive. Much as we desire the improvement of the blacks, we protest against its being attempted by sending our countrymen to certain destruction in this most pestiferous of all pestiferous places. It would seem, too, that it is quite unnecessary, and that blacks may be employed to fill the official situations in the colony. But if otherwise, it should be unconditionally abandoned.
Commerce of Sierra Leone, and the West Coast of Africa. —- Commercially considered, Sierra Leone appears to quite as little advantage as in other points of view. We import from it about 13,000 loads of teak wood a year, with small quantities of camwood, ivory, palm oil, hides, gums, and a few other articles; but their value is inconsiderable, amounting to not more than from 60,0001 to 100,0001. a year. The great article of import from the coast of Africa is palm oil, and of this we imported, in 1841, 397,076 ewt., of which only 9,336 cwt. came from Sierra Leone. The great bulk of it was fur. nished by the coast to the west and south of the Rio Volta, many hundred miles from Sierra Leone. We doubt, indeed, whether the commerce with the western coast of Africa will ever be of much importance. The condition of the natives would require to be very much changed before they can become considerable consumers of European manufactures. It is singular, that speculative persons in this country should be sa