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employ the one as the other ! A bounty was thus given on the construction of what have been called slop-built ships, or ships of an inferior class. For a half, or, at most, two thirds, of what would be required to construct a good and really sufficient ship, a ship owner got an inferior vessel of an equal burden sent to sea; and, owing to the matchless absurdity of the system of classification, the inferior was placed in the same rank with the superior ship; enjoyed all the advantages such distinction could give ; and was, in the public estimation, deemed quite as good and as deserving of employment as the other. This has been a more copious source of shipwreck than all the currents, rocks, and fogs that infest our seas; but it was not the
At the end of a certain number of years, depending (as already stated) on the port where the ship was built, both the vessels referred to above were degraded to the class E; and yet it might happen, that the superior ship was, when so degraded, better entitled to continue in the class A than the inferior ship was ever to be in it. But even this does not exhaust the whole absurdity of this preposterous scheme; for, supposing that the superior ship had been so thoroughly repaired as to be as good as the day she came off the stocks, and that the inferior ship had got no repair at all, still they were both placed, side by side, in the class E! All the annals of all the maritime nations of the world, from the Phænicians downwards, furnish no example of a more perverse, contradictory, and absurd regulation. That it should have existed amongst us for the greater part of a century, strikingly exemplifies the power of habit to procure toleration for the most destructive practices and errors.
It may be said, perhaps, that, whatever system of classification is adopted, there must he great numbers of inferior vessels ; for, though we did not, foreigners would build them; and, being consequently able to sail them cheaper, would drive us totally out of all trades in which they could come fairly into competition with us. This is true; but, provided they be not engaged in the conveyance of passengers, who ever thought of proscribing inferior ships, or of dictating to the ship owner what sort of ships he should build, or to the merchant what sort he should employ? We do not object to inferior ships, but we do object to the same character being given to them that is given to superior ships. This is practising a gross fraud upon the public; and gives an unfair and unjust advantage to the owners of inferior vessels. The interests of navigation and of humanity imperatively require that ships should be correctly classic fied ; that those that are not seaworthy should not be classed with those that are, but that the real state of each should be distinctly set forth in the register, and be made known to every one. If this be done, the merchant and the underwriter may be safely left to deal with them as they think fit.
In consequence of the laudable exertions of Mr. Marshall and other gentlemen, the attention of the principal merchants, ship owners, underwriters, &c. of the metropolis was some years ago directed to this subject; and in 1824 a committee, consisting of representatives from these different bodies, was appointed to inquire into and report
The committee collected a great deal of valuable evidence; and laid an able report before a general meeting of merchants, ship owners, &c., on the 1st of June, 1826. We subjoin an extract from this report, which more than bears out all that we have stated :
“ From the absence of all control on the original construction of ships while building, and the impossia bility of ascertaining by any inspection, after completion, their real quality, it appears to be indisputably proved, by an almost uniform concurrence of testimony, that the first character, or A 1., is indis. criminately extended to ships ffering widely in rength, durability of materials, and all those qualities on which character ought to be dependent, that many ships to which the first class is assigned are decidedly inferior to others which are placed, from lapse of time alone, in a lower class ; that many become totally unfit for the conveyance of dry cargoes, long before the expiration of the period during which they are entitled, according to the present system, to remain on the first letter, in which they are notwithstanding continued; that instances are on record of first class ships which have been unfit from their origin for the conveyance of dry cargoes ; and some are declared to have been hardly fit, when new, to proceed to sea with safely. One case is even adduced, in which, from ill construction and insufficiency of fastening in a new ship, her insecurity was predicted, and she actually foundered on her first voyage; and yet chis identical vessel was ranked, according to the indiscriminale system pursued, in the first class.
“ Such, as respects new ships, appears by the evidence to be the practical results of a system which, assuming to designate by marks their intrinsic quality, provides to means of actually ascertaining that quality; but offers, in effect, a premium for the building of inferior and insufficient ships, by the inducement it holds forth to fraudulent construction, and by the equality of character ii indiscriminately extends to the best and the worst ships built at the saine port.
Nor, your committee regret to have to report is the evidence of the errors, inconsistencies, and evils arising from the existing system, as applied to old ships, by any means less conclusive. By the refusal to restore character, in consequence of repairs, however extensive, the inducement to maintain shijis in an efficient state is removed ; whilst, from the absence of all regular provision for stated or periodical examination, their etbciency or inefficiency is rendered dependent upon the varying views, the caprices, or the interests of the proprietors. Hence, though the second character, or E, is declared by the rules of the syutem to be the designation of ships which, having lost the first character from age, are kept in perfect repair, and appear, on survey, to have no defects, and to be completely calculated to carry dry cargoes with safety, the whole body of evidence distinctly proves that character to be, in very numerous instances, assigned to ships which, from original defect or want of requisite repairs, are utterly unft and unsafe for dry cargoes ; while others, which, from sound constitution or efficient reparation, are pronounced in the evidence to be superior to many new ships, are indiscriminately classed with the actually worthless and
unscaworthy. Hence, too, the employment of ships, after they have passed the period prescribed by a falLacious standard of classification, becomes uncertain, precarious, and ditficult; the shipowner is injured ; the shipper and underwriter misled; the building or superior ships, capable of long service, is discouraged, and direct inducement is held out to the con truction of those of an inferior description ; the general character of our mercantile marine is degraded, and it is to be feared that, could the system be traced to its ultimate results, it would be found to be productive of a lamentable loss of property and life."
It may have seemed surprising that, despite the continued complaints of the lowness of freights, and the want of employment for shipping, so many new ships should be annually built. But this was, to a considerable extent at least, occasioned by the system of classification now described. Instead of building a really good and durable ship, the principal object used to be to construct one that should, at farthest, be, as the phrase is, run off her legs in about 10 years or thereby ; inasmuch as, whatever might be a ship's condition, she was then degraded from the class A l., and that it was hardly possible, in r ost departments of trade, to find a merchant to employ, on any thing like reasonable terms, a ship to which these symbols of imaginary excellence were not attached. Hence the ship owner, instead of repairing his 10 years old ship, sold her for what she would fetch, and built a new one, But the person who purchased the ship degraded to E 1. forced her, though at an enormous reduction, into business; so that there were two bad or inferior ships in the field; whereas, under a reasonable system of classification, there would most likely have been only one good ship. The injury that this practice did to the shipping interest is too obvious to require to be pointed out. It has been infinitely more hostile to it than all those reciprocity treaties, and that foreign competition, about which there has been so much unfounded clamour. “ If the system of classification were founded on the principle of intrinsic merit, if the real efficiency of the ship formed the basis on which character was given, the consequence, in numerous instances, would be, that, instead of supplying the place of those ships that at present lapse from age only into the second class with new ones, the owners would effectually repair the existing ships; so that there would speedily be not only a material improvement in the construction of ships, but a material increase in the amount of tonnage, and a corresponding increase in the rate of freight.” -(Marshall's Slutements, p. 19.)
The conclusive report and exposition referred to above did not produce the consequences that might have been anticipated. Government, for reasons known only to itselt, seems to have concluded that this was not a subject with which it should interfere ; and it was laid aside for some years more. But the still-increasing amount of shipwreck, and the loss of life and property consequent thereon, again roused the public attention to the subject; and at length the principal merchants, ship owners, and underwriters succeeded in setting on foot machinery by which a classified account of shipping has been obtained, founded on incomparably more correct principles. The public owe much to the able and intelligent individuals who imposed on themselves this difficult and important task. Notwithstanding the obstacles with which they had to contend, they have done much to improve the character of our mercantile marine, and to lessen the disasters incident to a seafaring life.
2. Nero System of Classification. This new classification is conducted under the direction and superintendence of a committee of merchants, ship owners, and underwriters, established in 1834. The committee establish rules for classifying ships, and appoint, control, and dismiss the surveyors by whom they are inspected and examined. A classified register is annually published, which is gradually made more and more complete; and the expenses attending the institution are defrayed, partly by the fees charged on making an entry in the register, partly by the profits on the sale of the register or book, and partly from voluntary sources. But, as the subject is of the utmost importance to every one interested in commerce and navigation, we think we shall do an acceptable service to our readers, by laying before them the latest statement prefixed by the society to their register. It fully explains their objects, the principles on which they are proceeding, and the means they have adopted for carrying their views into effect.
CLASSIFICATION OF Ships. After announcing the formation of the comınittee, the official statement goes on to say, that
This society was established in 1834, for the important purpose of obtaining a faithful and accurate classification of the mercantile marine of the U. Kingdom, and of the foreign vessels trading thereto, and for the government of which the following rules and regulations have been from time to time adopted :
The superintendence of the affairs of this Society to be under the direction of a committee in London, of 24 members, consisting of an equal proportion of merchants
, ship owners, and underwriters; and, in addition, the chairman for managing the affairs of Lloyd's, and the chairman of the General Ship Owners' Society for the time being, to be, ex ufficio, members of the committee.
The committee to appoint from their own body, annually, a chairman and deputy chairman, and also a chairman for a sub-committee of classification.
The committed to appoint a sub-committee of classification, to be so regulated that each member of the general committee may, in rotation, take his turn of duty therein throughout the year.
No member of the committee to be permitted to be present on the decision of the classification of any sh p of which he is the owner, or wherein he is directly or indirectly interested.
The committee to be empowered to make such by-laws for their own government and proceedings as they may deem requisite, not being inconsistent with the original rules and regulations under which the Society was established ; but no new rule or by-law to be introduced, nor any rule or by.law altered, without special notice being given for that purpose at the meeting of the committee next preceding that at which such motion is intended to be made; such notice to be inserted in the summons convening the meeting.
No new rule, or alteration in any existing rule, materially affecting the classification of ships, to take effect until the expiration of six months from the time it shall have been determined upon.
All reports of survey to be made in writing by the surveyors according to the forms prescribed, and submitted for the consideration of the general committee, or of the sub-committee of classification ; but the classing assigned by the latter to be subject to confirmation by the general committee.
The reports of the surveyors, and all documents and proceedings relating to the classification of ships, to be carefully preserved, and parties proving themselves to be interested therein to have access thereto under the directions of the chairman or deputy chairman.
Foreign ships, and ships built in the British possessions abroad, to be surveyed on their arrival at a port in the U. Kingdom; but a due regard is to be had to the circunstance of their having been exempted from the supervision, while building, to which all British ships are subjected, and the class to be assigned to them is to be regulated according to their intrinsic quality, and from the best information the committee can obtain.
In every case in which the class assigned to a ship may be proposed to be reduced, notice is to be given in writing to the owner, master, or agent, with an intimation that if the reduction be objected to, the committee will be ready to direct a special survey, on the owner, master, or agent agreeing to pay the expenses attending the same, provided on the said survey there shall appear sufficient ground for the proposed reduction.
When the surveyors consider repairs to be requisite, they are respectfully to communicate the same in writing to the owner, master, or agent, and if such repairs be not entered upon within a reasonablo time, a corresponding report is to be made to the committee for their decision thereun.
Parties considering the repairs suggested by the surveyor to be unnecessary or unreasonable, may appeal to the committee, who will direct a special survey to be held ; but should the opinion of the surveyor be confirmed by the committee, then the expense of such special survey is to be paid by the party appealing.
"The surveyor to the Society not to be permitted (without the special sanction of the committee) to receive any fee, gratuity, or reward whatsoever, for their own use or benefit, for any service performed by them in their capacity of surveyors to this Society, on pain of immediate dismissal.
The surveyors will be directed to attend on special surveys of ships under damage, or repairs for restoration, when required by merchants, ship owners, or underwriters; the charge for which is to be rezulated according to the nature and extent of the service performed. In all cases, the application for the assistance of the surveyors must be made in writing addressed to the secretary.
l'unds. — The funds to be under the authority and control of the committee, and a statement of the receipts and expenditure to be annually printed for the information of the subscribers.
The following fees to be charged to the owners of ships prior to their vessels being classed and registered in the bookiFor entering and classing shipe, and for entering and classing
For registering repairs, or change of owners. ships surveyed for continuation, or repaired for restoration.
£ s. d. For each ship For each ship
urder 100 . 1 0 0
Ditto . of 150 tons and under 100 of 100 tons and under 100 - 2 0 0
3 0 0
500 and upwards 400 and upwards
For re-classing ships (except when repaired), the characters
200 and above 100 Special Surveys. - For special surveys, and where the surveyors to the Society are required by the owners to superintend the building of ships, or repairs for restoration, or otherwise, a charge will be made according to the nature and extent of the service performed.
Certificates of classification of the form No. 6., signed by the chairman of the general committee, or by the chairman of the sub-committee of classification, and countersigned by the secretary, will be granted on application; the charge for which is to be as follows:For ships under 200 tons
58. each. Ditto of 200 tons and above
10s, each, Rules, each copy
58. RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION. 1. The rules and regulations for the classification of ships, which were originally framed after much labour and deliberation, aided by the valuable practical knowledge of the committee of the General Ship Owners' Society, having been revised and considerably modited, the following have been determined upon as well calculated to meet the fair claims of all parties interested in their application, and from the adoption of which it is hoped that considerable benefit and convenience will result.
2. The characters to be assigned to ships to be, as nearly as possible, a correct indication of their real and intrinsic qualities; and to be in all cases fixed (not by the surveyors, but) by the committec, after the consideration of the reports of the surveyors and such other documents as may be submitted to them.
First Class Satps. - First Description of the First Class. 3. Will comprise all
ships which have not passed a prescribed age, provided they are kept in a state of complete repair and efficiency; and they will be designated by the letter A.
4. The period to be assigned for their continuing on this class to be determined with reference to the original construction and quality of the vessel, the materials employed, and the mode of building; and their continuance for the time so assigned to depend upon its being shown by occasional surveys annnaily if practicable) that their efficiency is duly maintained. It being also desirable, on grounds of national policy and of individual justice, that, after the expiration of the prescribed period, ships should be permitted to remain on the First Description of the First Class, or to be restored thereto for a further limited period, such extension of the period may be granted on the conditions hereinafter showa. (Sie also Section 24.)
5. New ships are to be surveyed while building by the surveyors to this Society, in the following three stages of their progressi
d. 0 10 0
3 0 0
4 0 0
0 10 0
9 13 il
First, - when the frame be completed. Second, — when the beams are put in, but before the decks are laid, and with at least two strakes of the plank of the ceiling, between the lower deck and the bilge, unwrought, to admit of an examination of the inner surface of the plank at the bottom.
Third, - when completed, and, if possible, before the plank be painted or payed. 6. A full statement, agreea' ly to a form prepared by the society, of the dimensions, scantlings, &c. of all dow ships, verified by the builder, is to be transmitted by the surveyor, and to be kept as a record in the office of the society.
RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN BUILDING Suipe. 7. Timbering - The whole of the timber to be of good quality, of the descriptions specified by the Society, as applicable to the several terms of years for which ships so constructed may respectively be appointed to remain on the List of the First Description of the First Class ; the stem, stern-post, beams, transoms, aprons, knight heads, hawse timbers, and kelson of ships claiming to stand tireli years, to be entirely free from all defects; the frame to be well squared from the first foot-hook heads upwards, and iree from sap, and likewise below, unless the timber be proportionably larger than the scantling thereafer described ; every alternate set of timbers to be framed and bolted together to the gun wale. The butts of the timbers to be close, and not to be less in thickness than one third of the entire moulding at that place, and to be well chocked, with a butt at each end of the chock. The Scandiings to be as follows:
Tuin foothuks side and top timbers, if square
Inches. Iuches. The france to le.nonkos aikelion Room and space to be.
20 30 The frame to be mudel at floor heads Flyre sided, if square, and free from sap, to be
Topinbers to be moulded at their heads at the not les at the helson than
shearstrake Firse fotbooks, sided, if square, at floor heads - 7 11
8. The intermediate dimensions for the scantling of timbers between the floor heads and the gunwale to be regulated in proportion to the distance from the two points. Should the room and space be increased, the siding of the timbers to be increased in proportion. Deck Pain: Ton. Tune.
Inches. Inches. For ships
To be moulded at the ends (not less than)
65 Inches. Inches. And to be a led
7 10 To be moulded in the middle (not less than)
9. Those at the after end of the ship to be reduced in proportion to their length,
Inches. Inches. For ships
. 15) 340
To be moulded at the ends (not less than)
13 To be moulded in the middle (not less than) - 9 13
Jo. Those at the after end of the ship to be reduced in proportion to their length.
IL The deck and hold beams to be sufficient in number, and securely fastened to the sides either with lodging knees of iron or wood, or with shelf pieces ; or with a shelf piece and knees ; or with some other security equal thereto, so as sufficiently to connect the ends of the beams to the sides of the ship; and, in addition, all vessels of 200 tons shall have at least six vertical knees on each side to the deck beams; and for every additional 50 tons measurement above 200 tons, they shall have one more hanging knee on each side. And ships of 400 tons shall likewise have to their hold beams at least eight vertirai knees, either as standards or hanging knees (the latter being preferred), and for every additional 100 tons burden, they shall have one more to each side. Every ship exceeding 150 tons to have at least one crutch for the security of the heels of the after timbers of the frame; one pair of pointers in addition to a knee at each and of the wing transom to connect the stern frame with the after body of the ship; and a trausom over the heels of the stern timbers properly kneed. ked and Kd sons: Tons. Tous,
Inches. Inches. Por ships
Main kelson to he sided.
. 10 idd
The scarphs of keist, where only one kelson, to be 5 ft. 7 t. hel, ma dei below the rabbet not less than : ;
But where rider kelsons are added, then they may be ift. 6 ft. 12. Shifts of timber in ships of 200 tons and upwards, to be not less than 1-7th of the main breadth ; and in ships under 200 tons, to be not less than 1-6th of the main breadth.
13. Plank, – The outside planking, shall be of good quality, of the description prescribed in the Society's Form, No. 2., and shall be clear of all defects.
14. The inside planking to be of the description shown in the Society's Form, No. 3., and free from all foxy, druxy, or decayed planks. The whole to be properly shifted and fastened.
15. No butts to be nearer than 5 feet to each other, unless there be a strake wrought between them,
Inches. Inches. For ships
Ceiling below the bold beams
23 Bilge to sales not less than
Upper deck clamps and spirkettings Short hands
Twixt deck ceiling
2) Bilge planks Plze to keel
Deck. Wales (average)
Inches. Inches, Top sides
23 She ar strake
Water ways, if of hard wood Plank shear
Do. if of Baltic tir, pitch pine, or red pine 16. Fastenings. - The treenailst to be of good English or African oak, locust, or other hard wood, but
3 5 8
As regards the spacing of beams, it appears to the committee that the following scale would in ge. neral meet the convenience of stowage in all trades, as well as secure the requisite transverse strength, so essential to be attended to according to the tonrage of the vessel. The spaces between the beams (batch ways excepted) not to exceed the following distances :
Deck Beams. Vessels under 200 tons
4 feet. Vessels 200 and under 400 tons . 8 feet and 4 feet alternately, One over every hold beam,
or in that proportion and one in all doublé Vessels 400 tons and above
4 feet 6 inches
Deck beam bolts
in no case is Baltic or American oak or elm to be used ; and all planks above nine inches in width are to be treenailed double and single, except bolts intervene; and if less than that width, then to be treenailed single, aad at least one-half of the treenails must go through the ceiling. All ships to be fastened with at least one bolt in every butt, and from the wales io the lower part of the bilges the bolt to be through and clenched. The bilges to have at least one bolt through and clenched in each foothook. The sizes of the bolts required in the several parts hereinafter described, to be not less than as against the same expressed, viz.in
Incher. For ships
Inches. Inches. Hold heam bolts Heel-knee, and dead wood abaft
Sin Vo.8. Hook forward at throat
1 Scarph of the kec!
bolts of Hooks forward at arms Kelson bolts, one through each floor7.Sths 11. Sth Transoms
07-ths Bolts through the bilge and foot waling 0 5-8ths 0 7-Sths The lower pintle of the rudder 25 3.
17. In every case where the butt and bilge bolts are not through and clenched, one year will be deducted from the period which wonld otherwise be assigned in the classification of the vessel ; but this rule will not be applied to ships built previously to the 1st of January, 1835.
18. The scantlings and dimensions of all interinediate-sized vessels to be proportionately regulates agreeably to a scale adopted by the society, a copy of which is in the hands of each of the surveyors.
19. Ships surveyed while building, in which all the matcrials required for a 12 years' ship shall har been used, and most of the other requisites for that class fulfilled, but which, from partial deficiencies inay not appear to be in all respects entitled to the highest class, although superior to the description of a iú years' ship, may be marked in the book thus, 11X; thereby denoting that they are to remain in the first description of the first class 11 years, provided they be kept in a state of efficient repair.
20. Ships surveyed while building, in which the scantling and shifcs of the timbers, the thickness and shifts of the planks, and size of fastenings may be the same as are required by the preceding rules, and in which the description of materials prescribed in the annexed tables shall also have been used, but in which the alternate sets of timbers shall not have been framed, nor the chocks wrought with a butt at each end, nor the frame so well squared as is required for 12 years' ships, but which shall be in other respects equal thereto, shall be marked " 10 A”; thereby denoting that they are to remain on the list of ships of the first description of the first class 10 years, provided they be kept in a state of efficient repair.
21. In all other cases, ships surveyed while building, and constructed of the materials of good quality, shown in the society's tables. No. 1, 2, and 3., will be classed for the several terms of years respectively appointed for their remaining on the list of ships of the first description of the first class; and in all ships, not built under survey, for which a class exceeding 4 years may be claimed, the timbers shall be required to be completely exposed for examination, by a listing or plank being taken out (if not originally left open) all fore and aft at the foothook heads, and another bet u een decks; and the material of the frame being thus ascertained, shall be reported to the committee, and a class assigned accordingly.
22. Ships built in the U. Kingdom under a roof, and which shall have occupied a period of not less than 12 months in their construction, will have 1 year added to the period prescribed for their continuing on the list of ships of the first description of the first class.
23. Ships built in the U. Kingdom since the year 1834, and not surveyed while building by the surveyors to this society, or where the owners or builders may have refused to permit them to survey and examine the same at the several periods prescribed by the rules, will be subjected to the minutest possible examination previously to assigning the class in which they may be placed according to the regulations, but in all such cases one year will be deducted from the period which would otherwise be allowed, in consequence of their not having been submitted to such survey during their construction. In no case, however, will a higher grade than 10 A be assigned to ships built in the U. Kingdom, which shall not have been surveyed while building.
Continuation of Ships in the First Description of the First Class. 24. If, on the termination of the period of original designation, or if at any subsequent period within the limitation hereafter mentioned, a ship owner should wish to have his ship remain or be replaced on the letter A, he is to send a written notice thereof to the committee, who shall then direct a special survey to be held, consisting of not less than 3 competent persons, to be appointed by the committee (one of whom to be a surveyor, the exclusive servant of the society); that at such survey the attention of the surveyors shall be particularly directed to the state of the following parts of the ship, viz. – The upper and lower deck bolis, and the outside planks through which they pass; the waterways and beams, so far as they can be examined ; the hawse timbers, knight-heads, breast- hooks, and transoms; the floors and kelsons; planking outside, from the light water-mark upwards; the ceiling inside, the frame and inner surface of the outside planking where it may be seen ; the decks and comings; and the shtar and general form of the ship:-- that on these points they shall transmit a detailed report, accompanied by such observations as may occur to them, either from inspection of the ship, or from information or the repairs she may have received. And if from the report of such special survey, the ship shall appear to be in all respects in a sound and efficient state, and to have preserved ber original form unaltered, the committee shall continue such ship on the letter A for such further period as they may think fit, not exceeding, however, one-third of the number of years which had been originally assigned. Ships so continued shall be distinguished in the register book by the number of years for which the classing is extended being inserted separately under the number assigned on the original classing, thereby denoting that the ship has been found on survey in such good and efficient order as to entitle her to continue years longer on the list of ships of the first description of the first class. In all cases in which ships are intended to be surveyed under this rule, they must either be docked or laid on the ways. The period assigned for continuation will, upon all occasions, commence from the time the ship may have gone off the letter A, without regard to the date when the survey for this purpose may have been held.
Restoration of Ships to the First Description of the First Class. 25. First Rule. - If, at any time before the expiration of two-thirds of the number of years beyond the period for which ships may have been originally assigned to remain in the first description of the first class, an owner be desirous to have his ship restored to the list of ships of that description, such re.. storation (on his consenting to the special survey hereinafter described, to be held by two surveyors, and performing the repairs found requisite) will be granted for a period not exceeding two-thirds of ihe time originally assigned for her remaining as a ship of the first description of the first class, the same to be calculatid from the date of such repairs.
26. Requisites for Restoration. All the bolts in the range of each deck to be driven out, and the planks taken out : the upper deck water-ways, and plank shears, and spirketting, and the strake next the watiin ways on the lower deck in the midships, to be taken out ; ibe sheathing to be entirely stripped off the bottom ; a strake in the upper course of the bottom between the wales and the light-water mark, fore and aft, and a plank in the ceiling at the floor heads on each side, to be taken out; the limbers to be clear, and the hooks forward to be exposed ; and in that state the ship to be submitted to a special survey and examination, at which the attention of the surveyors appointed by this society is to be particularly directed to the state of the decks, the remaining plank of the topsides, the wales, upper courses, and tree nails, and other fastenings; alsu to the state of the frame, hawsc timbers, and knight heads, kelson