Imatges de pÓgina
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11. Statement of the Shi, ping employed in the Trade of the U. Kingdom, exhibiting the Number,

Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels that entered inwards and cleared outwards (including their repeated Vusages), separating British from Foreign Vesse.s, and distinguishing the Trade of each Country, in i 49.

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Ships.
Tons.
Tone. Cremes. Ships. Tons.

Creme. Ships.

Tuns. Crenes. 2,359 490,6831 21,355 31.31 $3,991 3,668 1,714 349,9701 15,379

60,19 18,512 863

99.87

1361
17,243,
867

2,976
10
SSS 12.560)

5,526

243 975 112,297 7,146 493

3,1951 1.945 63,26

9,146

995

13,112 6,716 3,476' 306,21 17,5 196,194 785 139.95 6,19 1,105 13.1,761

620, 124,142 5,701 1,419 285,1 14,94 1,391, 1.1.1.32

8,330 1,521

321,17 15,410) 1, 12, 134
1,751 442,90 17,798 1,21 118,719 7,4-06 1,512 16 ANI 14,150 1,014 $1,04 6,4N19
1,207' 138,121

91,013
73.3 100), 177

51

3.121
4,314 803,251 37,071 4,054 38,7191 16,1% 3,7 467,510 36,112 3,95% 323,579 23,25
453
99

51,5
256
21.126 1,321
17 1,521

2641
323
36 51 11,37 -714

16 484 47,9501 2,96 93

12,335

861 730 109,54 5,6 43 275! 45,61 2,629 7 5

45€

7 52 19,2751 1,370

152

2031

32,473 372 94,210 4,732 241 66,933 3,017 766 129,113 6,24 398 99,131 4,595 551 10,2.4

124

1,3NO 79 585 1 332 7,017 370

7,17 311 10161

20,441 951

10,
56%

11,1071 506
12
3,1721
320

30,42 1,393 121 20,7

115 30, 509

1,307
87

61 1,145 35 25 3,665 195

6,686

4

892 275 86,641 3,929

114 41.100 9,116

400 23 509 16 5,172 - 247

196 3,572 213

20 2,159 132
13
2,161 127

12 1.8.54 11.
11.9.1 512

14,991 6.
20
3,256 173

26 4,3)
413 22

2

1

481 19 96 97,113 1,630

100
29,667

9 2,01$
40 9,6:4 472

23,632 121
1
173 13
416 33 2

21 1

300
3
317 19

97

9
5
130

8 842 35 116 36,533 1,602

56 17,934 285 19 26 7,327

7 1,872 82 1 31.3 10

35 19,189 6981 611 33

2

19
423,630 10,250
4151 2311,4014 10,33% 3

55 1.3,283

16,9101

7.31 3 1,090
49 20,1231 843

55 19,113
10
1771
488 201 13 5,573

210

10 3,975 169 13 6,939 285

4 1,799 76 9

189 1 26

2 9.361 39
37.68
1,623

13,294
616 1

389 16 15 6,2011

38 15,575

2 1,083
76 34,2731 1,505

139 72,931 3,507
1
311 13

99%
15,781 681

86 40,974 2,047 6.169 284

15,356 833
1,703 62

22 10.365 322
1
173 13

1 311)

1
98

8 2,2521 877.58 30,949 2 716 26 1,663 615,750 24,417 5 1,088 83 20.), 2.15 10.321

240,927 12,79 2

20 316 84,5414 3,795 1,161 316 81.518 3,935

57,445 1,517 711 420,161 16,579 856 569,863 17,713 1,069 557,315 22,366 1,008 640,252 20,152 31 15,140 1,299 2

676
31 61

916

3

650 20 301

9 2.1.31 97 35 14.019 1,019

40 12,5 539 3 490

13 71 8 1,664 85 15 2,8.33

2,807 145 516 285 71,87% 3,51 24 5,435 267 318 82,7161 4.002 94 24,949 1,113 4

2,298 112

7.19 37 125 28,753 1,352

680 30 114 24.NO 1,271 4 1,011 51 16,1.16 652

2
616

30
139 66,612 2,717

837

49 140 63,319 2,15% 16 71 28,410 1,179 2 316

27 1 1,4191 11,346 1,512

58

4,204
1,695 113,590' 10,916

40 4,109 262 1,84% 110,916 9,33% 10
6 1,769 107

1

60

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Dein Islands
Kingdom of Greece
Toh Dorricions
Ward Moldavia

Seria and Palestine
Alnc, vizi

Fapt
Tali, Tunis, and Algiers
Мtoco
B. P. on the Gambia
Sierra Leone
B Pesan Gold Coast
Fernando Po
Western const
Cape of Good Hope
Eastem cost
Cape Verd Islands
Mauritius -
Cher Maces
Asan Australia, viz. :-

Adan
E. 1. Comp. territories
Spore
Celon
Philippine Islands
Other Islands
(hna
Hg Kong
New South Wales
Wes? Sustralia
South Australia
Van Derner's Land
New Zealand

South Sea Islands.
Arrerica, viz.

Brish North Colonies
Bush Wot Inale

rean West Indies
L'ited States
Mnico
Central America
New Granada
Venezuela
Bor
B1
I repas
hienos Ayres

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118

Peru

Patagonis
Wale Faheries
Guerney anu Jersey
Other I'laces -

Total

23,616 4,884,210 419,713113,426 2,035,690 106,679 22.328/4,783,428 218,028!15,275 2,299,060 120,035

III. Statement of the Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels (including their repeated Voyages), that

entered Inwards to, and cleared Out wards from, the several Ports of the United Kingdom, from and to Foreign Parts, during each of the Three Years ending 5th January, 1850.

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IV. A Return of the Number and Tonnage of Sailing and Steam Vessels registered on the 31st of

December, 1850, at each of the Ports of Great Britain and Ireland, including the Isle of Man and Channel Islands ; distinguishing between those under and those above Fifty Tons Register, and between Sailing Vessels and Steam Vessels. - (Parl. Paper, No. 155. Sess. 1851.)

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Tons. Tons.

Tons 541),241 107,237

617.178

1786 382,1720 122,735 704.755 1747 543,144 121,726 66N 170 1788 631,726 91,93 721,317 1789 662, 13+

79,00 762.251 1790 725.1072 72,215

798,617

1791 75,091 66,153 $94.231 1792

68,016 795,41 1793 761,786 77,184 8.34,770 1794 $05, 3415 68,120 873 725 1795 80,105 63,176 869,671

1796 66,998 963,72

1797 923,456 72,931 99,,.387

1799 874,421 37.994 932,115 1799 901,016 68,102 969,113 1800 882,579 68,034 950.613

1801 572,108 74,323 946,431 180g 827,1367 104,639 929,103

1503 737,958 93.775 826,336 1804 642,081 149,040 791,1721

1805 731,496 131.111 893,397 1 806 605,219 170,775 779,494

IS07 615,10 223,456 $10,606 1 RON 86.5,967 171,938 1,037,905 18419

912,919 118,268 1.0.547,187 1510 1,074,562 107,484 1,182,346 1811

Ton
Tons.

Tons. 1,115,1921 121,197 1,236,221 1,279,133 13,220 1.417.253 1,411,053 128.997 1,546,686 1,515,1121 103,722 1,618,713 1,421,912 145,919 1,573,931 1,511,216 181,72 1,561,158 175,405 1,7.341,963 1,200,22 187,132 1,427,234 1,352,166 219,1177 1,600),243 1,143,450 382,567 1,528,117 1,254,621

1,732,780 1,103,781 39,271 1,319,151 36,719 1.781,870 1.312,51 411,774 1,717,25 1,445,271 695,031 2,110,122 1,345,521 801,8) 2.1.01

461,123 9,0689 1,453,1166 574,512

2,112,08 1,463,216 587,819 4,051,1351 1,495,209 605,821 2,101,1130 1,186,312 569.170 2,031,1721 1,424.113 631,010 2,056,013 1,372,810 282,145 1,551,955 1,531,132 699,750 2,2,341,909 1,624,274 1,134,527 2,762,401 1,507,353 690,232 | 2,203,985

432,832

1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 178 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1791 1792 178.3 1786 1785

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VI. Account of the Total Number of Vessels engaged in the Foreign and Colonial Trade of the United

Kingdorn, with the Amount of their Tonnage, and the Number of Men and Boys employed in navi. gating the same, that entered inwards from all Parts of the World, in the several Years from 1814 to 1842, both inclusive: distinguishing British from Foreign.

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VII. Account of the Number of Vessels, with the Amount of their Tonnage, and the Number of Men

and Boys usually employed in navigating the same, that belonged to the several Parts of the British Empire, on the 31st of December, 1848, 1849, and 1850, respectively.

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VIII, Account of the Number of Vessels and of their Tonnage, built and registered in, and of those

belonging to, the different Ports of the British Empire, from 1820 to 1843, both inclusive : specifying the Number of their Crews, and distinguishing between those of the British Islands and Possessions in Europe and those of the Colonies.

Years

1820 1891 1592 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1530 18.31 16.32 1813 1534 18.35 1836 18.17 1838 15.39 1810 1911 1842 1913 1844 1815

Vessels built and registered.

Vessels and their Crews belonging to the British Empire.
United King-

United Kingdom
dom and
Possessions
Colonies. Total. and Possessions Colonies.

Total.

Crews in Europe.

in Europe.
Shipa.
Tons. Ships. Tons, Shipe. Tons. Shipe.! Tons.

Shipe. Tons. Skips. Tuns.
635 65,142 218 16.100 653 84,582 21,969 2,439,029 3,405 409,564 25,74 2,645,593 114,514
597

59,184 275 13,365 872 74,447 21,652 2,355,833 3.34 204,350 25,0.36 2,611,203 169,179 571 51,533 209 15,111 780 61,144 21,233 2,315,4013 3,404 2113,611 21,612 4,519,044 166,333 604 63,758 213 22,210 847 80,028 21,0422,302,867 3,500 203.593' 24,542 2.06, -60 163,474

8.37 93.219 342 50,524 1.179 143,711 21,250 2,318,314 3,496 211,273 24,776 2,259,587 164,637
1,003 124,049) 536 80,895 1,539 201,924 20,701 2,328,807 3,579 214,875 24.980 2,553,4.82 166,163
1,151 119,086 588 86.534 1,719 205,610 20,965 2,411,461 3,657 224,183 24.625 2,6,35,644 167,636
911 95.0.38 529 6,908 1,140 163,946 19,524 2,181,13% 3,675 279,362 23,199 2,167,400 151,115
857
90,060 461

30,841

1,521 140,913 19,646 2,193,300 4,449 321,591 24,115 2,118,191 155,376 734 77,675 416 39,237 1,450 116,872 19,110'2.199,959 4,313 317,011 23,433 2,317.000) 154 Su8 750 77,411 367 32,719 1,147 110,130 19,174 2,211,592 4,347 3301,227, 23,721 2,131,519 154.512 760 85,707 376 31,290 1,136 119,997 19,450, 2,224,356 4,792 357,CON 21,212 2,581,964 158,142 92,915 386

43,397

1,145 136,31% 19,061 2,261,460 4,771 356,205 24,435 2,615, 61 161,731 728 92,171 298

32,578 1.026 125,049, 19,689 2,271,201 4.696 363,276 27,385 2,0,31,377 164.400 806 102,710 354 45,111 1,160 149,121 19,975,2,312,335 5,080 403,745 25,455 2,716,100 168,0:11 916 121,722 455 63,230 1,371 184,952 23,300) 4,364,303 5,211 12.5,15% 26,511 2,783,761 171,029 709 89,636 4:1 66,601 1,150 156,210 20,35% 2,349,749 5,432 442,897 25,20 2,792,616 170.637 1,005 135,922 510 71,306 1,015 207,22% 20,536 %,.333,521 5,501 457,497 46,037 2,791,018 | 173,5116! 1,147 161,459 606 79,947 1,753 241,406 20,91% 2,420,759 3,697 469,842 26,609 2,890.601 175,553 1,278 186.903 368 47.998 1,146 2.34,501 21,670 2,570,35 6,075 192,79% 27,715 3,465,433 191,283 1,448 220,064 771 4.3,289 2,219 363,352 22,654 2,768,262 6,308 543,27628,962 3,311,539 201,340 1,192 169,309 668 82,857 1,860 301,166 23,161 2,35,399 6,591 577,081 30.052 3,512,480 210,198

971 133,275 402 55,149 1,373 185,423 23,954 3,011,420 6,861 578,4.50 30,515 3,619.50 181047 736 83,273 494 55,904 1,23 141,277 2.3,598 3,407,381 7.045 5801,506 30,983 3,583,387 2,13,977 731 96,576) 325 69,557

1,256 167,733 24,016 3,414,392 7,304 592,839 31,320 3,637,231 216,350 890 124,919 508

73,237 1,348 198,156 24,388 3,123,150 7,429 390,881, 31,817 3,714,061 | 924,900

N.B. The falling off in the number of ships in 1827 is apparent only. The numbers relurned in the previous years were those that appeared on the registers But a ship, when once placed on them, remained uillevilence was produced of her having been sold to forcimers, lost, or otherwise destroyed : so that a good many ships were at all times on the register, which, in fact, did not exist. The Registry Act passed in 1926 obliged all owners of ships to register them of new; when, of course, the names of those that had ceased to exist disappeared from the books.

Ship-building. - The cost, including the outfit, of the ships built in the U. Kingdom in 1842, may, we believe, be taken, at a rough average, at from 101. to 12l. per ton, or lll. at a mediuin, making their total value 1,038,1001. London, Sunderland, Newcastle, Liverpool, Hull, Yarmouth, &c. are the principal building ports. The business has increased with extraordinary rapidity at Sunderland: so much so that while only 60 ships, of the burden of 7,560 tons, were built in that port in 1820, no fewer than 302 ships, of the burden of $7,023 tons, were built in it in 1845. Ships built at London, Liverpool, Bristol, and other western ports, are, however, in higher estimation than those built in the Tyne and the Wear, at least for those branches of trade where the best ships are required. Within the last few years, a great many steam boats have been built in the Clyde.

State of the Shipping Interest. - The complaints that were so frequent about 10 years since respecting the distressed state of the shipping interest have recently all but ceased! ; indeed we incline to think they never had any very good foundation. No doubt their profits are a good deal lower now than they were during the war ; bui this, if it be really an evil, is one that is not peculiar to them, but equally affects agriculturists, manufacturers, and merchants ; and is not even confined to this country, but extends to others. We have alrearly shown the groundlessness of the clamour raised against ti.e reciprocity treaties (ante, p. 853.); which, far from being injurious, have been signally beneficial to our commercial and shipping interests. It is believed that owing to the peculiar facilities afforded by means of docks and other devices for the loading and unloading of ships, the employment of steam tugs to bring them quickly to their moorings and to take them to sea, and the greater economy and despatch that now pervade every department of the business, 3 ships are able to perform, and do, in fact, perform, as much work as was done by 4 at the end of the war! There has, in this way, been a virtual addition of 400,000 or 500,000 tons to our mercantile nary. And this surely is enough, without looking at any thing else, to account for the decline in the rate of freight since 1815. The great number of new ships that have been built every year shows that the shipping business is quite as profitable as other departments.

The fall in the value of ships has been a consequence of the still greater fall in the value of the timber, iron, hemp, &c. of which they are constructed ; and, however injurious to those who happened to have bought or built ships during the high prices, it is in no ordinary degree advantageous to the public, and to the ship owners that are now engaging in the trade. The discriminating duties on Baltic timber are, in fact, the only real grievance under which our shipping interest labours. Were it not for thema, ships might be built Crearer in England than in any other country. Such, however, is the vast importance to a maritime nation like this of being able to build ships at the lowest possible rate, that we think they ought to be allowed to be built in bond, or, if that would be inconvenient, that a drawback should be allowed of the duty on every article used in their construction. A measure of this sort would give to

The age

the shipping of England the same superiority, in point of cheapness that is now enjoyed by our cottons ; and would do more than any thing else to consolidate and strengthen the foundations of our inaritime asendancy. It is entirely owing to the operation of the duties that so many ships ara now built in the colonies. They are very inferior to those bult in England; and were tbe latter built in bond, or were the duties on the articles used in their construction drawn back, they would also be the cheapest of the two.

It may be worth mentioning, as illustrative of the singular anomalies that have been allowed to insinuate themselves into our commercial system, that timber may be imported into the Isle of Man, or into any other British possession, without regard to its origin, on payment of an ad valorem duty of 10 per cent.! It is remarkable that advantage was not earlier taken of this anomaly, to build ships in the Isle of Man. Latterly, however, several vessels have been built in it, and, were it in other respects as well situated for ship-building as the other ports of the empire, it would become a principal seat of the business. There can, however, be no good reason why one part of the empire should be permitted to enjoy a peculiar privilege of this sort. An equalisation of the duties should take place, either by extending thr British duties to the Isle of Man, or the Manx duties to Britain ; -- the latter would be the inost beneficial way of obviating the anomaly.

Suirs (CLASSIFICATION OF, for the PURPOSE OF INSURANCE). — To insure a ship on right principles, or in such a way that the premium shall be the fair equivalent of the risk, is no easy matter. The risk depends partly on the condition of the ship and the capacity of the master and crew; partly on the nature of the cargo she is to take on board; and partly on the voyage she has to perform. The last two circumstances disclose themselves, and their intluence may be appreciated, at least with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes, without any difficulty; but it is far otherwise with the condition of the ship, and the capacity of the master and crew. It is essential to the adjusting of an insurance on fair terms, that these should be known; and it is, at the same time, exceedingly difficult to acquire any accurate information with respect to them.

It is plain that there is but one mode in which any thing satisfactory can be learned with respect to the condition of ships, and that is, by their inspection and examination by persons of competent information as to such matters. To acquire a just character at first, a ship should be repeatedly surveyed while she is being built; and to learn her condition at any subsequent period, some of the planks should be taken off, and her hull and rigging subjected to a thorough examination. This is the only method to be followed if we wish to arrive at results that may be safely depended on.

of a ship should not be altogether overlouked in estimating her condition ; but it is not a criterion that, taken by itself, is worth almost anything. There is the greatest possible difference in the materials of which different ships are built, in the way in which they are built, and in the wear and tear to which they are exposed. Some are $0 very bad, that they actually go to pieces on their first voyage; others, with difficulty, last for 3, 4, or 7 years; and others, again, run for 10, 15, and even 20 years, and upwards, with but little repair. It may be presumed that the condition of ships built of similar materials, on the same plan, and employed in the same departments of trade, will depend materially on their ages: but a thousand circumstances conspire to defeat this presumption; and it would be ludicrous to suppose that it should apply at all in the case of ships constructed of different materials, and engaged in different lines.

But, notwithstanding the criterion of age is thus really worth less than nothing as a rule by which to judge of a ship's condition, it is almost the only one that was referred to in this country down to a late period. From about the year 1760, or perhaps earlier, down to 1834, ships were arranged, by the underwriters at Lloyd's, in classes marked by the letters A, E, I, and 0, and the figures 1, 2, and 3 ; the former referring to the hull of the ship and the latter to the rigging. A ship marked A 1. was in the highest class; that is, her hull and rigging were both declared to be in the best condition; ships marked E l. were in the next class; those marked I 1. were in the lowest available class, or that formed of such as were fit only for carrying coals, or other goods not liable to sea damage along the coast ; ships marked o were unseaworthy. But to get into the highest class, no examination of the ship, or none worthy of the name, was required. Unless some very flagrant defect were obvious in their construction, all ships were entitled, when new, to be marked in the highest class; and they were entitled, whatever might be their real condition, to stand in it for a certain number of years, varying from 6 to 12, according to the port in which they happened to be built! It is not easy to imagine any thing more absurd than such a classification ; but the whole extent of the injury arising from it is not immediately obvious. The great majority of merchants and underwriters have not, and could not be expected to have, any personal knowledge of different ships, and have nothing to trust to but the classified accounts. Suppose, now, that two ships were built at the same time in London or any other port; that one was constructed of the best materials, and in the best way, while the other was constructed of the worst materials, and in the most defective manner : these two ships were placed side by side in the class A 1.; the underwriters, seeing them there, were ready, without further inquiry, to insure them at the same premium, and the merchants were, for the same reason, quite as willing to

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