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Statement showing the value of Timber and the Quantities of Hemp, with the Quantities and Values of
the Flax, Linseed, and Hempseed exported from Riga during the following Tears.
Valve of both.
Chetrets. 1816 to 1820 aver.1,257,605 605,437 1818 to 1827 aver.
Paper real. 996,742
157,357 Izl. 1825 12.065,903 612,152 1828 1837 11,496,155
206,816 18 26-1830 2,265,349 626,128
1533 1,574,370 18,323,700 288,930 poods 19,35$pds. 7,527,126 1831-1835 2,3412,313 749,261
18.79 1,3507,78 ! 14,153 232 412,419 92,111 1836 1840 3,478,935 917,2.32 Isto
1,446,75 14.980,917197,178 44,309 6,14:17 1841 12,363,073 97,1661 1941 1,611,117,359,361 318,20
10,970,253 12,818,655 1,084,600 1812 11,792,939
357,01 chet. '109,534 cht.
We borrow from a different, but not less authentic source, the following details as to the trade of Riga in 1842
No fewer than 416 British ships arrived at Riga in 1812. Of these were shipped to the U. Kingdom -
Tons. 88 4d., leing an increase of 290,6777. 88. 4d. over the previous
In 1812, 9,758 hemp, 1,1499 codilla year. The value of that shipped for the U. Kingutom was
333 1,527.7104. 58. 4d., being more than a moiety of the total exporta.
The prices of hemp in January 1842 were -
R. H. 27 14 07
0. H. '16 5 0 Per ton free on board.
P. H. 258 0 In 1841, 22,215 - 26 The exports of flax to France were 2,428 tons, to Spain It may be well to mention that the hernp shipped for the about 500 tons, and to Portugal 107 tons. The flax in hand British navy contract cost in many instances from its super at the end of the shipping season was of the new xrowth, the quality, 48.. and even 100. per ton more than the conu mota quality of which, especially the Lisoman tlax, is generally ap
RH as above quotex. proved. The last prices for fresh tias were
There were shippiu to all countries 172,7) i barrels of linsed, £ 8. d.
of which 18,629 barrels were for the U. Kingslom. I heliP. T. R. 35 2 67
ports of bempseed were 161,331 barrels, of which only 3,605 P. T. R. 34 2 4
barrels went to the U. Kingdom.
The shipments of com were
Quarters. Quarters. Quarters. Quarters. Superior H. 31 11 0
1912, 2,552 wheat, 34,518 rye, 13,559 barley, 21.550 oats H 33 10
13,213 There have been exported in
2,777 quarters wheat, the whole of the oats 91,8 quarten) Tons. Tons.
and barles (2,779 quarters) were shipped for the three sila 1842, 17, 41 hemp, and 2,165 codilla
The exportatiou of all sorts of wood to the U. Kinguon * 1841, 16,224 1,085
The quality of timber denominated " Town fir timber" has ference in the quality of crown timber, and timber of the latterly become very muce, so that the greater part of the second quality, except that the latter is knotuer than the Riya imports consist of the second quality, or what is called * Verschillung brack tituber." There is no essential dif.
RIO DE JANEIRO, the capital of Brazil, on the Atlantic, in lat. 22° 54' 15" S., lon. 43° 15' 50' W. Population 200,000. The harbour of Rio is one of the finest in the world, both as respects capaciousness and security for all sorts of vessels. In coming from the N. E. it is usual to make Cape Frio, in lat. 23° 1' 18' S., lon, 42° 3' 19W., being about 4 leagues nearly E. of Rio. The entrance to the harbour is marked by a remarkable hill in the form of a sugarloaf, 900 feet high, close to its west side; while on the east, or opposite side of the bay, at the distance of about 1} mile, is the fort of Santa Cruz. But the wood-cut in the next page, taken from a chart published by order of the Brazilian authorities, gives a much better idea of this noble harbour than could be obtained from any description.
Entrance to the Harbour. - Vessels bound for Rio, coming from the N., should, after rounding Cape Frio, stier due W., keeping about 3 leagues from the coast, until they come within 5 or 6 miles of the Ilha Raza, or Flat island lying almost due S. from the mouth of the harbour, at the distance of about 3 leagues. A light-house, the lantern of which is said to be elevated nearly 300 feet above the level of the sea, was erected on this island in 1929. The light is a revolving one, finishing its revolution in 3 minutes, and exhibiting alternat-ly a white and a red light. There is also a light-house in the fort of Santa Cruz, te light of which is fixed, and elevated about 50 feet above the level of the sea.- Coulier sur les Phares, ered.) Having got within 5 or 6 miles of the lba Raza, ships may enter by day or by night, the dotted line in the cut marking the fair-way into the harbour, There are no pilots to bo met with ; and as there are no hidden dangers of any kind, their services are not wanted. On entering, vessels must pass within hall of Fort Santa Cruz, to be ready to answer any questions that may be put to them. They then proceed to l'ort Vilganlon, below or opposite to which they must bring to, or come to anchor, allowing 110 boats to come alongside, but those of the government, until they have received pratique, when they will be permitted to proceed to the usual place of anchorage for the merchant shipping.
The sea breeze generally scts in about li A. m., and lasts till itbout sunset. it is strong enough to enable ships to overcome the ebb. High water at full and change at 2 in the afternoon.
Mony, Wrights, and Measures. - All payments are made in paper money, which has been over-issued, and is excessively depraialt J. But in ordinary cases the par of exchange inay now be assumed at åbent 3ld. sterimg per pairiotic dollar, of 1620 reis paper. Weights and long measures are the same as those
of Lisbon, the arroba being 32 lbs. avoirdupois ; but measures of capacity are different, a medida being aqual to -5954 Imperial galls., and an alquiére to l'11 ditto.
Trade. — The trade of Rio is extensive, and has increased rapidly of late years. It is now by far the greatest mart for the export of coffee. The shipments of this important article, which in 1830 amounted to 396,785 bags, have increased with such unexampled rapidity, that, in 1848, they amounted to 1,710,707 bags, that is (taking the bag at
References to Plan.-A. Ilha do Catunduba. B, Fort de St. Joao. C, Morro do Flamengo. D, Ponta do Calhabouco. E, Fort da Ilha das Cobras. F,'llha dos Rattos. G, Fort da Boa Viagem.
160 lbs.), to 273,713,120 lbs., or 122,193 tons; being about equal to all the exports of coffee from all the other ports in the world. It has not, however, been so large since. Sugar was formerly an important article of export from Rio, but latterly it has rapidly decreased, and only amounted to 5,979 cases (13 cwt. each) in 1849. It is probable, however, that here, as in Cuba and other places, the late low prices of coffee may have produced a reaction in favour of sugar, the exports of the latter having risen, in 1850, to 13,047 cases. The other great articles of export from Rio are hides, rice, tobacco, rum, tapioca, ipecacuanha, manioc or manihot, flvur, and other inferior articles. The export of cotton has entirely teased ; and that of gold, diamonds, &c. is mostly clandestine. Diamonds are principally exported from Bahia. We subjoin, An Account of the Quantities of the Priucipal Articles of Native Produce exported from Rio during
each of the Seven Years commencing with 1843.
1813 1814 1845 1846 IS17 1818 1819
Tons. Bage. Cases. No. No. No.
Bags. Pipes. Doz. Lle. Rolls, Brle. (151 lbs. (13 cwt.).
18,161' 4,685 571 167,018 1,260,431 11,513 369,183 541,4.36 15,506 14,976 3,404 938 4,365 21,676 6,123 384 171,320 1,208,062 14,339 213,689 309,68 18,399 27,274 4,725 2,182 17,681 15,23 1,454 66% 199,858 1,511,096 8,115 394,586 313,199 17,291 13,913 3,664 1,436) 49,788 15,183 4,701 654 195,308 1,641,560 8,311 268,192 447,607 6,16220,021 3.995 809 23,901 21,7071,970 716 213,16,311,710,707 3,848 315,848 485,527 11,657 9,808 2,994 1,321 16,308 42,290 1,733 656 212,576 1,453,980 5,979 302,220 383,6831 11, 1.39 20,717 4,380 1,905 11,676 26.909 9,543
The principal article of import consists of cotton goods, the value of which amounts to full one third of the total value of the imports. Next to cottons are woollen, linen, and silk manufactures, wines, jewellery, and ironmongery; flour, meat, fish, butter, and other articles of provision ; spirits, salt, earthenware, paper, and a host of other articles.
We avail ourselves of this opportunity to subjoin A Statement of the Quantities and Values of the Principal Articles annually exported from the different
Ports of Brazil at an Average of the Years 1641--47.
£ 3,300,000 150.(X) 40,000 28,00
7,6.50 24,000 21,000) 3,285
4,027,992 46,512 44,209 871,440 70,000 43,200 31,460
1,600,571 60,000 60,00 6,000
126,000 100,0 1,4211,000 120,000
1,140,000 R0.000 70,000) 12,000
162,000 32,000 16,000 1,500
208,000 35,000 23,600 100,000
5,000 15,000 25,000 61,0 300,000 20,000
0 20 India rubber
80 0 Cotton, isinglass, rice, drugs, &c. Southern Provinces - Rio Grande do Sul. Hides, dry • number 677,000
0 10 Ditto, salied
0 7 Hair, wool, boms, &c.
about Deduct from the above about 200,000 dry
hides, and for jerked! beef and tallow
exported to ports of Brazil Santo
Sugar, rice, coffee, &c. to Rio, but forming
* A great portion of sugar is shipped in barrels and bags.
The exports have not increased materially within the last few years; and now that jabour is becoming scarcer and dearer, in consequence of the greatly increased ditficulties
thrown in the way of the importation of slaves, it is doubtful whether they will be maintained, and whether the exports of coffee will not also decline. The exports of cotton have, for a lengthened period, been nearly stationary. They are still, however, pretty extensive, and supplied us in 1850 with 30,299,982 lbs. Hides are a very important article of export.
Statements illustrative of the Trade of Rio in 1850.
Leading Articles Imported.
Euports of Produce of the Country. Quantities. Cotton manufactures pkgs. 26,124 Coffee
bags 1,359,05 Woollca
200,1133 Linen 1,170
Cases 13,147 Si
baya 24,212 Codish quintals 36,050 Homs
268,550 33,104 Tobacco
28,140 Ale and porter bbls. 15,961 Ipecacuanha
seroons Pixar 208,578 Rosewoon!
pieces 26,312 Candles, sperm boxes 1,872 Other woods
deals 15,116 composition
lbs. 16,053 Wines, Portugal pipes 14,125 Ten
bags 10,672 Cordage
boxes 3,533 Candles, tallos
304 Account of the Coffee Exported from Rio de Janeiro in each Year from 1821 to 1850, both inclusive, in
Bags of 160 lbs.
Port Regulations. The captain of every ship entering Rio, manifest he has delivered, and that he has no further declar. of any other port of Brazil, is ordered by a law enacted in ation to make; and if he do not enter within the 21 hours, he 1836
shall pay 100,000 reis for each day's delay additional. 1. To go directly with his vessel from the entrance of the 7. If he shall detain his vessel at either of the anchorages harbour to the anchorage ground in Franquia, and if, on ac. more than 24 hours, when he shall be direrted by the guardacrunt of the tide, contrary wind, or any other just cause, he mor, or his representative, to reinove thence, he shall pay should be compelled to come to anchor, and shall remain 100,000 reis for every day he delays. anhund for twelve hours after said hindrances are repoved 8. He shall discharge no part of his cargo but by an order in (except in case of being quarantined), he shall pay a fine of writing from the inspector; and if beland any without such 100,150 reis, and shall be compelled, by the fort, or by a go. order, he shall pay 1,000 reis for each package so landed. Veran ent vessel of war, whichever may be nearest,) to roceed 9. He shall give notice to the officer attending the discharge mediately to the Franquia anchoring ground
of the vessel, as soon as his cargo is discharged, that he has 2. He shall not suffer any kind of vessel to board him, nor nothing remaining on board. If he omit to do this on the any person to corne on board or to leave his vessel, before he same day, so that the vessel may be immediately examined, he has been visited from the custom-house, excepting only the shall be fined 100.000 reis. pilot health oficer the head officer at the entrance, when there 10. The ruaster of every vessel going with a cargo to any is one, and in the case of hipwreck, or for the saving of lives. part of the empire, must have two manifests of the carvo,
2. Even after the custom-house visit on arrival, and until exact copies of each other, exhibiting the name, class, and ton. the vessel is discharged, he shall allow no person to come on nage of the vessel : the name of the captain, whose signature board without a written permission from the inspector of the must follow the date; the name of the port where the articles customs, and this permission shall be given in the following stated in the manifest were taken on board ; the name of the Cases, viz
port or ports for which the vessel is destined; the marks or A.' To allow the buyers of goods to go on board to examine counter marks and numbers of the packages, and their descripthe cargo they wish to purchase, when sufficient specimens tion, as bales, cases, pipes, half pipes, barrels &c.; a declaration cannot be seen on shore.
of the quantity and quality of the merchandise of each package, B. To workmen or labourets necessary to put the cargo in or several similar one of the same mark, and also of what is order, taking care to have them examined when they go on on board in bulk ; the names of the consignees, or to order, all board and retum. In case of the infraction of the above reku. to be written at length, except the numbers of the packaxes. lavons, a fine shall be imposed on him from 100,000 to 200,000 11. When the ressel has taken in her cargo at more than one reis for every vessel be allows to board him, and of 500,000 port, there must be two manifests from each port. for each person who shall enter or leave his vessel without 12. At the end of the manifest, the captain wall declare the licence, unless he be a passenger or belonging to the crew : number of passengers, whether cabin or stetrage, and the bage and every other person who goes on board or leaves the vessel kage for the nse of each, and in addition any declaration ne shell pay 100 100 reis fine, and be kept in custody until payo cessary for his security, and in good faith he shall delare ment is made. The one thint part of these fines shall be divi. whether he has any package to add to the manifest, or whether ded amonpt the watchmen or inilitary who shall have taken any are deficient, with the cause of it, as no after declaration up the ofiender.
will relieve him froin responsibility for he will not be exempted 4. He shall deliver to the guarda-mor (chief customs officer), upon the vague declarations frequently made, which do not be be inakes his visit on arrival, his passport and cargo book. account for deticiencies or differences.
5. He shall deliver to the commander of the guard boat 13. The captain of any ve sel bound to Brazil, when he has without the port, if he be there, or at the Franquia, if he be completed his cargo in the port or purts from which he is to there, the manifest aš described below.
sail, and made the manifests, as required in the 9th article, 6. He shall enter at the custom-house within 24 hours after shall present his documents to the Brazilian consul residing in the guarda mor has been on board, no: counting the days on the porl, who wball examine them, and if a reeable to these which the custom house is shut, and present himself to the regulations, certify them. Inspector, and swear, or affirm, that he has not on board of his 11. In those parts where there is no Brazilian consul or sub vessel ang merchandise other than what is described in the stitute, the manifest shall be ceruted by two Brazilian rosie
If bills on London are sent out for the purchase of produce in Brazil, the credit must have the confirmation of the London house.
Anchorage Dues in Brasil Ports. The anchorage dues faed by law of 22d October, 1836, are now supersented by a tax of 3rix-dollar per ton, payable, one half on entering, and one half on sailing, by all merchant vessels on foreign trading, with the following restrictions
Ships arriving in ballast, and going away the same, will pay the old anchorage; if taking cargoes, they will pas half the prese at dues.
ships entering to get fresh provisions, or in ".Franquia," to try the market, but do not discharge, pay only the old anchorage. If they merely discharge part of cargo, pay only half of present dues.
Ships entering under average or in distress, pas nothing if they do not discharge, or only discharge the necessary for repairing
Ships carrying colonists subject to some modifications.
Ships entering three times in one year, only pay anchorage dues the first two vos yes.
The government is authorised to modify the impost, as soon as the treaty with Great Britain expires, as may seem most suitable for the encouragement of the national shipping trade to foreign ports, or to the whale fisheries. The anchorage dues on foreign shipping may not be increased.
Rio, June 26. 1843.
dept merchants; or, if there be none, by two merchants of the place; in either case, the signatures to be authenticated by legal authority.
15. Should any greater quantity of goods be found on board than are stated in the manifest or the declaration of the captain, the overplus shall be seized and divided amongst those who seize them, after paying the duties, and the captain shall pay a fine of half the value of the goods.
16. If there are any goods missing of those lstated in the manifest or declaration of the captain, they shall be reputed to be concealed or smuggled, and he shall pay the value thereof to those who have discovered the deficiency, and half the value to the national treasury. These condemnations shall take place on the simple face of there being an overplus or deficiency of goods, withoui further proof being required.
17. For each ditference in the quality or mark of the package, the captain shall pay 2,040 reis, although in every other re spect the goods discharged may agree with the manifest,
18. The capitain whose manifests are not conformable to the e regulations, shall be fined from 100,000 reis to one conto de reis, at the will of the collector, according to the degree of culpability that shall appear, and he cannot discharge until the fine is paid.
19. In case the captain brings no manifest, he may still be allowed to discharge, by paying 5 per cent. on the value of the cargo, in addition to the usual duties.
Franquis. - Vessels proceeding to Brazil, and when it is wished to dispose of their cargoes at different ports, must clear out for" Brazil and other ports," or for " Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and other ports." They are then entitled to the privilege of Frarquis, and may land a part of their cargoes at one port, paying duties only on the goods so landed, and pro. ceed with the remainder to other ports. But if they clear out for one port only, they are compelled to make a complele entry, and discharge the whole of the carga
In proceeding from one Braylian port to another, it is neces. sary that a bill of health should be taken from the local authorities of each port; and where any part of the cargo is landed, the same must be noted on the original manifest by the custorns othcer of the port.
Anchurage. Foreign vessels pay, in all ports of the empire, 10 reis per ton per day, from the 5th day after their entry.
Lichi house. -The li hat-house duty, 100 reais per ton, for all vessels over 40 tons departing from ports where there is a lighthouse. Vessels under 10 tons are exempted from this duty.
Port-duty-On al vessels not crossing the bar of the harbour of Rio de Janeiro, the following charges are levied, viz., of three masts, 12,300 reis, of two masts, 9,600 reis; and of one mast, 6,40) reis.
Seal. --- The duty is 40 reis for every written half-sheet.
Health. - Visit of the physician is fixed at 5,200 rets; but in case the veseel is made to perform quarantine, then another sum of 8,200 reis is payable on the admission of the vessel to free pratique.
Hospitals. -A vessel of three masts pays 6,000 reis ; briga, corvettes, and yachts, 4,000; pinnaces, 2,560 ; barks, 1,280.
Each one of the ship's comparay of vessels sailing for a foreign port pays 100 reis.
Esses of merchants. - It is customary that the expense of landink and shipping a cargo on freighi shall be paid by the vessel, unless the contrary be stipulated in the bills of lading.
When hard Spanish dollars are bargained for fin contracts of freight, they should be so expressed in the instrument of contract, to prevent dispute.
Purchases of produce are paid for in cash, and sales are made on stipulated credits, but nominally for cash.
Rater of Commission charged at Rio.
on amount of cost and charges.
er cent for drawing or indursing, and negotiating Lills.
funds in hand. 5 per cent. on disbursements of vessels when funds are ad.
vanced, or in case of condemnation, or in vessels entering
for repairs only. 1 per cent. on receiving and forwarding goods; and 24 per cent. on amouni of responsibilities incurred thereon. i per cent. on receiving and paying money on which no other
vommission is derived. per cent. on purchase or sale of specie. per cent. for effecting marine insurance on the amount in. surud; and when the premiuro exceeds 10 per cent., 3 per cent. on the amount o premium. per cent. on rernittances on bills not indorsed. On consimments of mer.handise withdrawn or reshipped, full
commision to be charged to the extent of advances or responsibilities incurred, and half commission on the residue
of the value. 1 per cent. per month ori all cash adranced. No interest allowed on money on deposit. ! per cent storage on all dry goods In the case of discharging and reshipping the cargoes of vessels
in distress, on the in soice amount, 2 per cent. 21 per cent., or half the commission charged on sales of merchandise, will be returred to supercargoes, but nothing on investments or other business.
An Account of the declared Values of the Principal Articles of British and Irish Produce and Manufac
ture exported from the U. Kingdom to Brazil, in 1848.
Alkali, mineral; viz. soda and barilla
Lead and shot Apothecary wares
5,747 Leather, wrought and unwrought Apparel, slops, anal haberdashery
16,824 Leather, saddlery and hamess Arins and ammunition
31,040 Linen manufactures Bacon and hans
741 Machinery and mill work Beef and pork
Musical instruments Beer and ale
18,355 oil, linseed, he mpseed, and rapeseed Blacking
Painters' colours Books, printed
Plates, platei ware, jewellery, and watches Brass and copper manufactures
Saltpetre, refined in the United Kingdom Butter
70,512 Silk manufactures Cabinet and upholstery wares
348 Soup and candles. Carriages
650 Stationery Coals, cinders, and culm
23,130 Tin unwrought Cordage
3,577 Tin and pewter wares and tin plates Cotton manufactures
1,057,990 Umbrellas and parasols Cotton yarn
Wollen manufactures, including yarn Earthenware of all sorts
46,731 Other articles Glass
11,384 Hardwares and cutlery
73,473 Agrregate value of British and Irish pro Hats of all sorts.
duce and manufactres Iron and steel, wrought and unwrought
9,160 8,930 $,719 11,014 3,787 4,716 3,118 7.696
3,552 220,00 20,206
An Account of the Quantities of the Principal Articles imported into the U. Kingdom from Brazil,