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REPORT. In commercial navigation, a paper delivered by the masters of all ships arriving from parts beyond seas to the Custom-house, and attested upon oath, containing an account of the cargo on board, &c. --(See untè, p. 669.)
REPRISALS. Where the people of one nation have unlawfully seized and detained property belonging to another state, the subjects of the latter are authorised, by the law of nations, to indemnify themselves, by seizing the property of the subjects of the state aggressing. This is termed making reprisals; and commissions to this effect are issued from the Admiralty. ---(See Privateers.)
RESPONDENTIA. See BOTTOMRY AND RESPONDENTIA.
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. Though not properly belonging to a work of this sort, we believe we shall do an acceptable service to our readers by laying before them the following comprehensive Table of the revenue and expenditure of the United Kingdom in 1840, 1841, and 1842. —-. (See pp. 1057, 1058.) It contains more information in a brief space than most parliamentary papers. It was originally framed according to the suggestion, and printed upon the motion, of Mr. Pusey; and there are not very many members who can refer to so useful a memorial of their parliamentary career.
RHUBARB (Du. Rhubarber; Fr. Rhubarbe, Rubarbe ; It. Rabarbaro, Reo-barbaro; Sp. Ruibarbo; Rus. Rewen ; Arab. Ruwend; Chin. Ta-hwang), the root of a plant, a native of China and Tartary. Three varieties of rhubarb are known in the shops ; viz. Russian, Turkey, and East Indian or Chinese rhubarb. The first two resemble each other in every respect. They are, in fact, the same article, being both derived from Tartary. The portion destined for the Petersburg market being selected and sorted at Kiachta, acquires the name of Russian rhubarb; while the portion that is sent from Tartary to Smyrna and other places in Turkey is called Turkey rhubarb. The best pieces only are sent to Petersburg; and according to the contract with the government, on whose account it is bought, all that is rejected must be burnt; and that which is approved undergoes a second cleaning before being finally packed up for Petersburg. The best pieces of Russian and Turkey rhubarb are roundish, and perforated with a large hole, of a reddish or yellow colour on the outside, and when cut or broken exhibit a mottled texture, and alternate streaks of red and gray. Its odour is peculiar, and its taste nauseous, bitter, and astringent. It should not be porous, but rather compact and heavy. East Indian or Chinese rhubarb is in oblong flat pieces, seldom perforated; has a stronger odour, and is more nauseous to the taste, than the other; it is heavier, more compact, breaks smoother, and affords a powder of a redder shade. -- (Thomson's Dispensatory; Ainslie's Mat. Indica, &c.)
Of 95,701 lbs. of rhubarb imported in 1841, 43,640 were brought from China, 8,349 from the Philippines, 7.290 from the East Indies, and 33,710 from the U. States. Only 1,462 lbs. were brought from Russia. The entries for consumption amounted to 42,230 lbs. The duty on rhubarb is 3d per Ib.
RICE (Fr. Riz; It. Riso; Arab. Aruz; Hind. Chawl), one of the most valuable of the cereal grasses, the Oryza sativa of botanists. It is raised in immense quantities in India, China, and most Eastern countries; in the West Indies, Central America, and the U. States; and in some of the southern countries of Europe. It, in fact, occupies the same place in most intertropical regions as wheat in the warmer parts of Europe, and oats and rye in those more to the north. Forming, as it does, the principal part of the food of the most civilised and populous Eastern nations, it is more extensively consumed than any other species of grain. It is light and wholesome, but is said to contain less of the nutritive principle than wheat. When rough, or in its natural state in the husk, it is called paddy. There is an immense variety in the qualities of rice. That which is principally exported from Bengal has received the name of corgo rice. It is of a coarse reddish cast, but is sweet and large grained, and is preferred by the natives to every other sort. It is not kiln-dried, but is parboiled in earthen pots or caldrons, partly to destroy the vegetative principle, so that it may keep better, and partiy to facilitate the process of busking. Patna rice is more esteemed in Europe than any other sort of rice imported from the East. It is small grained, rather long and wiry, and remarkably white. But the rice raised on the low marshy grounds of South Carolina is unquestionably very superior to any brought from any part of India. It may, perhaps, be worth mentioning, that rice, like wheat, oats, and barley, is not indigenous to America. It was first raised in South Carolina from seeds brought from Madagascar, near the end of the 17th century. Its culture increased so rapidly that in 1724 no fewer than 18,000 tierces, or barrels, were exported. —(Pitkin's American Statistics, 1835, p. 100.) According to the returns under the census of 1840, the total annual produce of rice in the U. States may be estimated at 80,841,422 lbs., or above 36,000 tons, of which about 3-4ths are raised in South Carolina. The value of the exports of rice from the U. States amounted, in 1839, to 2,460,198 dollars ; in 1810, to 1,942,076 dollars; and in 1841, to 2,010,107 dollars.
The produce of lands naturally or artificially irrigated is, as far as rice is concerned, from 5 to 10 times greater than that of dry land having no command of water: and hence the vast importance of irri
An Account of the Public Revenue and Expenditure of the U. Kingdom in 1848, 1849, and 1850,
exbibiting in detail the various Items embraced in the one and the other.
132,316 And taxes
30.3.642 Other ordinary revenues
55.766 Superannuation and other allowances
402,369 TOTAL REVENUR
2,733,345 PUBLIC DEBT. Interest on perinanent debt
23,878,803 Temininable annuities
27,687,884 Interest on exchequer balls
28,091,590 CIVIL GOVERNMENT:
Ciril List - Priry Purs.' Salaries of the household and tradesmen's bilis
371,800 The allowances to the several branch
es of the Moval Family, and to his Royal Highness leopold Prince of Coburg (now King of the Belgians)* 28 1,286
26,124 The salaries and expenses of the
Houses of Parliament (including
616,767 Other annuities, pensions, and super.
annuation allowances on the con.
231,714 Pensions, Civil List
1,602,105 JUSTICE. Courts Africe
765,685 I've and criminal prosecutions
160,833 Couls' salaries and superannuation
139,798 Disbursements, outfit
15,392,944 Raffir War
1,100,000 Peuntien, &c. for promoting Fisheries
16,149 Public Works
601,364 Payments out of the revenue of crown lands, for improvements and various public Services
129,985 Post office : charges of collection and other pay met
1,447,0.8 Quarantine and warehousing establishments
127237 Misceilaneous, not classed under the foregoing heads 2,186,679
2,070,X80 38,990,734 35,180.656
54,974.5.34 Surplus of income over etpenditure
2,493.262 TOTAL EXPENDITURB
2,609,017 • No part of this income is at present paid for the use of King Leopold. The trustees, after discharging certain annuitiene and pension to the establishment of the late Princess Charlotte, repay the balance of the annuity to the Exchequer; the sum o repard in the last year was 36,000.
gation in all countries where this grain is cultivated. But it is worthy of remark, that, owing to the not unfrequent occurrence of severe droughts, there is a greater variation in the crops of rice than in those of any other species of grain. Those who, like the Hindoos, depend almost entirely on it for subsistence, are, consequently, placed in a very precarious situation. There can be no doubt that famines are at once more frequent and severe in Hindostan than in any other quarter.
A few years ago, England was principally supplied with cleaned rice from Carolina. Latterly, however, the imports of Carolina rice have been much reduced.' An improved method of separating the husk, which throws out the grain clean and unbroken, has been successfully introduced into this country; and as the grain, when in the husk, is found to preserve its flavour and sweetness better during a long royage than when shelled, large quantities are now imported rough from Bengal and the U. States. Unques. tionably, however, the late oppressive discriminating duty of 148. a cut. on American and other foreiyn cleaned rice did more than any thing else to increase the imports of rough grain ; and the fact of the duty on paddy from Bengal being only ld. per quarter, while that on paddy from Carolina was 25. ed. a bushel, sufficiently accounts for the increased imports from the former. But the duty on foreign cleaned rice having been reduced in 1842 to 68. a cwt., and on rice in the husk to 78. a quarter, it is pro bable that the imports from Carolina will be materially increased. Independently of duties, the consumption is materially dependent on the price of wheat, increasing when its price increases, and failing when it falls. In bad sease'ns, when wheat is soft and damp, it is usual to mix rice with it in grinding. Account of the Quantities of Rice imported into the U. Kingdom during each of the 7 Years ending
with 1841, specifying the Countries whence it was brought, and the Quantities brought from excb.
Account of the Quantities of Rice (in the Husk) imported into the U. Kingdom during each of the
7 Years ending with 1841, specifying the Countries whence they were brought, and the Quantities brought from each.
RIGA, a city of European Russia, the capital of Livonia, on the Duna, about 9 miles from the sea, lat. 56° 56' 5" N., lon. 24° 0'4" E. Population in 1838, including garrison, 71,228.
Harbour.- A light-house has been erected on Fort Comet, on the western side of the mouth of the river. It has 2 lights: the first, elevated about 104 feet (English) above the level of the sea, may be seen, under favourable circumstances, at the distance of 4 leagues; and the second, elevated about 24 feet, may be seen at the distance of 2 leagues. The bar at the month of the river has usually from 12 to 13 feel water ; and vessels drawing more than this frequently load and unload part of their cargoes by means of lighters at Bolderan, a small town on the west side of the river, near its mouth. There is a fair. way beacon without the bar, in 5 fathoms water; and within, the channel is buoyed with black and white buoys; the black being left on the right or starboard side when entering, and the white on the lar boaru. Vessels bound for Riga take pilots at Bolderaa, who carry them to their anchorage. No ballast is allowed to be discharged, except at Poderooue. Regulations as to clearing, &c. similar to those at Petersburg. -(Coulier sur les Phares, 2d. ed.; and Regulations published by the Russian Authorities.)
Trade. - Owing to its advantageous situation near the mouth of a great navigable river, the trade of Riga is very extensive; being, of the Russian towns on the Baltic, in this respect second only to Petersburg. The trade is chiefly carried on by foreign merchants, particularly by the English. The principal exports are flax and hemp, linseed and hemp seed, timber, corn, tobacco, hides, wool, tallow, &c.; the imports are salt, sugar, coffee, and groceries of all sorts, herrings, indigo, dye woods, cotton and cotton twist, silks, wines, &c.
The mast trade is extensive. The burghers of Riga send persons who are called mast brokers into the provinces to mark the trees, which are purchased standing. They grow mostly in the districts whirh border on the Dnieper, are sent up that river to a landing place, transported 30 versts to the Duna, when being formed into rasts from of 50 to 200 pieces, they descend the stream to Riga. The tree which pro. duces the largest masts is the Scotch fir, Those pieces which are from 18 to 25 inches in diameter are
called masts ; under those dimensions, spars, or, in England, Norway masts, because Norway exports no trees more than 18 inches in diameter. 'Great skill is required in distinguishing those masts that are sound froni those which are in the least internally decayed. They are usually from 70 to 80 feet in length,
The best kind of Max shipped from Riga is grown in White Russia, and is called Druana rakitzer; its colour is very white, and the threads long, tine, and loose, but it has sometimes black spots; the next quality, coming from the province of Trockic in Lithuania, is called Lithuanian rakitzer, and is very little inferior to Druana, but its colour is a little brown; of this kind the best sort is Thiesenhausea. The best kind of Courland fax shipped from Riga is Marienburg; that grown in Livonia is inferior. There are two kinds of linseed : that of the last crop, which is used for sowing ; and that of former years, for crushing. To prevent deception, the year of its growth is stamped on the barrel by sworn inspectors (brackers). Hemp-seed is mostly shipped for Holland. Riga wheat is inferior to that of Dantzic. Two descriptions are shipped one the growth of Russia, the other of Courland ; the last is the best, being larger bodied and of a brighter colour than the Russian ; still, however, it makes but indifferent four. Oats are of a good quality, and are largely exported, peas are also occasionally exported.
In shipping igasts, the rest of the cargo generally cousists of deals and wainscot logs; the latter are much exported to England, and are very superior.
Money. - For the monies of Riga, see PETERSBURG.
Weighis and Measures. -- The commercial pound is divided into 2 marcs, or 32 loths; and also into halves, quarters, &c. It contains 6,452 English grains. Hence 100 108. of Riga = 92-17 Ibs. avoirdupois 41 8 kilog = 86*32 lbs. of Hamburg = 84.64 lbs. of Amsterdam. The lispound = 20 lbs.; the shippound = 20 lispounds.
The loof is the measure for grain : 48 loofs = | last of wheat, barley, or linseed ; 45 loofs = I last of rye ; and 60 loofs = last of oats, malt, and beans. According to Kelly, the loof = 1.9375 Winchester busbels ; and, consequently, the last of wheat = 11.625 quarters. Nelkenbrecher does not value the loof quite to high as Kelly.
The fuder, the measure for liquids, is divided into 6 ahms, 24 ankers, 120 quarts, or 720 stoofs. The anker = 104 English wine gallons.
The foot of Riga = 1079 English inches. The ell = 2 feet; the clafter = 6 feet.
The following accounts of the trade of Riga have been taken from the official statements given in the excellent articles on Riga, published in the Supplement au Journal de l' Interieur for 1843 (pp. 33_-48.) a detailed official account of the imports into and exports from Riga in 1811 will be found in the art. PETERSBURG. Account of the Value of the Imports into and Exports from the Port of Riga during eath of the 19 Years
ending with 1812, and of the Number and Tonnage of the Ships engaged in its Trade duriug each of these Years.
Account of the Exports of Corn from the Port of Riga in the Year 1817, and during each of the 19 Years
ending with 1842.
201.88 IS27 11,519 97.471
768, 121 18.33 6,921
93,419 156 9,031 12.476
-3.618 186 3,101 4,090 10,34.0
218,97 1678 11,054 287,199
57,05) 1879 55,837 498, 244 109,9.54 214,971
948,456 1810 6,520 17.593
139,196 19, S.56 13.5.77 9,513
1.3.478 1942 3,994 49,732 22,110 28,971
105,137 Statement showing the Quantities of the principal Articles of Merchandise imported into Riga during
each of the 4 Years ending with 1841.