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bulky commodities. They have but little accommodation for warehousing ; and their establishments are not constructed so as to entitle them to bond all goods.

The Surrey Canal Company also admits vessels to be docked in the basin of their canal. 5. London Port Dues ; Charges on account of Lights, Pilotage, gc, in the Thames ;

Shipping, &c. of London. It is highly desirable that expert pilots, brilliant lights, and every other means that it is possible to devise, should be afforded to render navigation safe and expeditious. But to secure these advantages, it is indispensable that the charges on their account should be moderate. If they be otherwise, navigators are not unfrequently tempted to resort to what are less expensive, though less secure, channels. This principle has not, however obvious, been always kept sufficiently in view either in this or in other countries. During the latter years of the war, and down to 1825, the charges on account of docks, lights, pilotage, &c, on ships in the Thames, and most other British ports, were exceedingly heavy: and would, no doubt, had they been maintained, have materially injured our commerce. Instead, also, of encouraging the resort of foreign ships to our ports, a contrary policy was adopted; the charges laid on them being usually about double those laid on British ships. This regulation was intended to promote the employment of the latter; but, as it led to reprisals in other countries, its real influence is believed to have been quite different; while, by driving away foreigners, it injured the trade of the country, and prevented our ports from becoming, what they are so well fitted to be, the emporiuins of the world. We are glad, however, to have to state, that the circumstances now alluded to have been materially, or rather wholly, changed within the last 20 years. In 1825, the various dock monopolies expired; and a very great reduction has since been made in the charges on account of the docks, which, as already seen, are now very moderate indeed.

Per Ton. Exclusive of the dock duties, certain port or tonnage duties Ing outwards from or to Lapland (beyond the North d. were imposedi on słups frequenting the port of London, by the Cape), Finland, Russia (without or within the Baltie acts 39 Geu) 3. c. iy., 43 Geo3. c. 121., &c., partly to pay the Sea), Livonia, Courland, Poland, Prussia, Sweden, or harbour masters, provide mooring chains, &c., and partls to any other country or place within the Baltic Sca, tiete create a fund for the improvement of the port, and in particular xhall be paid for every, &c., as above for defraying the cost of making a narigable canal across the Ath Class, - For every ship, &c. entering in wards or clear. Isle of Dogs. But this canal having sold (ante, p. 468.) ink outwards froru or to France between Ushant and for 120,001. to the West India Dock Company, under the 10 Spain), Prrtucal, Spain (without the Mediterranean), Geo. 1. c. 130., and the sums advanced by the public for the or any of the Azores, Madeira, or Canary Islands, or improvement of the port having been repaid, it was judiciously any of the U.States of Anierica, or of th: British coloTeolved to reduce the port duties to the lowest rates capable of pies or provinces in N. America or Florida, there shall defraying the necessary expenses. This was elected by the be paid for every, &c., as above.

9 4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 32., which imposes the following tonnage 5th Class. - For every ship, &c. entering in wards or clearduties on vessels in the port:

ing outwards from or to Greenland, Gibraltar, France, Per Ton. or Spain (within the Mediterranean), or any country,

d. island, fort, or place within or bordering on or near the let class. For every ship or other vessel trading coast wise

Mediterranean or Adriatic Sez, or from the West between the pori of London and any part or place in

Indies, Louisiana, Mexico, S. America, Africa, East Great Britain, Ireland, the Orkneys, Shetland, or the

India, China, or any other country, island, port, or Western Islands of Scotland, there shall be paid for

place within or bordering on or near the Pacinic Ocean, every royage in and out of the said port

or from any other country, Island, port, or place what. 2d Class - for every ship, &c., entering in wards or clear.

soever to the mouthward of 25 of north lantude, there ing outwards from or to Denmark, Norway, or Lapland

shall be , &c., as above (on this side of the North Cape), or from Holstein,

Exmp.dienaid States of bar, and ships the property of ui: År. Hamburg, Brenien, or any other part of Germany bur or any of the royal family. Any vessel coining to or going dering on c near the Germanic (cean, or from or to coast wise from the port of London, or to any part of Great Helland, or any other of the United Provinces, or Bra- Britain, unless such Fessel shall exceed 4.5 tons. -- Any vessel bant, Antwerp, Flanders, or any other part of the bringing corn coastwise, the principal part of whose cargo shall Netherlands, or from or to France, (within Ushant,) consist of corn. -- Any fishing smacks, lobster and oyster boats, Guernsey, Jersey, Aldemey, Sark, or the Isle of Man, or veksels for pass ngers. - Any Forsel or craft navigating the there shall be paid for every, &c., as above

Thames abose and below London Bridge, as far as Grasesend 3d Class. -For every ship, &c. entering inwards or clear- only. - Any vessel entering in wards or outwards in ballast.

Owing to the distance of London from the sea, and the rather intricate navigation at the mouth of the rirer, the charges on account of lights and pilotage must necessarily be pretty heavy. They have, however, been very materially reduced of late years. The charges on account of the lights under the management of the Trinity Ilouse have been diminished, in almost every instance, at least one third ; and in many instances as much as a hall, and sometimes even more, since 1823. - (See LIGHT-HOC NRS.) The practice of imposing diseriminating light and pilotage dues on foreign vessels is still kept up; but owing to the general establishment of reciprocity treaties with foreign powers, the grievance thence arising has become rather nominal than real, and al present affects very few of the foreign vessels coming to our ports.

The act 6 Geo. 4. c. 125. made a reduction of per cent. in the charges authorised to be demanded by the pilots licensed by the Trinity House for the port of London; and foreign vessels, privileged as British vessels, have been relieved from the additional or surplus rate of 25 per cent. payable to the Trinity pilots, as well as to those licensed by the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. --(See PilotAGE.)

The oppressive and troublesome charges in the port of London, imposed on alien goods under the names of package, scavage, &c.— (see PACKAGE) -- were put an end to in 1833. At present, therefore, we believe we are warranted in affirming that, considering its distance from the sea, the public charges on shipping in the port of London are quite as reasonable as in any other port of the empire, or of the world. But we are inclined to think that further reductions may still be effected, particularly in the article pilotage.

The following accounts show the nature and amount of the various charges that are at present incurred by vessels in the port of London :Account of Charges on a Ship of about 480 Tons entering and departing the Port of London laden both ways, supposing

every thing to be conducted with strict Economy, and ezcluding any Charge on account of extraordinary Despatch of superior Accommodation.

From and to Calcutta or New York,
£ 2. d.
£ . d

£ .. d. Reporting ship and appointment

3 3 0 Dock dues in and out, 13. 6d. per tou, including dis-
15. 11 4 51
67 15 16 5
charging cargo.

36 0 0 4 12 03 Pilotage from the Downs

Trinity dues and lights out words, 51d. per ton . Il 10 0 12 14

% 0 0 % 10 } 18 4 10 Dungene se light in and out, id. per ton" Clearing outwards and victualling bill

. 3 3 0 Roarding the pilot at sen 400 Steam boat 10 Gravesend (optional)

• 10 0 0 Watermen, boal, and tedge from Gravesend 2 0 0

- 12 8 6 London port dues inwarde, d. per ton, and entry, 21:. 1 16 0

Pilotage to the Downs

17 ft.

14 14 6 Tito

outwards, 1d. per ton, and entry, 213. 2 11 0 Putting the pilot on shore, unless landed in the ship's boat Trinity dues and lights inwards, Gld. per ton

• 13 10 0 by agreement, soinetimes il., often 31. or 31., according to

weather and distance.

17 ft,

15ft.

Account of Charges on a Ship of about 480 Tons entering and departing the Port of London laden both ways, supposing

every thing to be conducted with strict Economy, and excluding any Charge on account of extraordinary Despatch and superior Accommodation, from and to Jamaica. Reporting ship and appointment

4 40 N. B.-W. I. Dock dues, if laden with sugar, For 4 weeks, Pilotage from the Downs, according to draught of

23. 60. per ton

and then la water.

Ditto, if not unloaded, but enters the Export per ton per Boarding the pilot at sea, according to distance from

Dock for loading outwards, 6d. per ton week. Downs.

Trinity dues and lights in wards, 6 d. per tom. Waterman, boat, and Ledge from Gravesend, 21..

Trinity dnes and lights outwards, bfd. per ton. to 50.

Clearing outwards and victualling bill London port dues inwards, 24. per ton.

Steam-boat to Blackwall (optional). Ditto outwards, fd. per ton.

Pilotage to the Downs, according to draught of water. Dock dues in and out

Putting the pilot on shore, unless landed in the ship's boat,

from 11. to 31., according to weather, &c. The following tabular statements will serve to illustrate the progress of the foreign trade and navi. gation of London :Number and Tonnage of Vessels entering the Port of London from Foreign Parts, with Cargoes and in

Ballast, distinguishing between British and Foreign Ships.

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War.

Years.
British.

Foreign.

Years.
British.

Foreigti.
Ships. Tons. Ships. Tons.

Ships. Tons. Ships. TORS. 1700 839 80,040

496 76,995 1831 4,140 780,988 1,557 269,159 1750 1,498 198,023

184 36,346
1832 3,274 640,057

886

154,514 1790 2,254 431,590

1,116
149,205

1833 3,421 678,239 1,061 175,883 1791 2,184 119,574 1,256 149,053 1834 3,786 735,693 1,280

216,063 1792 2,489 451,188 1,186 152, 243

1835

3,780 740,255 1,057 188,893 1793 2,348 478,105

1,193
177,019 1836 3,845

772,046 1,465 255,875

1837 4,079 821,788 1,547 240,135 1814-19 No Retums.

1,223,857

1838

4,366 893,925 1,727 277,902 1820 3,354 655,239

836
122,619

1839 4,880 989,867 2,375 337,163 1825 3,989 785,565 1,743 304, 122

1810 4,547 934,660 2,291 354,456 1826 3,495 675,126 1,586 215,254 1841 4,642 999,259

1.999

317,608 1827 4,012 769, 162 1,534 221,008

1842 4,767 1,002,455 1,640 281,468 1828 4,084 767,212 1,303 195,929 1843 4,589 1,022,350

1,633

295,121 1829 4,108 784,070 1,300 215,605 1844 4,741 1,008,463

353,346 18.30

3,910 744,229 1,268 207,500 Amount of Shipping, &c. belonging to the Port of London. According to the official accounts, there belonged to this port, on the 31st of December, 1850, 2,719 sailing vessels : of these 2,009, of the aggregate burden of 580,223 tons, were respectively above 50 tons register, while 710, of the aggregate burden of 23,154 tons, were respectively under 50 tons register. There then also belonged to the port 333 steam vessels of the burden of 67,916 tons. The crews of these ships, including steamers, amounted to above 35,000 men and boys! In 1819, the gross customs duty collected in the port of London amounted to 7,749,463.. ; in 1832, it amounted to 9,434,8541.; and in 1849, it had increased to 11,095,1 461. ! Excepting in New York, so vast an amount of shipping and commerce was never previously concentrated in any single port. London may be truly said to be universi orbis terrarum emporium. May her prosperity be as lasting as it is great! Ap Account of the Number and Tonnage of Ships that entered the Port of London with Cargoes from

Foreign Parts, distinguishing the Countries wbence they arrived, in 1849.
Countries.
British Foreign

Countries.

British Foreign.

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Account of the Number and Tonnage of Coasting Vessels which entered the Port of London, in 1849.

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Account of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels which entered the Port of London, in 1849, with

Cargoes from the Colonies and Dependencies of England.
Colonies.
British. Foreign.

Colonien.

British.

Foreig.

Sh.
Tons. SA. Tons.

Sh.
Tons.

SA. Tons. Gibraltar 8 840

British West Indies 334 97,439
Malta
8 1,525
Channel Islands -

529 36,584 B. Poss. in Africa

156 40,965 » in Asia 414 215,328

Total

1,799

539,308 B"N. Amer. colonies

1 510 350 116,427 1 510 EXPORTS FROM LONDON. -- Account showing the Gross Amount of the declared Value of Articles, the

Produce and Manufacture of the United Kingdom, exported from the Port of London, in 1850; specifying also the separate Amounts of the declared Values of the Twelve Principal Articles..

€ 1 Beer and ale

410,629

7

SLánen manufactures (ex yam) 2 Brass and copper manufactures

865,081

Tänen yarn Cotton manufactures (ex yarn)

2,007,183 8 Machinery of all sorts 3 Cotton yam

164,835 9 Silk manufactures Haberdashery and millin-ry

583,600 10 Tin unwrought, and tin plates Iron and steel, wrought and unwrought

Wool, sheep's 5 (ex hardware and cutlery)

739,213 S Woollen manufactures (ex yarn)

12 Hardware and cutlery

463,961 Woollen yam Leather, wrought and unwrought (ex

All other articles collectively 6 saddlery and harness)

264.771 Haddlery and harness

81,022

Total For an account of the rates of pilotage in the Thames, see PILOTAGE.

1438,553 247,374 384,806 494,530 215,364

295,367 1,308,214

92,838 3,079,823 14,137,527

the port.

II. SouTuAMPTON Docks, SHIPPING, &c. Southampton, at the embouchure of the Itchen, on the inlet of the sea called Southampton Water, opposite to the Isle of Wight, lat. 50° 53' 59" N., long. 1° 24' W., may be regarded as one of the outports of the metropolis.

It is situated about 70 miles (direct distance) W.S. W. from London, the journey between them being performed, by means of the South-Western railway, in from 2 to 3 hours. Southampton Water affords good anchorage ; and ships resorting to this port, or anchoring in Spithead roads, or in the chipel between the Isle of Wight and the mainland, may get to sea, in almost every wind, with comparative facility Hence it is usual for ships from London bound for the Mediterranean, India, the West Indies, or America, to touch at Cowes, opposite to Southampton Water, to take on board passengers, who thus avoid the lengthened and difficult navigation round by the Forelands and Beachy Head, at the sarne time that they are all but certain of being immediately able to proceed on their voyage ; and hence, also, Southampton has now become the central station of the West India Mail Packet Company, of the steuners for Lisbon and Alexand:ia, and of those for Dieppe, and other French ports, &c. Latterly, also, the great natural advantages of its situation have been, and are in the course of being most materially improved. The channel of the Itchen has been depened, and a tidal basın communicating with it, has been already formed. This basin covers an area of 16 acres, and is accessible to vessels drawing 22 feet water at all times of the tide. The construction of a wet dock of 14 acres bas also been coininenced ; and a graving dock, with convenient vaults, warehouses, steam tugs, and pands for timber have been provided for the use of the ships and the accommodation of the goods landed and shipped at

The rates and charges which the Dock Company are em-
powered by their act to levy, are the same as those of the prin- 12. Do, entirely with tea, per ton ship's register 0 0 9
cipal dock of the port of London, but the directors have 13. Do. do. flour in casks, per ton ship's register . 009
reduced tbem as follows:

14. Do. do. Ayain or set it, If in bulk, 18.; if in bags,
per ton ship's resistor

0 0 9 Tonnage Rates on Ships.

15. Do, do., or chietly with wine, per ton ship's £ &. d. rezister

09 1 Corters, landing or shipping passengers or cargo

Free. 16. Do with cargoes of hemp, tallow, ashes, &c. : 2. .Ill other shipping, British or foreign, per ton

on hemp, per ton weight

0 rester

0 0 1 Do, on ashes or tallow, per ton weifht 3. Vesels laden with mixed cargoes of timber and

17. Do, entirely with heinp, per ton weight

1 deals, the produce of Europe, or N. America, if

18. Do. with mixed cargoes, from Hamburg or Holdischarged by the dock company, per ton ship's

Land, per ton register

0 1 0 Teler

0 1 0
19. Do, with oranges, per freight ton

1 0 and additional for every lord of timber 0 0 3 20. Do, with dried fruits, per ton register

0 1 0 4. Or, at the option of the ship-owner, the dock

NOTE The ship's tonnage rate of 1d. per ton company will undertake to discharge entire car

ship's register (0.2. alve), is to be paid as as, consisting of timber and deals, at per ton

a distinct charge in all the foregoing cases, ship's rexiter.

0 1 3

Nos. 3. to 20. 5. Or the ship-owner may employ his crew, or hire

21. Yachts, with privilege of ingress and egress at and pay tuinpers to discharge hus cargo; in such

pleasure, and including wharfage on all baxgage case the dock company's charge will be, for the

and ship's stores, at per ton register per annum 04 0 prisilege of using the donkstrer ton register - 0 0 2 22. Colliers, trans-shipping cargo into other vessels in 6. Vextinden entirely with deals, saven, luth, or

duck, in lieu of charge apon the cargo

1 10 rewoud, if de charged by the dock company, per

23. Veuls to lie up, or to fit machinery, not having tou ship's regi ter

0 1

discharged in the docks, per register ton per week 0 7. Do. with timber from Africa or India, per ton

24. Vessels Ising up, or remainin, after discharging ship's registro

0 3 0 and tanding their cargoes in the dark, will be 8. Do with West India cargoes (sugar, rum, &c ),

charged A reduced rate of rent, onimencing 3 per ton shipi's register

0 9 week from entering the docks, per register ton 9. Do, with sugar in cases or chests, if above 5 ewt.

- 004 each, per ton ship's register

3

In all the above cases new measurement is to be understood. 10. Do. do. in bags or ditto, under 5 cwt. each, per

Ships can enter, lie atlant, and go out of dock, at all times ton ship's register

- 0 0 11. Do, entirely with coffee, in casks or bags, per ton

9 of the; to facilitate and expedite which, the Company hare

provided a powerful steam tug, which may be used at a modeship's register

9 rate charge. We sul join An Account of the Number and Tonnage of the Vessels engaged in Foreign Trade which entered Inwards and cleared Outwards at Southampton, in 1830, distinguishing between Foreign and British Ships. Inwards.

Outwards.

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The gross receipt of the customs duties at Southampton in ports from Southampton a mounted in the same yeu to 1650 Alaounted to 56,0651. The declared value of the ex: 11,859,6471.

III. LIVERPOOL AND BIRKENHEAD Docks, Shipping, &c. The rapid rise of the port of Liverpool to its present consequence, though no doubt principally owing, like that of the town itself, to the astonishing increase of manufactures and population, in the extensive district of which it is the grand emporium, is also, in part, owing to the facilities that have been given to navigation and commerce by the construction of wet and dry docks. The entrance to the æstuary of the Mersey is a good deal encumbered with sand banks, and is crossed by a bar, which, however, has at low water spring tides, where deepest, 11 feet water; and as the tide rises 21 feet at neap, and 31 feet at spring tides, there is water for the largest ships; the channels too being indicated by light-vessels, and well marked with buoys, there is no difficulty in making the port. In fact, since the opening of the Victoria Channel (by dredging) in October, 1839, vessels of the largest size cross the bar at first quarter flood ; 14,000 vesseis passed through this channel in 12 months from its opening.

But the land around being low, ships in the river are exposed to risk from gales of wind; and to obviate this inconvenience, and to facilitate their loading and unloading, the docks have been constructed, which constitute the great glory of the town. The first wet dock in the British empire (now filled up) was opened here in 1708, a second about half a century after, and since that period many more have been constructed on a very magnificent scale, and furnished with all sorts of conveniences, 80 that the aggregate area of the wet docks now (1848) in use amounts to about

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174 acres, and the quay-space is 14 miles in length. The dry docks include an area of about 20 acres.

The docks are defended on the side next the river by a strong sea-wall nearly 4 miles in length. Every precaution is taken to prevent the accumulation of mud in the docks by the use of steam dredging-machines ; and strict rules, enforced by a vigilant police force, are established to maintain good order, and prevent both fire and depredations.

The docks are all constructed on the estate of the corporation, and are managed by commissioners appointed by act of parliament. The bonding and other warehouses do not, however, generally belong to the dock estate, but are, for the most part, private property. Most of them are in the immediate vicinity of the docks, but some are at a considerable distance; and there is not, in this respect, the same accommodation, or the same security against fire and depredations, in the Liverpool as in the London docks, where, the warehouses being built along the dock-quays, goods are loaded and unloaded with the greatest possible facility, and are subsequently under efficient protection. But the numerous and destructive fires that have taken place amongst warehouses in Liverpool, and the consequent rise in the premium of insurance, have led to some material changes in their disposition. Indeed, the warehouses attached to the Albert dock, one of those most recently constructed, are built round the quays, and encircled by an outer wall, and are conducted by the dock trust, on the same plan as the London docks.

The difference in the situation of the warehouses here and in the metropolis leads to a difference in the mode of loading and unloading ships in each : in London this is done by the servants of the different dock companies; whereas in Liverpool it is effected by undertakers, called lumpers. Individuals who follow this business engage to discharge a ship for a specific or lump sum, from 2 guineas, perhaps up to 20, according to the size and description of cargo, having the requisite number of cominon labourers (chiefly Irishmen) to do the work; the lumper being master and superintendent: these labourers are generally paid day wages, but sometimes the job is a joint concern among the whole.

A West India ship of 500 tons would be discharged by lumpers for from 101. to 151. : a cotton ship of the same burden for 41. to 61. By discharging is merely meant putting out the cargo on the quay; the proprietors of the goods employ their own porters to weigh, load, and warehouse the property; they likewise employ their own coopers, where cooperage is required,

The expense of loading a West India ship of 500 tons outwards would not be half so much as that of discharging inwards, because they very seldoin take a full cargo outwards. The average does not, perhaps, exceed a third Hence the total expense of a West India ship of 500 tons, coming into and going out of the port of Liverpool, may be estimated as follows :

£ d.
7 13 0

0 10 6
. 15 00

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30 0 10

d. 0 6

Pilotage inwards, 17 feet @ 9.

Pilotage out wards, 15 feet @ 4s. Boat fuire, warping, &c.

out

: Lumpers' discharging Besides these, there is the charge for the various light-houses in St. George's Channel, which, however, cannot be called an expense peculiar to Liverpool.

Goods cost generalls rd a ton every time they are moved. The hire of labourers for loading does not properly belong to the ship, being paid by the owner of the goods. Landing and putting into warehouse costs about 6d. a ton, exclusive of cartagé. The owner of the vessel merely puts the goods on the quay.

Birkenhead. - But vast as is the accommodation afforded by these docks it would have been more than doubled had the immense works that have been begun at Birkenhead been completed. The latter is situated in the co. Chester, on the West side of the Mersey, directly opposite to and about 1,200 yards distant from Liverpool, of which it should be regarded as a suburb, or as forming an integral and important portion. Its population amounted in 1841 to 8,233, and it is now (1848) estimated at about 25,000. This increase appears to have taken place partly in consequence of the docks and other works commenced there, and partly in anticipation of their progress. And it is not to be denied that from the contiguity of Birkenhead to Liverpool, and from the nature of the soil, it offered several advantages for the construction of docks. Wallasey Pool, a creek or inlet of the sea, extending over above 130 acres, was to be formed into a gigantic wet dock; and it was also proposed to construct various subsidiary docks, with warehouses and so forth, planned on the most approved principles, and calculated to afford every facility for the loading and unloading of ships, the safe stow. age of their cargoes, &c. The accompanying plan gives a good idea of the extent and character of the proposed works. They appear, however, to have been set about without due consideration ; and it is very doubtful whether they will ever be completed, at least on their original plan. The accommodation on the Liverpool side of the river either is or may easily be made adequate for the shipping frequenting the port, which is naturally drawn to it from its being the great seat of business. In fact only one dock of about 3) acres bas hitherto (November, 1848) been completed at Birkenhead, and it is but little used. It is almost needless to add that the parties by whom these works have been undertaken have been heavy losers by the speculation. At present the probability is said to be that the works will be purchased, at much less than they bave cost, by the corporation of Liverpool.

Commerce. Though now of such paramount importance, little more than two centuries have elapsed since this great emporium was correctly described as "the little creek of Liverpool," being then merely a dependency of Chester! And so late as 1709, it had only about 8,000 inbab., and 84 ships, of the burden of 5.789 tons ! The progress of the town in the interval, in commerce, and in the accumulation of wealth and population, has been quite unprecedented in the history of industry. It is not, however, difficult to discover the causes of the all but apparently miraculous progress of Liverpool. A good deal must be ascribed to the enterprise, sagacity, and persevering industry of her merchants; but she is, no doubt, mainly indebted for her rise and the vast magnitude of her commerce, to her fortunate position, and, above all, to the increase of manufactures in Manchester and the surrounding district.

The situation of Liverpool necessarily renders her a principal seat of the trade between Ireland and Great Britain, and as the population and trade of the former increased, it could not fail proportionally to increase the trade of this port. The gradual illing up of the Dee, and the consequent decline of Chester as a barbour, has also proved of so little advantage to Liverpool, by rendering her the great mart for the salt at Nantwich, and other places in Cheshire, the exportation of which to foreign parts employs a great amount of shipping: Unquestionabls, however, Liverpool would never have attained to hali hér present size or importance, but for the cotton manufacture. But being the port through which Manchester, Oldham, Bury, Bolton, Ashton, and oher great seats of manufacture, 'could most conreniently obtain supplies of the raw material, and export their manufactured products, she has increased with every increase in this great ciepartment of industry, and it is no exaggeration to affirm, that the creative influence of the wonderful inventions and discoveries of Hargreaves, Arkwright, Cromptor, Cartwright, and the other founders and improvers of the cote in manufacture, has been, though not so direct, quite as powerful, in the docks and warehouses of Liver pool as in the mills of Manchester.

The congenerous businesses of the slave trade and privateering appear to be the only departinents of an exotic character, and not bottomed on any natural facility, that have been ever carried on to any great extent from Liverpool. The slave trade began in 1723 ; and was prosecuted vigorously and successfully down to the abolition of the trade in 1861, when it employed 111 ships, of the burden of 25.9:9 tons. It was apprehended by many that the abo'ition of this nelarious, though lucrative, traffic, would be a severe blow to the prosperity of the port But so rapid was the increase of the legitimate and more natural branches of her trade, that it was but little felt at the time, and was very soon forgotten.

It is probable that the acquaintance with the slave trade may have given a stimulus to privatrering; at all events, it was carried on to a great extent from Liverpool, both in the American and last Frenca wars, especially in the former. In 1779, no fewer than 120 priva eers belonged to the port, carrying each from 10 to 20 guns. Account of the Entries of Vessels, and of the Amount of Dock Dues, in each Year, from 1757, with the

Tonnage of the Ships in the Liverpool Docks, since 1800.

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1737 17.5 1759 1760 1761 1767 1763 1761 1765 1766 1767 1769 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1779

€ &. d.

d. 1,371 36 15 0 1810

450,060

9.3,579 13 6
1,113
2,163 6 3

1XD!
3,1160
437,713

29, 30,5 8 24 2,72 12 %

IN
4,7*1
510,691

2,1 92 9 10
1,215
4,330 6 7

491,21

29,027 13 7
1,519
2,2

4.491
4,61

46,157 011
1,307
2,526 19 6

ISIS
4,618

35.564 13 1
1,752
3,14! 1 3
15

567,25 1,625

44,960 7 3 3,730 3 4

662,479

64,531 5 10
1,930
3,455 8

1808
5,25
516,836

40,638 10 4
1,909
5,653 19 2

1509
6,23
391,611

47,50 19 3 3,615 9 2

110)
6,29
734,591

69.782 1 0
1,508
3,566 14 9

1811
5,616
611,190

51,732 18 5 4,614 5 0

1912
4,399
416,788

44,103 7 11
2,073
1,112 17 2

13
5,341
347,1 76

50,177 13 2
2,097
4,203 19 10

ISI
5,706
516,957

59.741
2,259
4,55% 5 4

I15
6,140
707.19

76,915 8 8 2,214

111

IS15
6,SSS
75,243

92,616 10 9 2,258

5 5

1917
6,079
653,125

75,559 16 4 4,201

1779 1750 1751

1782 1783 1754 1785 1786 1787 1788 1759 1780) 1791 1792 1793 1796 1795 1796 1747 1798 1799

5.35
4 9

IRIS
6,79
751,600

98,133 8 3
2,216
8,0 10 10

18:9
7,919
*67,318

110,127 1 8
2.3.1
4,410 4 9

1920
7,276

8115.033
2,292

94,414 11 10 4, 49 7 7

1821
7,410
83.518

94,356 91
2,374
4,937 17 10

IN24
8,136
992,902

102,103 17
2,261
3,729 7 9

1523
8,916
1,011,819

115,783 1 6
2,512
3,915 4 1

1921
10.101

1,181,914
2,196

1341,911 11 6 4.2 1963

1825
10,37
1,22,3,40

129,91 19 8
2,916
4,10 % 3

1826
9.601
1,228,318

131,010 190 6,7 111

1827
9,192 1,274,313

134,172 14 3
3,129
8,111 5 3

1928
10,703
1,11,111

111,369 15 7
3,428
7,509 0 1

1929
11.353
1,387,957

147,347 4 11
3,567
9,179 18 8

1870
11,211

1,111,964
3,677

151,329 17 10 9,206 13 10

14.31
14,537 1,592,136

15.3,1 5 4 3
3,619
8,301 10 10

15.32
12,928
1,511,45

170,0) 17 6 11
1,223
10,137 6 21

1973
12,964
1,5),161

18,9 %) 16 4
4.1.13
11,615

1834
13, 114
1,694,170

191,729 17 8
4,493
13,213 17 87

1835
13.11
1,168,446

198,627 18 9
4,129
12.450 5 5

19.36
11.459
1,917,613

221,994 10 9
4.265
10.078 70

15,61.39
1,919,95

173,853 10 1
3,949
9,168 16 4

I818
14,520
2,426.2006

114.290 3 11 12,77 7 7

18.39
15,145
2,131,91

159.355 1 6
4,528
13,11 12

1910
13,999 2,419,708

179,170 14 0
4,178
12,067 18 3

1541
16,118
2,4x5,161

175,306 8 5
4,518
14,019 15 1

1842
16,58
2,12,319

177,231 15 5
1813
16,106 4,415.278

184,286 2 1 1944 IN,411 2,634,712

209,190 3 4 20,21 3,016,831

250,5410 5 1516 19.951 3,196,141

211,162 16 5 IS17 20,489 3,351,239

273,711 15 6 IS19

3.251,763

224,215 1 5 IS19 2,7.53 3,639.116

251,926 09 10+ 20.117

3,546,337

242,989 1+ 9 • Pues reduced on cotion and varius other article to the extent of 40,487. per annum. The chief cause of the falling off this year in the short supply of coton, about 750,000 bales.

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