Imatges de pàgina

We have already seen, that when Jamaica was taken from the Spaniards, it only contained 1,500 white inhabitants. In 1673, the population amounted to 7,768 whites and 9,564 slaves. It would have been well for the island had the races continued to preserve this relation to each other ; but, unfortunately, the black population has increased more than five times as rapidly as the while; the latter having only increased irom 7,768 to about 30,000, while the former has increased from 9,504 to about 310,000, exelusive of persons of colour.

The real value of the exports to Jamaica amounts to about 1,300,0001. a year, being more than half the amount of the exports to the West Indian colonies. It should, however, be observed, that a considerable portion of the articles sent to Jamaica, and some of the other colonies, are only sent there as to an entrepot, being subsequently exported to the Spanish main. During the a cendancy of the Spanish dominion in Mexico and South America, this trade, which was then contraband, was carried on to a very great extent. It is now much fallen off'; but the central situation of Jamaica will always secure to her a considerable share of this sort of transit trade.

Barbadoes was the earliest of our possessions in the West Indies. It is the most easterly of the Carib bee islands ; Bridge Town, the capital, being in long. 59° 41' W. Barbadoes is by far the best cultivated of all the West Indian islands. It contains about 105,000 acres, having (in 1850) a population of about 13,04 O whites, 10,000 people of colour, and 100,000 blacks. Of late years it has exported from 400.000 to 520,000 cwts. of sugar. Barbadoes had attained the acme of its prosperity in the latter part of the seventeenth century, when the white population is said to have announted to about 50,000, though this is pro. bably an exaggeration. But it is only as compared with itself that it can be considered as having fallen off; for, compared with the other West Indian islands, its superiority is manifest. It raises nearly as much food as is adequate for its supply.

The islands next in importance are St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad, Antigua, &c. It is unnecessary to enter into any special details with respect to them; their population and trade being exbibited in the annexed Tables.

During the late war, we took from the Dutch the settlements of Demerara, Berbice, and Essequibo, in Guiana, which were definitively ceded to us in 1814. The soil of these settlements is naturally very rich; and they have in this respect, a decided advantage over most of the West Indian islands. Their advance, since they came into our possession, was for a while very great; but recently their progress has been checked, and their exports have declined most materially This, however, is entirely in consequence of the want of labour; for, in other respects, these colonies have every facility of production. Various schemes have been suggested for supplying this want; but none of them, unless they involve the principle of compulsory service, will, we apprehend, be successful. The rum of Demerara enjoys a high reputation. The best samples of Berbice coffee are very superior, and it used to be extensively cultivated both in that colony and in Demerara. In 1831, the exports amounted, from both colonies, to 3,576,744 lbs.; but they have since declined to next to nothing, having amounted in 1850 to only 11,320 lbs.! Considerable quantities of cotton were formerly exported from Guiana; but the Americans having superior facilities for its production, its culture has nearly ceased. Cocoa, annotto, &c. are produced, but not abundantly.

Exclusive of the above, we possess the settlement of Balize on the Bay of Honduras. This is of importance, as affording a means of obtaining abundant supplies of mahogany; but it is of more importance as an entrepôt for the supply of Guatemala and central America with English manufactured goods.

The exports from this country to our West Indian colonies consist of coarse cottons, linens, checks, hats, and other articles of negro clothing, iron and steel, wrought and unwrought ; leather, inc. saddlery and harness; glass; beer and ale; soap and candles; stationery; bardware and earthenware; staves, hoops, coal, lime, paint, lead; Irish provisions, herrings, and other salt fish; along with furniture, wine, beer, medicines, and, indeed, almost every article which a great manu.

Account of the Declared Value of the Exports of British and Irish Produce to the West Indian Colonies

in each Year from 1814 to 1849, both inclusive.

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Account of the Declared Values of the Principal Articles of British and Irish Produce and Manu

facture exported from the U. Kingdom to the British West Indian Colonies, in 1848.

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99. Od.

facturing country can supply to one situated in a tropical climate, which has very few mechanics and
hardly any manufactures. Since the opening of the ports on the Spanish main to ships froin England,
the exports to the West Indies have decreased both in quantity and value; this decrease being, how.
erer, more than balanced by the increased shipments to Mexico, Columbia, &c. The declared or real
value of the exports amounted, as appears from the following account, in 1849, to 2,025,0191.
Monry,_ What used to be called West India currency was an

Sterl. Curt.


Curr. ! imaginary money, and had a different value in different colo Leeward Islands

2001. 1 nie. The value it bure, as compared with sterling money, was But latterly these currencies have been in a great measure supposed to represent the corresponding value of the coins in superseded by the introduction of sterling money, current at circulation in the dillerent islands at the time the proportion the same rates as in England, and of the Spanish dollar. was fired: these coins being for the most part mutilated and By an order in council of the 2.30 of Alarch 12, British otherwise worn and defund, currency was in all cases less silver money was made legal tender throughout all Britih co. valuable than sterling. The following are the old values of Ionial possessions, at the same nominal value as in England; 1011 sterling, and of a dollar, in the currencies of the diferent and hils for the same are given on the Treasury of Limdon, islands i

of 1001, ea h biti for 104. such salser money. By this order, Sterl. Curr. Dol.

Curr. Also, the value of the Spanish dollar was fixed at 18. 11. Bria

140. 1

68. 84 tish silver money throughout all the colonies where it is cur. Barhadoes

1334. 1

6. 3. rent; but thi, value was farther reduced on the 21st of Sepe Windard Islands (ex.

tenter, 1838, to 4s. 2d. The value of the doubloon was then, cept Barbaboes) 1004.

1751. 1

88. 3d. also, fixed at 64.. (3.) Australian Colonies.—This group of colonies, though founded in a very distant part of the world, and at a comparatively recent epoch, promises, at no very remote period, to equalor surpass the others in magnitude and importance. The countries in which they are situated, including the great Australian continent, formerly called New Holland, with Van Diemen's Land or Tasinania, New Zealand, &c., are of vast extent, and differ in many respects from each other. Hitherto, also, by far the larger portion of the continent is wholly unexplored; and even the islands are but very imperfectly known. Enough, however, has transpired to show that this great division of the globe differs in some most important respects from most or all countries with which we were previously acquainted ; and that it is, in fact, full of anomalies. The interior of the continent has not been sufliciently explored to enable any distinct opinion to be formed as to the height of the mountain chains; but it appears to be pretty well established, that it has no great rivers, or, at least, none that reach the sea. Indeed it seems, speaking generally, to be a law in this new world, that rivers are largest near their source; and that they gradually diminish as they proceed, and most commonly dwindle into insignificance, or lose themselves in marshes, before they reach the ocean!

In consequence, perhaps, of this singular constitution of its river system, it is found that in Australia the best land is not at the mouths, but towards the sources, of the rivers. There are, no doubt, exceptions to this rule; but it appears to hold in the greater number of instances. Generally, also, the extent of fine land appears to be comparatively limited ; and in so far as the continental portion of the country has been explored, it appears to be much better adapted for pasturage than for tillage.

Gold Deposits. In addition to copper and other minerals, which are found in the greatest abundance in South Australia, recent accounts mention the discovery (in 1851) of an auriferous region in the Bathurst district, on the W. side of the Blue Mountains, 150 or 160 m. W. by N. Sydney. The statements respecting the abundance of gold in this new El Dorado differ very widely. There can, however, be no manner of doubt that considerable quantities have been met with. The geological structure of the mountains, in the detritus of which it is found, is similar to those in California, and there seem to be good grounds on which to anticipate an extensive supply. The discovery has produced the greatest sensation in the Australian continent. At present it would be premature to enter into speculations with regard to its ultimate influence, as that must, in great measure, depend on the produce of gold. But, for a while at least, it can hardly fail to be injurious to the colony, by diffusing gambling habits, and diverting the attention of all classes from the ordinary and more certain sources of public and private prosperity.

The northern portion of Australia, including, perhaps, about a third part of the entire continent, lies between the tropics; the other portion of the continent, with the adjacent islands of Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand, being in the south temperate zone. The climate of the different parts of the continent must, therefore, it is obvious, differ very widely. We, however, know but little of the climate of inter-tropical Australia, except that it is within the range of the Indian monsoon ; that the temperature along the coast is rapidly raised by a wind from the south, which has been supposed to afford a strong presumption of the existence of sandy deserts in the interior; and that the air is so very most that during the season of the dry monsoon iron articles are with the utmost difficulty preserved from rusting

It is cominonly said that the climate of extra-tropical Australia, and especially of New South Wales, assimilates closely to that of Southern Italy. But this statement must be taken with considerable limition; for, Ist, the atmosphere is very decidedly denser ; 20d, the extremes of temperature are greater; 3rd, the average heat is rather less; and ath, the temperature appears to decline more rapidly by increase of elevation. The grand defect in the climate of extra-tropical Australia, which would otherwise be excellent, appears to consist in the periodical recurrence of wet and dry seasons. Sometimes hardly a single drop of rain falls for an entire year or more; and though, happily, dews are in such seasons peculiarly abundant, they form no adequate substitute for rain. During long-continued droughts crops of all kinds are destroyed ; and herbage, except in a few favoured spots, suffers Buverely.

Hence, as already stated, all the eastern parts of extra-tropical Australia, and perhaps, also, the southern, would seem to be inuch better fitted for pasturage than for husbandry. The droughts are exceedingly injurious to the latter, and they would necessarily involve any large population that depenued principally on the indigenous products of the soil in extreme privations. Certainly, however,

no country seems to be better fitted for grazing, or rather for the growth of sheep and wool. A dry climate is especially suitable to the latter ; and though the pastures be far from luxuriant, their bound. less extent compensates for every other deficiency. Sheep are not native to the country, a small flock of 29 head having been introduced for the first time by the original English settlers in 1788. For a while, however, their value was not appreciated ; but the importance of sheep-farming, and its suitableness to the country, having been demonstrated by John M·Arthur, Esq. (to whom the colony is under the greatest obligations), it has since increased with unprecedented rapidity. In proof oř this, it is only necessary to mention that while the import of wool from Allstralia amounted, in 1822, to only 152,480 lbs., it had increased, in 1825, to 411,600 lbs., in 1830 to 899,750 lbs., and in 1849 to the enormous amount of 35,774.671 lbs.

Van Diemen's Land being less subject to droughts than New South Wales, husbandry is carried on in it to a greater extent, and with more advantage ; but there also sheep-farming is the principal and, perhaps, the most advantageous employment.-- (See VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.)

New Zealand, which has only been resorted to by regular colonists since 1840, is better filted for anni. culture than either Australia or Van Diemen's Land, and its climate is more like that of England. The ground in it is, however, rather difficult to clear; the natives are also much more formidable, and it is not so suitable for sheep-farming.

In 1849 the imports of wool into the U. Kingdom from the Australian colonies, were New South Wales

26,966,219 lbs. Western Australia

1 Van Diemen's Land : : :

143,631 lbs. 4,999,043 South Australia

• 3,663,135 Making a grand total of 35,774,671 Ibs. The first of the Australian colonies, that in New South Wales, founded so late as 1788, and that in Van Diemen's Land, founded in 1808, were originally intended to serve as penal settlements ; and great numbers of convicts have been carried to them. These colonies have, also, potwithstanding their distance, become a favourite resort of free settlers, consisting partly of voluntary emigrants, and partly of emigrants carried out at the public expense. But though at first the facility with which supplies of compulsory labour were obtained, tended to reconcile the free colonists to the abuses of the convict system, they gradually becaine such as to occasion the greatest dissatisfaction in the colony; and since 1843 no fresh convicts have been sent to N. S. Wales. -- They still continue to be sent to Van Diemen's Land, but it is most probable that it, also, will speedily cease to be a receptacle for them. No convicts have ever been sent to the important and fourishing settlement of South Australia, founded in 1834, nor to Western Australia or New Zealand. — The settlements in the latter have recently made a rapid progress, and it promises, at no very remote period, to be a peculiarly thriving colony.

Population. - The European population of the Australian cols nies is believed to have been in 1849 nearly as follows New South Wales, inc. Port Philip

216,299 Van Diemen's Land (1847)

70,166 South Australia (1850)

54,175 Western Australia New Zealand

18,000 Total

393,639 Panage. - The cost of a passage to the Australian colonies, including provisions, is for the

Cabin, from 531. to 100%.
Intermediate, from 301. to 401.

Steerage, about 201.
The average length of the voyage is about four months; and
at whatever season of the year it may be made, the passengers
have to pass through both very hot and very cold weather,
and should, therefore, be prepared accordingly with suitable

The prices of cabin and intermediate passages to New Zea

land are about the same as to the Australian colonies; bat a steet are passage is rather higher.

Emiration. - We subj in a return of the number of individuals that have enigrated from the United Kipitom to the Australian colonies, Trom 1825 down to 1834, both in clusive Years. Emigrants. Years.

Emigrants. 1825

1538 1826


1939. • 15,756 1827


• 13.950)
1,056 1841

32,25 1829


• 8,114
1,212 184.3

3,178 1831


2,229 18.32


4,093 18:6

2,347 1934


4.949 15.35




5,054 1850

. 16,437 Making a grand total of 201,423.

Account of the Declared Values of the principal Articles of British Produce and Manufacture exported

to the British Australian Colonies during 1848.

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In 1849, the exports to the Australian colonies amounted to 2,080,3641.

(4.) Disposal of Land in the Colonies. The question as to the best method of disposing of the unoccupied lands in colonies planted in unsettled countries is one of considerable nicety and difficulty. Land in old settled and fully occupied countries being, for the most part, very valuable, and its possession bringing along with it great consideration and influence, and frequently, also, great wealth, colonists are very apt, wherever they have the opportunity, to appropriate a much larger extent of land than they have the means of cultivating, or of turning to any useful account. Not only, however, are settlers disposed to act in thiz way, but speculators, who have no thought of emigrating, and

persons having influence with government, endeavour to obtain large tracts of land in the view of bolding them till, in consequence of the increase of population in the vicinity. they acquire a considerable value. It has been usual, also, to reserve large tracts for ecclesiastical and other public purposes. And these extensive tracts of unoccupied and reserved lands being interposed between the settled parts of a colony, render it in all cases more difficult, and sometiines all but impossible, to form roads and other means of communication; so that the settlers are thus frequently cut off from a market for their produce; and are less able to combine for municipal or such like purposes, and for the establishment of schools and churches, and the undertaking of such public works as require co-operation.

The improvident manner in which large tracts of land have been granted in Canada, and the great extent of the clergy and other reserves in that colony, have materially retarded its prosperity; and the same circumstances have had a similar operation in our other North American possessions, in Western Australia, and elsewhere. But there are various ways in which an abuse of this sort might be prevented. One of the most obvious of these is to impose such a moderate price on the land as might, without crippling the means of the settiers, hinder them from seeking unduly to extend their possessions; and making all the land held by individuals, whether occupied or not, contribute according to its extent to the construction of roads and other public works. Perhaps, however, the better plan would be to apportion the land according to the available capital of the settlers, it being stipulated that no individual should secure above a certain number of acres ; and that it should revert back to the public unless certain improvements were efficted upon it within a specitied time after the grant was made.

But, not satisfied with attempting to prevent abuses like those noticed above, we are now told that all the ditficulties incident to colonisation have originated in the too great dispersion of the colonists, and that to obviate them, and to insure to all new colonies the acme of prosperity, we have merely to compel the colonists to keep close together by exacting a high price for the surrounding waste or unoccupied land - in other words, by making the colony as like an old settled country as possible! And this precious project has been trumpeted forth as a great discovery. It is obvious, however, that if, on the one hand, the price set on waste land were inconsiderable, it would not (without a limitation of quantity) prevent the purchase of large tracts of land on speculation, and the entailing on the colony all the disadvantages that have resulted from the making of injudicious grants ; and if

, on the other hand, the price demanded for the land were pretty high, it would go far to oppose an insuperable obstacle to the progress of the colony, at least if it were to be founded by voluntary emigrants. Rich men do not leave their native country to expose theinselves to the inconveniences and hardships attending the establishment of new settlements in the wilderness. This, if it be done at all, must be done in time to come, as in time past, by individuals in straitened circumstances, and anxious to improve their fortunes. But to exact a high or considerable price for land from such persons would, by sweeping away the whole, or a considerable portion of their capital, deprive them of the means of clearing and cultivating the land, and proportionally retard their progress and that of the colony. The plan of letting lands by tine is admitted by every one who knows any thing of agriculture to be one of the worst that can be devised: and this colonisation project is bottomed on the same principle, and will, no doubt, be as pernicious.

It is said that, in consequence of the exacting of a price for the land, and the concen tration of the colonists, their employments, being more combined and divided, will be prosecuted with a great deal more success than at present. All this, however, proceeds on the false and exploded assumption that the colonists are not, like other individuals, the best judges of what is for their own advantage. Dr. Smith says truly, that it is the highest impertinence for kings and ministers to attempt to direct private people how they should employ their capitals. But it is, if possible, a still greater impertinence, to attempt to direct them where they shall employ them. A regard to their own interest will draw people sufficiently together. And to enact regulations in the view of concentrating them still more, is in every respect as contradictory and absurd as it would be to set about increasing the public wealth by regulating the sort of employments to be carried on, and the countries with which, and the commodities in which, to deal.

Latterly the English government has adopted the plan of disposing of all ungranted colonial lands by sale ; an though we incline to think, as already stated, that the preferable plan would be in distribute them according to the capital or means of the settlers, still, if the price at which land is sold be reasonable, the quantity that may be held by individuals be limited, and the lots put up to sale be of sizes suited to the means of the various classes of purchasers, we do not know that the plan is open to any very good objection. But the price charged for land in most of our colonies, and especially in Australia, where the minimum is 208. an acre, appears to be much too high At the same time, however, we must bear in mind the distinction between founding a colony with a view principalls to the interests of the colonists; and founding it not only with a view to their interests, but in an especial uegree for the relief of the mother country. For it is not to be denied that the plan of exacting a pretty high (but not an oppressive) price for colonial lands, and applying that price to defray the cost of carrying out emigrants, may (how injurious soever to voluntary emigrants) be made to assist iu

relieving the mother coumtry of those who might otherwise have had to be supported at the public expense. Inasmuch, too, as an extraordinary quantity of labour is thus suppliel to the colony, the injury done to the capitalists by making land artificially dear, is partially, at least, compensated by its making labour artificially cheap: The immense emigration to the Australian colonies in the 4 years ending with 1847 was principally a consequence of the principle now stated, a very large proportion of Ine emigrants having been carried out at ihe public expense. It is, however, to be borne in mind, that wnen the revenue derived from the sale of land in the Australian colonies was at its maximum, its price was only 128. an acre ; since it has been raised to 20. the sales have been comparatively trifling.

It would obviously be the extreme of folly for any one intending to emigrate who has a litile, but not a great deal of capital, to think of establishing himself in a colony where a high price is set upon land. Ai all events, such person must not expect in such a colony to become a landowner, or to be inde. pendent, but must make

up his mind to be a hired labourer, whereas, if he emigrate to a colony where land is sold at a low price, or given away on condition of certain improvements being effected upon it within a given time, he may at once acquire an estate, and exchange the condition of a hired servant for that of landowner.

Seeing that the Americans sell the best lands in the valley of the Mississippi at less than a dollar an acre, it is not easy to discover the principle on which we proceed in exacting 68. 7d. an acre for the worst land in Upper Canada. If this regulation were meant to divert the current of voluntary emigration from Canada to the U. States, nothing could be found to say against it; but otherwise it seems alike contradictory and absurd. Notwithstanding the facilities of getting out to Quebec in timber ships, the direct emigration to the U. States generally exceeds that to British N. America the emigrants to the former being also of a superior description, and having a greater command of capital. And there can be no doubt that the U. States are in no inconsiderable degree indebted for this influx of comparatively valuable immigrants to the fact of the public lands being sold at a less price than ours. "It is population alone which imparts value to land, and a more effectual method could not be devised for preventing an influx of inhabitants into Upper Canada, and drawing away many of those already settled, than governmeut adhering to the present prices of land."-(See Shiretf's valuable Agricultural Tour through N. Aracrica, p. 365.)

Regulations for the Disposal of Lands in the Colonies, 1848.

Canada. -- By a provincial act of 1841, Crown lands are to be sold at a price to be from time to tiine fixed by the governor in council. The prices fixed for the present are as follows: For Canada, West (Upper Canada), ss. currency (about 68.7d. sterling) per acre; for Canada, East (Lower Canada), in the county of Ottawa, and south of the river St. Lawrence, to the west of the Kennebec road, 6s. currency (about 1s. itd. sterling); and elsewhere in that division of the province, 4s. currency (about 3s. 54 d. sterling) per acre.

These prices do not apply t lands resumed hy government for non-performance of the conditions of settlement on which they were granted under a former system now abolished, nor to lands called Indian reserves, and clergy reserves ; which three classes are, as well as town and village lots, subject to special valuation.

The size of the lots of country lands is usually 200 acres; but they are sold as frequentis by hafa whole lots.

The folowing are the conditions of sale at present in force:

1. The lots are to he taken at the contents in acres marked In the public documents, without guarantee as to the actual quantity contained in them.

2. No payment of purchase money will be received by Instalments, hut the whole purchase money, either in money or land script, must be paid at the time of Kale.

3. On the payment of the purchase money, the purchaser will receive a receipt which will entitle him to enter on the land which he has purcha ed, and arrangements will be made for issuing to him the patent without delay.

The receipt thus atven not only authorises the purchaser to take immediate possession, but enables him, under the provi. sions of the Land Act, to maintain legal proceedings against any wrongful possessor or trespasser, as eitectually as if the patent det had issued on the day the receipt is dated.

Government land agents are appointed in the sereral municipal districts, with full pomer to sell to the first applicant any of the advertised lands which the retum open to public inspection may show to be vacant within their districts.

Nova Scotia. - The public lands are here also sold at a fixed price of ls. 91. sterling per acre, payable at once. The smallest regular farm lot contains 100 acres. Any less quintity of land may be bad, but the cost would be the same as for 100 acres, viz. 81. 138., the minimum zum for which a deed of grant is issurd.

New Brunswick. - The mode of sale in this province is by auction. The upset price is generally about is. sd. sterling (36. currency), hut varies according to situation, &c. Fifty acres is the smallest quantity usually sold.

ince Edreard's Idand. In this colony the Crown has but little land at its disposal, namely, about $100 acres. auction prevails, and the average price realised for ordinary country lands has been froin 108. to 14s. currency per acre.

Nen foundland. --There exists no official return of the sur. veyed and accessible land at the disposal of the crown in this colony. The area has been estimated at about 2,300,000 acres, of which about 23,00 ) have been appropriated. By a colonial law, Crown lands are to be sold by auction at an upset price, to be fixed by the governor, at not less than 25 per acre. Land exposed to auction more than once on lifTerent days may afterwards be sold, without further competition, at the last upset price. Although the agriculture of the province is progressively increising, there are yet comparatively few persons exclusively employed in it, the population being nearly all engaged in the fisheries,

Australian Colonies + -- The following are the regulations now in force under the provisions of the Australian Land Act,

5 & 6 Vict. c. 36. for the disposal of the waste trends in the colonies of New South Wales (including the Sydney and Prime Phillip districts, and any other districts that may hereafter le opened), South Australia and Western Australia.

1. All lands will be disposed of by sale alone, and must have once at lewat been exposed to public auction,

2. The lowest upset price will be not less than 11. per acre ; but the government will have power to raise the same loy pro clamation, though not again to reduce it.

3. The lands will be distinguished into three different classes, viz. town lots, suburban lots, and country lots.

4. l'pon town and suburban lots, as welas upon a proportion not exceeding one tenth of the whole of the country for orfered for sale at any auction, the governor will have the power of naming a higher than the general or lowest upset price: the country lors on which such power is exercised to be designated

special country lots."

5. Town and suburban lots will in no case he disponel of except by prublic auction, but country lots which have already been put up to public auction and not sold, ina, be disposed of after ws ards by private contract at the upset price.

6. No lands will be sold by private contract except for ready money. When sold by public auction, one-tenth at least of the whole purchase money must be paid down, and the reinainder within one calendar month, or the deposit will be forfatet.

7. Lands will be put up for sale in lots not exceeding one square mile in extent.

8. As an excepting to the general regulations, and subject to certain restri toni laid down in the Australian Land Act, the gostar will have it in lus di retion to discose, by private contract, at a price not le s than the low est upsel price for the district, of blocks comprising 20,000 acres or more

9. Persons will be at 1etis to inake parments for colonial lands in this country, for which payment or deposit they will receive an order for credit to the same amount in any purchase of land they may effect in the colony, and will have the privilege of naming a proportionate number of emigrants for a free passage, as explained in the next article. The desits must be made in one or more sums of 100% each at the Bank of England, to the a count of the Colonial Land and Ernie gration Commissioners; and the depositor must state at the time the colony in which the land is to be selecter, and se notice to the cornmissioners of the deponit. Upon product of the bank's receipt for the money, the commissioners will furnish the depositor with a certiticate, stating the amount which he has paid, and entirling him to obtuncert for that sum in any purchase which he musetFect in the colony. pet to all rules and relations in force in the colony at the une such purchase may be made.

19.'For every sun of 100 deposited as above, the depo itor will be entitled, for six months from the date of payment, to name a number of properly qualif al emigrants, equal to 5 adults, for a free passage. Two children between 1 and 14 are to be reckoned as equal to 1 adult. The emigrants are required to be chosen from the class of mechanics and hard. cratesnen, agricultural labourers, or domestic servants, id must be going out with the intentim to work for wages. They are to be subject to the approval of the commissioners, and must, in ali respects, fall within their general regulations on the selection of labourers.

The Eukland Islandı. - The lands in this colony are now open for sale. The mode of sale is the sme as that acted in the Australian colonis. The upset price of country lands is, for the present, As per acre.

Town lots of an acreran, and suburban lots of 50 acres each, will be put up at S. Depoits of purchase money may be made in this country, in the mode prescribed for the Australian colonies, but the depositors will be entitled to nominate for a free passage, 6, instead of, adult labour-rs, for every 10W. deposited.

West Indies. In the West Indie Crown Lands are to be sold by auction at an upmet price of not less than 11. pt acre.

In the Bahamas the mode of sale is also by aucuon, but the lieutenant-governor is, from time to time, to name temat price, which is never to be less than fis. per acre. 1. and once exposed to auction may, in the discretion of the menter ant

Sale by

* This is scrip issued by the local government in satisfaction of certain old militia claims.

+ Van Diema's Land and New Zealand have been with drawn froin the operation of the Austrian Land Sales Act by the $ * 9 Vic. c. 95. (August, 1945), and 9 & 10 Vic. c. 104. (1816.) In the disposal of land in New Zealand, how. ever, the same rules substantially will be foilowed as in the other Australian colonies.

The Act 9 & 10 Vic, c. 104. also empowers the Crown to grant leases and licences of ocrupation, for any terın not ex. ceeding 14 years, of the waste lands in New South Wales, @outh Australia, and Western Australia.

# In the peculiar circumstances of South Australia, the lien tenant-governor has, for the print, ceased to sanctiunihe dispoal of the public lands otherwise than by auction and use lots of moderate size.

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