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In Sterling.

Sterling

Sterling. d.

£ Blacksmiths .

54. 24.
5 0

58.

0 Bread and biscuit bakers 38. 4d. 36 32 00

24 0 Butchers

351.28. 4 0

3 3
30 0 0
4s. 6d.

2.. 6d. 30 0 Brckroakers

3.

0 3 0

38.64, to .5s.6d. 26.6d to.38.64. Bricklaers

58. to 6s.
5 0 39

58. to 78. 38. to 3s, Curriers

48. 4.
5 0 3 9

58. fd.

3a, 6d. 33 0 Carpenters and joiners

58. 3 d.
6 3 5 0

b. Od.

38. 6d. .35 0 Cabinet makers Bs. 344.

5 0

58. 6d.
38. 90.

0 Coopers

34. 72.
5 0 39

82 0 Carters 26. Ed.

with horse and cart.

4s.

25. 60. 24 0 Cooks (women) 18. to 27s per month, and found.

12 0 0

9 10 Tairy omen) 135.61. to 18. per month, and found.

12 0 0

7 10 Dreinakers and mililders

2 0
3

28. 3d.

1.. 3d.

10 0 Farm labourers 26. to 28. 6.

3 30 0

1s. 3d. 17 0 Gardeners 48. to 58. in spring 371. 168. 40

In summer
0
} 46.6d.

22 10 Groons 27s, to 366. per month, and found.

20 0 0

18 0 Millwrights

js. 10 d.
7 6 6

68. 34.

4,. 60. 10 0 48. d.

0 35 0
58. 6d.

32 0 Painters 41. 31d.

39. 60. Plasterers 46. Ed. to be.

58. od. Plumbers and glaziers 4., 6d.

Very little employment. Quarrygen 3s.

3a.

1. 3d. 20 0 fiornakers 38. 44.

35 0 Shoemakers 8:. 32.

3s. hd.

24 0 Sawyers 1s. 34. per 100 ft. pine and hard wood.15 0 3 9

48. to 6s. 28.0d. tots.68.) 32 10 Shipwrights and boat builders

38. 7fd.
6 3

38. 94. 32 10 Stoneinasons. 58. to 6s, 3 d.

5

13. to 5. d. 3. to 48. 32 10 Sumakers

43. 1144
5 0

58. Od. 37 10 Slaters and shinglers 38. 4fd. per 10 shingles.

38.62. Tanters

23. 11d. Talors 4s. Ojd.

by job work

30) 0 Tinnitths

43. O. Winkelwrights

46.03d. Whitesmiths

58.

0
9
48. 60.

29 0 • Tradesmon in Eastern (Lower) Canada are not boarded with their employers. The charge for board and lodging to mechanics is from 104. 64. to 13s. 60. a-week.

23.

per 100 ft.

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Retail Price of Provisions in the North American Colonies.

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Prince
Lower
Upper

New
Articles.
Canada,

Ne.
Nova Scotia, Edward's
Brunswick,
Canada,

Island,

foundland, Dec. 1846. Dec. 1846.1

1847. Dec. 1847.

1848.

1817.
Sterling Sterling

Sterling. Sterling. Sterling. Sterling.
3.

d.
Salt beef, per lb.

0

6d. to 8d.
Fresh ditto
24. to 4d. 03 0 23

2d. to 1d.

0 3

3d. to 8d. Mutton

03 03

2d. to Jd.

03
Fresh Pork

0 39
03
0 35

sd,

03 Salt ditto

0 5

0 31 04 Fals, per pair

2 0

1 8

1. to 23.
Bacon,
per b.
6d. to 7 d.

O 5
6d.

6d. to 9d.
Salt butter

0 9

0 9

8d. Fresh litto

0 10

0
0 10
100. to is.

0 9
Cheese, per lb.

0 6
0 31 06

5d. to 6d.

0 7
Egg, per fioren

0 6
0
0 10
60. to ls.

0 6
Politoes, per bushel -

4
28. to 3s.

1
Broad, best wheaten, per 4 lb. loaf 08

0 7
3d. to 7d.

20. per ib.
per 6 lb. loaf 010

05

0 9
Best wheat flour, per bar. (196 lbs.) 25 0

22 6
33 0
258. to 38s. 35 0

35
Seconds

128.6d. per cwt.
29 0

105. per cwt.
Oatmeal, per evt.

120

18 0

158. Coals, per chaldron

30 0

20 0
20s. to 258.

240 35 0
• Potatoes in New Brunswick are dearer than usual. owing to the general failure of the crop, and the great demand from
abroad In Prince Edward's Island the price, in ordinary seasons, is about 8d. per bushel, vui the last two or three crops
have been very limited,

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(2.) West India Colonies. - In the West Indies we possess Jamaica, Barbadoes, St. Lucia, Antigua, Grenada, Trinidad, and some other islands, exclusive of Demerara and Berbice in South America. Jamaica, by far the largest and most valuable of our insular possessions, is about 120 miles in length and 40 in mean breadth, containing about 2,800,000 acres, of which from 1,100,000 to 1,200,000 are supposed to be in cultivation. Being situated within the tropic of Cancer, the heat in the West Indies is intense, but is moderated by the sea breeze which blows regularly during the greater part of the day. The rains make the only distinction of seasons. They sometimes fall with prodigious impetuosity, giving birth to innumerable torrents, and laying all the low country under water : the trees are green the whole year round : they have no snow, no frost, and but rarely some hail. The climate is very humid; iron rusts and corrodes in a very short time; and it is this, perhaps, that renders the West Indies so unfriendly to European constitutions, and produces those malignant fevers that are so very fatal. The vegetable produc

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tions are numerous and valuable; but the sugar cane and the coffee plant are incomparably more important than the others, and constitute the natural riches of the islands.

The West Indies are occasionally assailed by the most dreadful hurricanes, which destroy in a moment the hopes and labours of the planters, and devastate entire islands. Whole fields of sugar canes are sometimes torn up by the roots, houses are either thrown down or unroofed, and even the heavy copper boilers and stills in the works have, in numerous instances, been wrenched from the ground and battered to pieces. The rain pours down in torrents, sweeping before it every thing that comes in its way. The destruction caused by such dreadful scourges seldom fails to produce a very great scarcity, and not unfrequently famine; and we are grieved to have to add, that the severity of the distress has on several occasions been materially aggravated by a refusal on the part of the authorities to allow importation direct from the United States !* This was the case at Dominica so late as 1817.

Jamaica was discovered by Columbus in 1494, and continued in possession of the Spaniards till 1655, when it was wrested from them by the English. Although it had thus been for more than a century and a half under the power of Spain, such was the deadening influence of her colonial system, that it did not, when we conquered it, contain 1,500 white inhabitants, and these were immersed in sloth and poverty, Of the many valuable articles which Jamaica soon after produced in such profusion, many were then altogether unknown; and of those that were known, such a supply only was cultivated as was required for the consumption of the inhabitants. “ The Spanish settlers,” says Mr. Bryan Edwards, “possessed none of the elegancies of life; nor were they acquainted even with many of those gratifications which, in civilised states, are considered necessary to its comfort and convenience. They were neither polished by social intercourse, nor improved by education; but passed their days in gloomy languor, enfeebled by sloth, and depressed by poverty. They had been for many years in a state of progressive degeneracy, and would probably in a short time have expiated the guilt of their ancestors, by falling victims themselves to the vengeance of their slaves." -- (Hist. West Indies, vol. i. p. 297. 8vo ed.)

For a considerable number of years after we obtained possession of Jamaica, the chief exports were cocoa, hides, and indigo. Even so late as 1772, the exports of sugar amounted to only 11,000 hogsheads. In 1774, they had increased to 78,000 hogsheads of sugar, 26,000 puncheons of rum, and 6,547 bags of coffee. The American war was very injurious to the West India settlements; and they may, indeed, be said to be still suffering from its effects, as the independence of America led to the enactment of those restrictions on the importation of food, lumber, &c. that have been so very hurtful to the planters. In 1780, Jamaica was visited by a most destructive hurricane, the devastation occasioned by which produced a dreadful famine; and other hurricanes followed in the immediately succeeding years. But in 1787, a new æra of improvement began. The devastation of St. Domingo by the negro insurrection which broke at in 1792, first diminished, and in a few years almost entire y alinihilated, the annual supply of 115,000 hogsheads of sugar, which France and the Continent had previously been accustomed to receive from that island. This diminution of supply, by causing a greatly increased demand for, and a consequent rise in the price of the sugar raised in the other islands, occasioned an extraordinary extension of cultivation. So powerful in this respect was its influence, that Jamaica, which, at an average of the 6 fears preceding 1799, had produced only 83,000 hogsheads, exported, in 1801 and 1802, upwards of 284,000 hogsheads, or 143,000 a year!

The same rise of price, which operated so powerfully in Jamaica, occasioned a similar though less rapid extension of cultivation in our other islands, and in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the foreign colonies generally. The vacuum caused by the cessation of the supplies from St. Domingo being thus more than filled up, a re-action commenced. The price of sugar rapidly declined; and, not withstanding a forced market was for a while opened to it, by substitutivg it for malt in the distillery, prices did not attain to their former elevation On the opening of the Continental ports, in 1813 and 1814, they, indeed, rose, for a short tiine, to an extravagant bright; but they very soon fell, involving in ruin many of the speculators upon an advance. Prices, however, continued at a pretty high level down to 18%; but they sustained a material fall in the course of the following year, and were comparatively low from that period down to 1835, when the extraordinary falling off in the supplies of sugar consequent to the measures connected with the emancipation of the slaves, again occasioned a considerable rise of price. But, as already seen, this high price was entirely factitious, being wholly caused by our excluding foreign sugar from our market. Now that the sugar of Brazil, Cuba, and Java is admitted on paying reasonable duties, prices are comparatively low. And from the extraordinary facility with which sugar may be raised in the countries referred to and elsewhere, we have no idea, provided they artopt no rash or illadvised measures in relation to slaves, that its price in their markets would be likely to sustain any material or permanent increase, even though the demand for it were doubled or more. The imports of Bulgar from our West Indian colonies, which amounted to 4,103,800 cuts. in 1831, sunk, in 1811, to 2,151,217 cwts.! In 1850 they amounted to 2,589,420 do.

The devastation of St. Domingo gave the same powerful stimulus to the growth of coffee in the other West Indian colonies, that it did to the growth of sugar; and owing to the extraordinary increase in the demand for coffee in this and other European countries, the supply went on increasing till it was checked by the influence of the measures relating to slavery. To 1752, for example, only 60,000 lbs. of coffee were exported from Jamaica ; in 1775 the export amounted to 440,000 lbs. ; in 1781 it had increased to 7,31,421 lbs; and in 1832, when it had attained its maximum, the exports to England only amounted to 19,405,933 lbs. Such, however, and so rapid has been their subsequent decline, that in 1850 the exports to England from Jamaica amounted to only 4,156,666 lbs.. (See opposite.)

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• It is stated in a report by a committee of the Assembly of Jamaica, that 15,000 negroes perished btween the latter end of 1780 and the beginning of 1787, through famine occasioned by hurricanes and the prohibition of importation from the United States. - (Eduards's West Indies, vol. ii. p. 515.)

Account of the Quantities of Sugar, Molasses, Rum, Coffee, and Cocoa. Imported into the U. K. from the West Indies and British Guiana, during each of the under-mentioned 10 Years ending with 1850

Parl. Paper, No. 261, Sess. 1851.

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SUAR
Anticua
Erbadoes
Dominica
Grenada
Jamaica
Montserrat
Nevis
St. Christopher
St. Lucia
St. Vincent
Tobago
Tortola
Trinidad
Bahamas
Bermudas
Demerara
Berbice

Cort. Crt. Cut. Cmt.

Crot. Cnt. Crot. 193,177 171,518 203,071 923,150 210,013 102,644 240,259

161,891 184,984

123,860 379,052 344,659 207,454

328,10
351, 15.5 304,496 469,0/21

403,317 489,1.30 591,638)
29,014
31.673 32,503 57,93 52.700 65,452

58.000) 45,565 51. 16 185,771 170,250 $9,982 78,390 71.22 76.931 104,952

89,662 $2,503 97,50 1,429,093 1,118,760 318,11 52,435 742,567 572, 83 751,539

627,322 633,182 575,022 26.1371 16,261

12,547
12,205
11.43 5,316

8,272

39

63

1,607 49,9241 39,637 27.857 29,190

19,093 24,6271 15,51 101,968 87,614 94.30 114.710 124,773 91,0722 150376

80,358 93,65% 70,717 54.744 37,557 69,353

61,154 71.230 63,366 $8,371

67,104 5.3,903 121,662 195,057 101,020) 135.6.37 132,673 129,70 175,15

144,116 139,293! 139,51 121,219 77,260 51,54% 49,3171 67,709 38,522 69,210 33,40 51,276 44,297 15,559 13,41 7,366 2,450 7,177 6,756 5,23

2,434 928

1,106 327,167 289,393 245,778 274,8 564,12 353,29.5 393,525

391,673 424,399 202 998 1,6 59 3,356

1,6071 104

2 815 802,131 700,576 486,457 447,517 499,102! 252.419 522,790

570,084 516,478 472,750 142,1188 1x6.185 93,157 95,910 120,575

73,307
113,143 133,144

62 477 55,215 4,103,800 3,324,209 2,214,764 2,453,037 2,857,703 2,152,155 3,202,774 4,797,376 2,844,078 2,589,420

366,220

Total

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Rex.
Antigua
Barbadoes
Toninica
Grenada
Janaica
Montserrat
Nevis
St. Christopher
St. Lucia -
St. Vincent
Tobago
Tortola
Trinidad .
Bhamas -
Bermudas
Ternerara
Berbice

Gallons (including overproof)
16.3.449

75,574
67,05

22,513 16,120 4,110 60,394 40,958 42,763 21,1.36 26,733 1,798

4361 3,445

1971 13,318 21,354 3,000 63,07 7,309 14,0771 21,1281 51,84

22,2051 31,135

14,9801
32,471 2483241 1.59.7471 112,626 78,390 99,261 231.285 189.681 92,310 53,772
3,322,463' 2,150,27% 1,294,5371,146,556 1,745,65 1,487,2142,140,5212,280,258 1,778,150 1,585,696
40,6291
22,81

964
26,192
4,361

687

2,385.
147.750

21,819
39,566
15,079 25,485

10,444
39.725
13,987 4,550

1,066 236,932 107,101

131,984 80,792 111,743 64,731 190,533 82,950 88,55 63,91% 12,628 10,972 11,9.30 11,200

14,081 28,620

709

18,00 2,473
160,411 189,151 145,99

40,9
82,626
83,401

264,428 127,741 191,247 50,448 498,717 299,705 249,55,137,587 188,494

133,364 277,278 172,952 139,736 12,756 5,220 6,671

715

295 1,667
64,933 9,586
20,539 4,052 2,687

1281 89,367 150.002 83,869 33,548
59
15

8,972 237

131 375

27
6!

2
6

6 2,339,970 1,875,245 1,464,970 874,042 1,535,794 855,197 1,757,624 1,271,117 1,806,116 1,613,338 224,5791 115,411 177,210 34,256 103,087

51,257 131,952 217,893 76,019 10,341

Total

7,844,157 3,453,300 3,780,979 2,806,625 3,955,076 2,526,435 5,271,941 5,659,350 4,330,650 3,579,176

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302

Copy s.
Antigua
Barbados
Dominica
Grenada
Jamaica
Montserrat
Nevis
St. Christopher
St. Lucia
St. Vincent
Tobago
Tortola
Trinidad
Bahamas .
Bernudas
Derderia
Berbice
Honduras

Lbs. Lbe.
Lhe. Lbe. Lbs. Lhe

Los

Lbs.
212
580
425 193 7,387 1,659

256
2,420 57,25
24,050 1,050

750

927 7,010 235 613,60 112,557 283,593 71,206 42,636 21,0851

20,9561

1,5761 792 3,863 8,236 15,741

91,047 7.639 239 !18+ 120,561 15,644,072 11,134,307 8,646,016 7,632,483 5,219,079,6,061,017 6,570,363!4,947,393 3,413,636 4,156,660

100

20
40
9.9931

9 89,349 53,582 292,583 33,814 8,781 869 2,004

61

35
118
699

1. 3
48

120
2,103
262

90 28 3,00 21,930 253,183 234,127 9,630 71,590 12,662 5,962 4,883 96.444 95,7161 280,156 14,904 177,578

25,160

326 37,5.36 123,585 77,87 72 1271 3,711 12,456

18 1,991,332 1,139,014 1,692,036 733,0-29 229,916 30,560 83,919 98,463 38,595 10,614 1,583,402 2,027,037 1,587,538 372,3.30 716,778 31,131 74,061 23,080 25,513 698

31

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Cocoa.
Antigua
Barbadoes

I porninica
Grenada -
Jamaica
Montserrat
Nevis
St. Christopher
St. Lucia
St. Vincent
Tobago
Tortola

Trinidad
Bahamas
Bermudas

metara Herbice Honduras

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17,242 30,979 2,0101 15,428 16,917 7,928 1,372 6,442 8,316 6,450 3,630 73,187 11,955 3,959

8,6421

71 1,321 160,617 2,007,494 2,526,702 2,960,015 1,370,691,584,514 2,077,474 215,604 1,345,284 9,555

18 126 2,376 10,209

110

21

1,057,990

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Totd from the above colonies 1,491,947)

459,447! 2,374,301 3,120,480 3,351, F02)

38,959 5,026,596 2,602,6743, 159,1839,147,700

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