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of the entire stock is annually slaughtered; which, adopting the foregoing statement, gives 1,275,000 head for the supply of the kingdom ; a result which all that we have heard inclines us to think is not far from the mark.
Importation of Cattle. — Previously to 1842, the importation of horned cattle, sheep, hogs, and other animals used as food was strictly prohibited ; but this prohibition was then withdrawn, and the importation of the animals in question permitted on paying a duty of 20s. a head on oxen and bulls, 15s. on cows, 38. on sheep, 58. on hogs, &c. This certainly was one of the most important inroads that has ever been made on the prohibitive system, and reflects the greatest credit on the administration of Sir Robert Peel. At the same time, however, the benefits of the measure are rather of a prospective and negative than of an immediate and positive description. It will most probably lead, in the course of time, to a considerable importation, and it will no doubt prevent or be a great obstruction to any oppressive rise in future in the price of butcher's meat in this country ; but we doubt whether it will do more than this. The apprehensions which the measure when proposed excited amongst the agriculturists, and the panic it occasioned, were wholly destitute of any good foundation. And the fact that the price of cattle is lower now (1843), than before the repeal of the prohibition, is not, assuredly, owing to the inconsiderable importation that has taken place, but to the fact of their price having previously been quite exorbitant, and to the dininution of the consumption of butcher's meat in a large portion of the country originating in the depressed state of manufactures in 1842 and in the early part of 1843. Indeed we believe that their price would have been quite as low at this period (June 1843), as it really is, had the prohibition continued in full force.
The fact is that, low as the duties are, very few cattle can be imported into England ; nor is there any such discrepancy as is commonly supposed between the prices of butcher's meat here and on the Continent. No doubt the rates at which it is quoted in the markets of the latter are in the great majority of instances a good deal below its price in London and other great British markets; but this difference is in great part apparent only, and depends on the superior quality of English butcher's meat as come pared with that of other countries.
There is an immense variety in the breeds of the continental cattle ; but with the exception of the cattle of Holstein, the beef of those in Western Europe is uni. versally inferior to that of England; and the continental mutton is hardly eatable. In most parts of the Continent the object is to have a fine Heece, with but little regard to the carcase; whereas in England the carcase is an object of more importance ihan the fleece.
Denmark, including Holstein, exports annually from 25,000 to 30,000 head of cattle, principally to Hamburg and Altona ; and there could be no reason for supposing that the repeal of the prohibition against importation into this country should lessen the demand for beef in Hamburg, otherwise than by raising its price. Ina-much, however, as the beef of Holstein (which is principally cured and smoked) had hitherto sold in Hamburg for from 4£d. to 5d. per Ib., or at but little below the cost of beet in England, it was evident that a comparatively small increase of price would suffice to prevent its exportation. And this in truth is precisely what has happened ; for it has been found that when to the cost of cattle in Hamburg has been added the cost of their conveyance and sale to the butcher in England, amounting to at least 408. a head, and the duty of 20s. a head, their price has been such that they could rarely be sold in London with a profit, and that their importation has been hardly worth notice.
But, if we except Denmark and Ireland, no country of Western Europe has hitherto been in the habit of exporting cattle. France exports a few ; but her imports always overbalance her exports; and it is probable, indeed, should no change be made in the policy on which she has been acting of late years, that she will cease to export a single animal
. The truth is, that there has latterly been a great increase in the price of butcher's meat in France, and a material decrease in the stock of cattle in that kingdom, occasioned by the excessive additions made to the duty on the importation of cattle. Previously to 1814 all sorts of cattle might be imported into France duty free. In that year, however, a duty of 3 francs (25. 6d.) a head was laid on their importation ; and had the duty been allowed to continue at this reasonable rate, it could not justly have been objected to. But in 1822, this moderate duty was suddenly raised to the enormous amount of 55 francs, or 44s. ; and the result has been, that, in the interval, the stock of cattle in France has been reduced about 2,000,000 head ; the price of butcher's meat has been greatly increased, and the consumption of beef in Paris has declined from about 31 kilogrammes to 25 kilogrammes per individual! In consequence, loud and well-founded complaints have been made hy the town and manufacturing population of the operation of the duty; and the probability is, that it will, at no very distant period, be effectually reduced. But it is material to observe, that, despite this oppressive duty, the value of the live animals imported into France in
1839, principally from England, Wirtemberg, Bavaria, and Baden, amounted to 674,7751. ! Under these circumstances, the idea of France supplying us with any considerable quantity of cattle is out of the question. Indeed, any one acquainted with the state of France, with the smallness of the farms, and the all but total deficiency of green crops, must treat with contempt the notion of ber exporting beef or cattle.
Spain, since the repeal of the prohibition, has supplied us with a few cattle, and sanguine expectations have been entertained of her capabilities in this respect. We doubt, however, whether these be destined to be realised. The pastures of Spain are no doubt of vast extent; but it is generally believed that they are more suitable for sheep than for cattle; and the voyage across the Bay of Biscay will always be a considerable pbstacle to the cheap and easy importation of the latter.
Eastern Europe, including Hungary and the southern parts of European Russia, has a vast extent of fine pasture land and some very fine breeds of cattle, with which, but for the distance, we might be abundantly supplied. Unluckily, however, the expense of their conveyance would be so very great as to preclude the possibility of their being imported ; and it is even doubtful whether we shall ever be able to derive from these countries any considerable supply of salted provisions.
It appears from the customs' returns, that from the repeal of the prohibition against the importation of foreign cattle, on the 9th July 1842, down to the 5th of January 1843, only 4,277 head of cattle (including calves) were imported, and only 648 sheep and lambs (Parl. Paper No. 45. Sess. 1843.) And it is well known that this inconsiderable importation was unprofitable rather than otherwise ; and that there has hardly been a single animal imported during the 3 months ending with June 1843. At the same time, however, it must be admitted that it is by no means improbable that agriculturists in the contiguous countries should apply themselves to the breeding of stock for the English markets; and that their importation should, in consequence, be considerably increased. But supposing (of which we regret there is little or rather no probability) that in some half dozen years we should be able annually to import 30,000 or 35,000 head of foreign cattle, and that eventually this number should be mcreased to 100,000 or 150,000 head, still it is easy to see it could entail no real injury on the agriculturists of this country.
We have already seen that at present (1843) the average annual slaughter of cattle in London amounts to about 175,000 head; and the average annual slaughter in Great Britain is certainly not under 1,350,000 head. Hence it appears, that even on the extravagant supposition that 100,000 head of cattle were imported, it would not amount to one thirteenth part of our supply, and could not therefore have any material influence over prices. The influence of an importation of 30,000 head would, it is obvious, be all but insensible.
In saying that an importation even of 100,000 bead of cattle, which most certainly is 4 or 5 times greater than the importation will amount to for a good many years to come, would not materially affect prices, we do not reason theoretically, but on the solid foundation of experience and analogy. In 1826, for example, we imported about 57,000 head of cattle from Ireland into Great Britain ; but in consequence of the increased facilities given to importation, by the introduction and extension of steam navigation, Ireland now supplies us with about 180,000 head of cattle, or between 3 and 4 times as many as we imported from her 17 years ago ! But instead of the price of cattle in Great Britain falling in consequence of this immense increase of importation, every body knows that it has very decidedly increased. And when such is the fact, is it not childish to suppose that the value of stock is to be seriously depressed, and the breeders and graziers ruined, by the admission of cattle from abroad under a duty of 20s. each?
It is singular how, in a great and rich country like this, a vast addition may be made to the supply of any important article without materially affecting prices. In illustration of this, we may observe, that in 1840 the imports of fresh salmon into London amounted to about 1,700,000 lbs., and in 1841 they amounted to about 3,200,000 lbs. Here we have an increase of little less than 100 per cent. in the supply, and yet the wholesale price was only reduced from 11d. in 1840, to about 9d. in 1841 ; and it should be borne in mind that salmon is more of a luxury than beef, and that, its consumption being necessarily at all times confined within a more limited circle, it has less power of expanding and contracting with variations of price.- See art. Salmon.) Taking the average price of beef in England at 6d. per lb., a fall to 51d. per lb. would certainly take off 100,000 additional head of cattle ; that is, it would take off more than there is much probability we shall get from the Continent, under the existing arrangements, any time during the next dozen years.
We incline to think that the principal imports of beef and other articles of provision from the Continent and elsewhere under the existing tariff, will not come to us in the shape of live animals, but of salted provisions. But even of these, the importation, we
apprehend, will be much less than has been supposed. For some years past, foreiga salted and cured beef has been admitted on paying a duty of 128. a cwt. If, therefore, the price in any part of the Continent had been so low as most people bere imagine, a large importation of salted and cured beef could hardly have failed to have taken place under this duty. But, in point of fact, the importation has been quite inconsiderable ; the entries of foreign salted beef for home consumption in 1841 being only 1,698 cwt. This shows conclusively that the notions as to the cheapness of foreign beef are nearly if not altogether chimerical ; and it also shows that the reduction of the duty from 128. to 88. a cwt. can have but little influence over the trade.
We believe, however, that there will, under the new arrangements, be a considerable importation of bacon and hams, the duty on which has been reduced from 28s. to 148. a cwt. It is, indeed, much to be wished that such should be the case, inasmuch as a fall in the price of bacon would be a great boon to the labouring classes, at the same time that it could do little or no injury to any one else.
It may, perhaps, be asked, If you be right in these statements, if the new measures will not ma erially reduce the price of provisions, where is the advantage of having interfered with the former arrangements? Why not “ have let well alone ?” To that ques. we might reply by asking, has not the importation of cattle from Ireland been of vast advantage, though it has not sensibly influenced prices ? Though the new measure should not lower the price of butcher's meat, it will, at all events, prevent its farther increase, and enable provision to be made for the wants of our rapidly increasing population. It will also have the good effect of undeceiving the public, of proving to the conviction of every individual, that the price of butcher's meat in this country is what Adam Smith would call its natural and necessary price, and that it is not ensibly affected by restrictive regulations.
It is much to be regretted that the same manly and decisive course was not taken in respect of corn that has been taken in respect of butcher's meat. The delusion in the one case is quite as great as in the other. Suppose the ports were constantly open to importation at a fixed duty of 58. a quarter on wheat, it admits of demonstration that our average prices would not thereby be in the least degree affected. But such a measure would give us an additional security against the mischievous effects of had harvests, at the same time that it would make an end of a gigantic delusion, and dry up a most prolific source of misrepresentation, abuse, and agitation.
Cattle of the Continent. - Baron Malchus gave, in his work on European Statistics, published at Stuttgard in 1826, an account of the number of horned cattle, sheep. swine, &c., in most Furupean countries. In so far as respects the British empire, the statements were mostly copied from Colquhoun, and are ludicrously irexact. Perhaps, however, they may, in so far as regards the Continental states, be better entitled to credit. The following statements, which we have endeavoured to deduce from the best authorities, are probably less wide of the mark :Countries.
Head of Cattle. Countries. Head of Cattle. Countries. Sweden (1837) 1,657.976 Saxony 400,000?) Austria.
10.000? European Russia 16,000,000? Hanover
900,000P France Denmark
1,650,000? Wirtemberg 800,000? Spain and Portugal 3.00 ? Belgium 898.076 Baden 40,000! Switzerland
800,000 ? Prussia •
4,838,622 Bavaria (1837) 2,350,388 Laws as to Cattle. - No salesman, broker, or factor, employed in buying cattle for others, shall buy for himself in London, or within the bills of mortality, on penalty of double the value of the cattle bought and sold.-(31 Geo. 2. c. 40.) Cattle not to be driven on Sunday, on penalty of 208. - (3 Cha. 1. c. 1.)
Any person unlawfully and maliciously killing, wounding, or maiming any cattle, shall be guilty of felony, and, upon conviction, may be transported, at the discretion of the court, beyond seas for life. or for any term not less than 7 years, or be imprisoned for any term not exceeding 4 years, and kept to hard labour ; and, if a male, may be once, twice, or thrice publicly or privately whipped, if the court stall think fit so to order.-- (7 & 8 Geo. 4. c. 30.)
Persons wantonly and cruelly abusing, beating, or ill-treating cattle, may, upon being convicted before a justice of such offence, be fined in any sum not exceeding 51. and not below 10s. , and upen nonpayment of fine, may be committed to the house of correction for any time not exceeding 3 months.
Complaint must be made within 10 days after the offence. Justices are instructed to order compensation to be made, not exceeding 208., to persons vexatiously complained against. -- (3 Geo. 4. c. 71.)
CAVIAR (Fr. Caviar, Cavial; Ger. Kaviar ; It. Cariario, Caviale; Sp. Cariario; Rus. Ikra ; Lat. Caviarium), a substance prepared in Russia, consisting of the salted roes of large fish. The best, which is made of the roe of the sturgeon, appears to consist entirely of the eggs, and does not easily become fetid. It is packed in small casks or kegs; the inferior sort being in the form of dry cakes. Caviar is highly esteemed in Russia, and considerable quantities are exported to other countries. It is principally made of the roe of the sturgeon caught in the Wolga, in the neighbourhood of Astrachan, as many as 30,000 barrels of caviar having been exported from that city in a single
- (See Geog. Dict. art. ASTRAKHAN.) CAYENNE PEPPER, or GUINEA PEPPER. See CHILLIES.
CEDAR (Ger. Zeder; Du. Ceder; Fr. Cedre ; It. and Sp. Cedro; Rus. Kedr ; Lat. Cedrus). The cedar of Lebanon, or great cedar (Pinus cedrus), is famous in Scripture : it is a tall majestic-looking tree. “ Behold,” says the inspired writer, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, ard with a shadowing shroud, art
Herd of attie
of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. His height was exalted above all the trees of the field, and his boughs were multiplied, and his branches became long. The fir trees were not like his bougbs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches, nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in beauty.”( Ezekiel, xxxi, 3. 5. 8.) The cedar grows to a very great size. The timber is resinous, has a peculiar and powerful odour, a slightly bitter taste, a rich yellowish brown colour, and is not subject to the worm. Its durability is very great ; and it was on this account (propter æternitatem, Vitruvius, lib. ii. $ 9.) employed in the construction of temples, and other public buildings, in the formation of the statues of the gods, and as tablets for writing upon. In the time of Vitruvius, cedars were principally produced in Crete, Africa, and some parts of Syria. -(Loc. cit.) Very few are now found on Lebanon ; but some of those that still remain are of immense bulk, and in the highest preservation.
Cedar exceeds the oak in toughness, but is very inferior to it in strength and stiffness. Some very fine cedars have been produced in England.
There are several other kinds of timber that are usully called cedar : thus a species of cypress is called white cedar in America ; and the cedar used by the Japanese for building bridges, ships, houses, &c. is a kind of cypress, which Thunberg describes as a beautiful wood, that lasts long without decay. The Juniperus oxycedrus is a native of Spain, the south of France, and the Levant; it is usually called the brown berried cedar. The Bermudian cedar (Juniperus Bermudiana), a native of the Bermuda and Bahama islands, is another species that produces valuable timber for many purposes ; such as interna joiners' work, furniture, and the like. The red cedar, so well known from its being used in making black-lead pencils, is produced by the Virginian cedar (Juniperus Virginiana), a native of North America, the West India islands, and Japan. The tree seldom exceeds 45 feet in height. The wood is very durable, and, like the cedar of Lebanon, is not attacked by worms. It is employed in various ways, but principally in the manufacture of drawers, wardrobes, &c., and as a cover to pencils. The internal wood is of a dark red colour, and has a very strong odour. It is of a nearly uniform texture, brittle, and light. — (See Tredgold's Principles of Carpentry; Lih. of Entertaining Knowledge, Veget. Substances ; Rees's Cyclopædia, gc.)
The duty on cedar (10s. a ton from a foreign country, and 1s. from a British possession) produced in 1842, 3451.' Its price in bond varies from 61. to 9d. a foot.
CERTIFICATES, in the customs. No goods can be exported by certificate, except foreign goods formerly imported, on which the whole or a part of the customs paid on importation is to be drawn back. The manner of proceeding is regulated by the 8 & 9 Vict. c. 86. S 72. &c. The person intending to enter outwards such goods, is to deliver to the collector or comptroller of the port where the goods were imported or warehoused, two or more bills, specifying the particulars of the importation of such goods, and of the entry outwards intended to be made; and the officers, if they find such bills to agree with the entry inwards, are to issue a certificate of such entry, with the particulars necessary for the computation of the drawback upon the goods, the names of the person and ship by whom and in which the goods are to be exported, &c. The merchant then enters the goods outwards, as in the common way of exportation. The cocket granted upon this occasion is called a certificate cocket, and differs a little in form from common over-sea cockets. Notice of the time of shipping is to be given to the searcher. Some time after the departure of the vessel, the exporter may apply for the drawback. The collector and comptroller then make out on a proper stamp a debenture, containing a distinct narration of the transaction, with the exporter's or merchant's oath, that the goods are really and truly exported beyond seas, and not relanded, nor intended to be relanded ; and also with the searcher's certificate of the quantity and quality of the goods at the time of shipping. The debenture being thus duly made out and sworn to, the duties to be repaid are indorsed, the merchant's receipt taken below, and the money paid.
Certificates of origin, subscribed by the proper officers of the places where the goods were shipped, are required, to entitle the importers of sugar, coffee, cocoa, and spirits, from any British plantation, to get them entered as such, A similar certificate is required in the case of blubber (see Blubber); and in the case of wine from the Cape of Good Hope ; and sugar from the liinits of the East India Company's charter, &c. — (See IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION.)
CHAIN, in surveying, a measure of length, composed of a certain number of links made of iron wire, serving to take the distance between two or more places. Gunter's chain contains 100 such links, each measuring 733 inches, consequently equal to 66 feet, or four poles.
CHALDRON, a dry English measure. 36 coal bushels make a chaldron, and 21 chaldrons a score. The coal bushel is 194 inches wide from the outside, and 8 inches deep. It contains 2,217.6 cubic inches; but when heaped, 2,815.5, making the chaldron 58.65 cubic feet. There are 12 sacks of coal in a chaldron ; and if
5 chaldrons be purchased at the same time, the seller must deliver 63 sacks: the 3 sacks additional are called the ingrain. But coals are now sold in London, and almost everywbere else by the ton of 20 cwt, avoirdupois. The Newcastle chaldron of coals is 53 cwt., and is exactly double the London chaldron. — (See COAL.)
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, is an assembly of merchants and traders, where affairs relating to trade are treated of. There are several establishments of this sort in most of the chief cities in France; and in this country, chambers of this kind have been erected for various purposes.
CHAMBER OF ASSURANCE, in France, denotes a society of merchants and others for carrying on the business of insurance; but in Holland it signifies a court of justice, where causes relating to assurances are tried.
CHAMPAGNE, one of the most esteemed and celebrated of the French wines. Sce Wine
CHANKS, OR CHANK SHELLS, common conch shells (Voluta Pyrum), are fished up by divers in the Gulph of Manaar, on the coast opposite Jaffnapatam, in Ceylon, in about 2 fathoms water; and at Travancore, Tuticoreen, and other places. Large fossil beds of chanks have also been found. They are of a spiral form, and form a considerable article of trade in India, where they are in extensive demand all over the country. They are sawn into narrow rings or bracelets, and are worn as ornaments on the arms, legs, fingers, &c. by the Hindoo women ; many of them are also buried with the bodies of opulent and distinguished persons. Those which, from being taken with the fish, are called green chan are most in demand. The white chank, which is the shell thrown upon the beach by strong tides, having lost its gloss and consistency, is not worth the freight up to Calcutta. The value of the green chank depends upon its size. A chank opening to the right, called in Calcutta the right-handed chank, is so highly prized, as sometimes to sell for 400, or 500, or even 1,000 rupees. — (Bell's Commerce of Bengal, and private communications.)
The fishery of chanks used to be monopolised by government, who formerly let the banks for from 3,0001. to 4,0001, a year. But of late years the fishery, partly from the poaching of the fishermen of the contiguous coasts, and partly from a decrease in the supply of chanks, declined so that the rental of the banks fell off to from 3001, to 4001. a year.
And this smaller sum was not paid, as formerly, for a licence to dive for live chanks, but for permission to dig up the dead shells along the shore of the Gulph of Nanaar. Under these circumstances government have wisely abandoned the chank monopoly, which, without being of any value in a financial point of view, obstructed the employment of the inhabitants on the shores of the gulph. (See the valuable Report of Sir J. E, Tennent, p. 55. of Papers on Ceylon, presented to Parliament in 1848.)
CHARCOAL. (Fr. Charbon de bois ; Ger. Reine Kohle ; It. Carbone di legna ; Sp. Carbon de lena ; La. Carbo ligni), a sort of artificial coal, consisting of wood burned with as little exposure to the action of the air as possible. “It was customary among the ancients to char the outside of those stakes which were to be driven into the ground, or placed in water, in order to preserve the wood from spoiling. New-made charcoal, by being rolled up in clothes which have contracted a disagreeable odour, effectually destroys it. When boiled with meat beginning to putrefy, it takes away the bad taint: it is, perhaps, the best tooth-powder known. When putrid water at sea is mixed with about $ of its weight of charcoal powder, it is rendered quite fresh; and a much smaller quantity of charcoal will serve, if the precaution be taken to add a little sulphuric acid previously to the water. If the water casks be charred before they are filled with water, the liquor remains good in them for years; this precaution ought always to be taken for long sea voyages. The same precaution, when attended to for wine casks, will be found very much to improve the quality of the wine."--( Thomson's Chemistry.)
CHARLESTON, a city and sea-port of the United States, in South Carolina, in lat. 32° 46' 33" N., long. 790 48' W. Population in 1848, 26,451 ; but ine, the suburbs of Neck, &c., beyond the limits of the city, the pop. is supposed to exceed 42,000.
The situation of Charleston has a good deal of resemblance to that of New York, being built on a point of land between the Ashley and Cooper rivers, at their point of confluence. The exports principally consist of cotton and rice (particularly the former), which are the staple products of the state. There are a few other articles exported, such as naval stores, bams, bacon, &c., but their value is inco381derable. All the cotton sent from South Carolina to foreign countries is shipped at Charleston. In the yrar ending 31st of August, 1850, the shipments of cotton to foreign countries (inc. 14,366 bales seaisland) amounted to 227,57i bales; the shipments of cotton coast wise during the same year were estimated at 154,193 bales, inc. 2,071 bales sea-island. The imports from foreign countries principally consist of cottons, woollens, linens and silks, hardware, iron and steel, coffee, sugar, tea, wine, spices, &c. "The greater part of the imports do not, however, come from abroad, but from the northern and
The former supply her with fish, shoes, and all sorts of coarse manufactured goods for the use of the slave population ; while the latter supply her with wheat, flour, &c. Most part of the imports of fureign produce are also brought at second-hand from New York, which occupies the serra rank in the Union that Liverpool and London do in Great Britain. The registered, enrolled, and licensed tonnage belonging to Charleston, in 1849, amounted to 23,285 tons, of wbich about 10,000 tons were en. ployed in the coasting trade. The total value of the articles imported into South Carolina, in the year ending 30th of June, 1819, was 1,475,695 dollars; the total value of the exports during the same year being 9,701,176 dollars. In South Carolina, the dollar is worth 4s. 8d. currency, so that Il. sterling