« AnteriorContinua »
References to the Plan - 4, lighthouse, furnished with Produce. - Large quantities of corn of a very coscripdible lights. They may be seen clearly off derk at 16 miles tion are produced in hemmellate neighbourhendct Care distance; but they do not appear double vill within 6 or 7 miles Town, and in other parts of the colony; but agriculture is to the westward from the northward only one light i ben. crippled by the Dutrti law of succesion, which, by dividing a B, Lion's Hump. 0, Table Mountun. ), llevil's Peak, in man's property equally among his children, hinders the arcu. lat, 337,57 %. E, Kodtan Island. F, Salt River. The mulation of capital in masses, and the formation of proper figure denot the sounding in frthoms.
farining establishments. - (Thomson's Travels in Southern Por lutructions. Art. 1. On the arrival of merchant ves. Afriw, p. 341.) sels in Table Bay, a proper berth will be posted out to the The Mauritius and Rio Janeiro are the principal markets masters ibereck by the port captain, when he board them; for the con the Cape. The exports of woo! have incre ved and no master of a merchant vessel shall shift his herth with very rapidly within the last 10 year, and it now forms by far the ont permission from the port captain, unless in case of extreme most important article sent from the colony. 'I he native breed emergency, whe, he must repott his having done so as early of sheep is very inferior; its flerce is worth nothing, and it is as possible at the Port-ofice.
remarkable only for the size of the tail, which sometimes 4. Should it be the intention of a master of a vessel to dis weighs 20 lbs. !. But tine veruled Spanish merinos, Saxon and charge or receive on hoard any considerable quantity of mer English sheep succeed remarkably well, and tht ír wool fetches chandise, alerth will be pomtel out to him as close to the a high rice. The eastern district of Albany is especially suitjet'y, or other lancing-pluce, as the safety of the vessel and able for sheep other circunstances will adroit. And the master wi'l then large quantities of wine, and of what is called brandy, are moor with two bower anchors, with an open hawse to the praluced at the Cape; but with the exception of Constantia, N.N.E., taking especial care, in so mooring, not to overlay the they are very inferior. The effect of allowing the importation anchors of any other ship, or in any way to give the vessel near of Cape wines into the United Kingd: un ata comparative y low him a foul birth. Ships and vessels touching in Tahle Bay for duty is, not to exccasion the ir direct consumption, but to cause water and refreshments alone, mas ride at single anchor in the them to be employel as a convenient means of adulterating outer anchorage; but in this case it is particularly rerom others; so that, besides being injurious to the revenue, Auch minded to vier out mo or fathoms, if they ride by a chain reduction of duty promotes fraudulent practices, and detracts cable, as the liability of starting or fouling the anchor, or break from the comforts of the public. ing the chan, will thereby be greatly lessenedl; and if riding Considerable quantities of hides, skins, and horns are exby a rope of coir cable, to run out a stream or good kedge, to ported. They are principally brought from Algoa Bay, on the ste acly the slipi and in both cases the other Tower anchor eastern side of the colony; and the trade has increased very should be kept in perfet readiness to let go. When the vessel fast during the last 6 or 7 years. Aloes are an imprtant pro is progetly noored with boxer-anchors, or well secured with a duct; and horses, butter, beef, ivory, argol, and various other bover and stream anchor, and with good cables, buoys, and articles, are among the exports. The latter also include dried buos-ropes, the master will then take the exact place of the fish, whale and stal oil, &c., the Cape fisheries being of conship by the bearings of 2 land-marks, and the depth of the siderable Falue. water and should acciderit occur, by which the vessel may The imports at the Cape consist woollens, cottons, harddrift from this situation, or lose her anchors, a good bearing ware, earth sure, furniture, halerdashery, sap, par, books, and clepth of water must be taken at the time, and the same and portions of most articles used in this country. Piece goods must be notified in writing to the part captain. It is parti and teak timbri are imported from India, la from China, cularly recommended tha' ve sels be kept as snug as possible, sugar from India, the Muritius, &c. to counteract the effects of the periodical winds, which at times Trade, – The trade between the colonists and the indepen. blow with considerable violence.
dent nativex is subjected to various restraints, of which it is The district suliject to Cape Town is of very great extent, not always very easy to discover the policy. The sale of gunand contains every variety of soil, from the richest level land powder and tire urins to the natives has been prohibitel, a to the wildert moartain, and traits destitute of even the ap regulation which might have been a judicious one, had they pearance of vegetation. The climate fluctuates between the not leen able to obtain then froin any one else. The Ameri. t* extremes of rain and drought. On the whole, its advan cans have however iraded with the eastern coast, and have tages and disadvantages seem to be pretty equally balanced ; lib rally supplied the natives with these and various other and the prospects which it holds out to the industrious eini articles; so that by ketpring up the regulation in question, we frant, if not very ailuring, are certainly not discouraging. merely exclude oursel. cs from participating in what might be
Population. - According to the official returns, the popu. an advantagests trade. But since we have taken possession of lation of the Cape Colony in 1847, consisted of 167,995. Natal, this intercourse may perhaps have been stopped. Account of the Quantities and Values of the Staple Articles, the Produce of the Colony of the Care
of Good Hope, exported in the Year ended 5th January, 1847.
d. Of the above, the value of the exports from Cape Town was
228,815 0 0 Ditto exported from Simon's Town)
471 13 6 Ditto exported from Port Elizabeth *
170,289 0 0
£398,775 13 6 Port Elizabeth, on the east side of Algoa Bay, is rapidly rising in commercial importance; and from the greater fertility of the country in its vicinity its esports will, probably, in no very lengthened period, exceed those from the Cape. A Summary View of the Trade and Navigation of the Colony, in the Year ended 5th January, 1847.
CUSTOM-HOUSE REGULATIONS, DUTIES, Fbes, &c.
Spirits of all sorts, viz. :
Being the manufacture of the U.K., or of any 1. The ship's register must be lodged in the Custom-house, B. possession, of strength of proof by Sykes's until the vessel clear again for sea.
Hydroxyeter, and so in proportion for an 2. The manifest of the cargo on board for this place must greater strength
imp.gal. O 0 be deposited there.
0 0 45 3. The cockets of cargoes shipped from any place in Great Tobacco, viz. :Britain or Ireland for this place must also be deposited there. Not manufactured
cwt. 0 12 0 From the endorsement of such cockets, an extract is to be Manufacturedi (not cigars)
cwt 1 0 0 made, which will show the contents of the different packages
050 on board, and facilitate the making out of the entries.
Wood, unmanufactured, viz. : 4. In making out the declarations, the value by invoice of Mahogany, rosewood, and teakwood cuh. ft. 0 0 3 the different commodities must be given by the importer, in All other wood, not the produce of the U. R., order to enable the Custom-house to estimate tbe duties pay. or of any B. possession
cub. foot. 0 02 able, and to send into government, annually, the required Wine, viz. :statement of the total duties receved upon the several articles In bottles, each not exceeding 6 to the imp. Imported.
dere. 0 40
In bottles, each not exceeding 12 to the irap
0 20 1. The master must produce a certificate from the harbour. Not in bottles
imp. gal. 0 1 master, that the tonnige duties of the port have been paid. Goods, wares, and merchandise, not otherwise
2. The export manifest must be exainined with the permits charged with duty, and not herein declarat free granted, in order to ascertain whether packages have been of duty, being the growth, produce, or manufacshipped without a permit.
ture of the U. K., or of any B. possessions 3. Export declarations must be sent in by the several ship. abroad, for every 1001. of the value
5 00 pers, of the quantity and value of goods or produce shipped by Goods, wares, and merchandise, not otherwise them, in order to ascertain the amount of the exports of the charged with duty, and not herein derlared to colony.
be free of duty, being the growth, proluce; or 4. When Cape wine is shipped for exportation to England,
manufacture of any foreign state, for every 100%. affi Javit of the particular description of such wine must be
of the value.
. 12 00 dehrered, and a certificate granted, by the collector or coinp. Bottles of common glass, imported full troller of customs, to the master, of his having received such
Casks, staves, hoops, and coopers' rivets 5. Manifests, in triplicate, of such goods as are shipped
Coin from the Cape for Great Britain, must be delivered, signed Diamonds and sworn to by the master, before the collector or comp
Horses, mules, asses, sheep, cattle, and all other troller
live stock and live animals The original of which is to be returned to the master to Seeds, bulbs, and plants accompany the cargo.
Specimens, illustrative of natural history The duplicate to le forvarded, try the first conveyance sail. Provisions or stores of every description, im. ing subsequently to the vessel containing the original, to the ported or supplied for the use of her Majesty's commissioners of customs in England or Scotland respectively, land or sea forces as the case may happen.
Provided, that whenever any article, being the growth. To And the triplicate, written on or covered with a stamp, to duction, or manufacture of any foreign country, heran befire remain as an office cops.
charged with any duty, is imported into the suid colony from N.B. - Ships taking in cargoes for other parts of the world, the U.K., hasirg been there entered for consumption and reare required to deliver only original and duplicate manifests. exported without any drawback of duty having been first paid
6. When whale oil or whale bone is shipped from the Cape thereon, such articles shall be liable only to such duty as is for England, the proprietor of the wiae nishery is to make herein-before charged upon similar articles, being the rowth, onth, before the collect or comptroller, that the same were production or manufacture of the U. K., or of any of the B. bona fide the produce of fish, or creatures living in the sea, poistasions abroad. actually taken and caught wholly by his Majesty's subjects Provided also, that if any goods, being the growth, pro. usually residing in this colony; and the collector or comptroller duce, or manufacture of any foreign country, le importel into is to grant a certificate under his hand and seal to the master, the said colony through the UK. (having been warehouse testifying that such oath hath been made before him.
therein and beilig exported from the warellou e, or the duties 7. When salted seal skins are shipped from the Cape for thereon if there paid having been drawn back), there shall be England, the shipper is to make oath before the collector or charged on such goods, oser and above the duties hereine Comptroller, that the same are really and bona fide the skis of imposed on similar goods, being the Towth, produce, or manu. seals taken and caught on the coast appertaining to the Cape facture of the t. K., or of any of the B. posesorts abroad, of Good Hope, wholly by his Majesty's subjects usually residing 3-4ths of the difference (if any) between such duties and the in this colony; and that all the valt used in the curing or pre duties herein-before charged on goods not being the growth, eersing of the same was not made in, or exported from, Great produce, or manufacture of the U. K., or of any of the B. potse Britain or Ireland ; and the collector or comptroller is to grant sessions abroad. a certiscate to the ma ter accordingly. 8. The original manifest, and a copy thereof, of ships touch.
A Table of Prokibitions and Restrictions. ing at the Cape of Good Hope, with cargoes from the east Gunpowder. Arms. Ammunition or utensils of war. ward for England, to be delivered and swom to by the master Prohibited to be imported, except from the U.6., a before the collector or comptroller. The original to be returned from some other B. possession. to the inaster, and the copy forwarded from the Custom-house Articles of foreign manufacture, and any packages of such to the commissioner of customs.
articles, bearing any names, brands, or marks, purporting a 9. If any part of such cargo shall be discharged at the Cape be the names, brands, or marks of manufacturers resident in of Good Hope, the collector or comptroller is to indorse upon the U.K. the manifest the part of the cargo so discharged, and verify the Base or counterfeit coin. same.
Books, wherein the copyright shall be subsisting, fint com
po-ed, or written, or printed in the U. K., and printed A Table of Duties of Customs payable on goods, wares, and reprinted in any other country, as to which the per prius of
merchandise, imported into ihe Colony of the Cape of Good such copyright, or his agent, shall have given to the comme Hope.
sioners of Customs a notice in writing that such copyright Goods.
subsists : such notice also stating when such copyright will Coffee, viz. :
£ 1. d. expire. The produce of B. Possessions
cwt. 0 5 0 The produce of foreign possessions cwt. 0 10 0
Table of Duties, Fecs, &c. Fish, dried or salted, and fins and skins, the pro
Queen's Warehouse Rent. - A certain sum
per week is duce of creatures living in the sen, of foreign
charged upon goods in proportion to their bulk and False fishing or taking, for every 100% of the value
Wharfage and Cranage. The wharf department is under
- 12 00 the immediate control of the customs. The following tante Flour, wheaten, not being the manufacture of the
dues is lesied under authority of Ordinance No. 34, dated 'U.K., or of any B. possession, barrel 196 lbs. 0 3 0 14th Dec. 1816. Gunpowder
Ib. 0 0 3 On Gouda landed.- On every pipe, puncheon, butt, Meat, salted or cured, of all sorts, not being the
or other cask, of the capacity of so imp. gall, or production or manufacture of the U. K., or
upwards, and containing wine, spirits, or other of any B. possession
cwt. 0 3 0
cask 0 2 0 Meat, salted or cured, of all sorts, being the pro
On every hogshead, half puncheon, tierce, or other duction of manufacture of the U. K., or of
cask, of the capacity of 40 imp.gall, and unler any B. possession
cwt. 0 1 3 80 gall., containing wine, spirits, or other liquids Oil, viz. :
cask o 16 Train and blubber, the produce of fish or
On every quarter or other such cast of the capacity creatures living in the sea, of foreign fishing
of 20 imp. gall., and under 40 gall., containing tun (imp. measure) 3 0 0 wine, spirits, or other liquids
• cask 0 1 0 Spermaceti of foreign fishery, tun (imp.
On every barrel, anker, keg, or other cask of less
measure) 7 10 0 capacity than 20 imp. gall. containing wine, Pepper
cwt. 04 0
cast 008 Rice
cwt. 0 1 6 L'quiels in jars, lottles, and other packages (not in Sugar, viz.
bulk) each of the content of one imp. gall. or upNot refined, the production of any B. posses
imp.gal. O 01 ston
cwt. 02 3 Liquids in jars, bottles, and other packages (not in Notrebned, the produce of any other place cwt. 0
bulk) each of less content than one imp. gall. Rall. OO Refined, or candy, not manufactured in the
Tea in all packages
10 ihs, 013 U. K., or any B. possession
cwt. 0 6 0 Coffee, sugar, pepper, sago, saltpetre, tameric, tamaRetined, or candy, the manufacture of the
rinds, spices, dates, and drugs in bags
ballons U. K., or of any B. possession
cut. 0 30
har 0 0 2 Spirits of all sorts, viz.
Wheat, barley, onts, rye, and other grain, in bags or Not twing the inanufacture of the U. K., or of
imp, quarter 0 0 6 any B. possession, of strength of proof hy
196 llis. 006 Sykes's Hydrorneter, and so in proportion for
Tobacco, manufactured (except cigars)
cwt. 006 any greater strength . imp. gal. 0 1 0 Tobacco leaf
Per cent. 1000 0 0 2 7. On procuring freight Manufactures, and all dry grants in cases, bales, or
8. On collecting freight on ships bound to this place Other par kapes, not otherwise described,
9. On guaranteeing bills or bonds by indorsement or otherMeasuring 60 cubic feet, or upwards package.06 0
0 4 6
10. On collecting debts without recourse to lav
Ditto where legal proceedings are taken
.0 30 11. On effecting remittances by bills of exchange 10
- 0 2 0 12. On the negotiation of bills 5
. 06 13. On etterting insurances 2
.009 14. On the administration of estates 2
0 0 4 15. On cash advances Hams or cheeses, when not in packages containing
16. On the debtor and creditor sides of cash accounts, on more than one of either, the ham or cheese .001
which no other commission is charged Paint, in kegs
ton 0 6 0 Earthenware in crates
crate 0 2 0 Monty. - Accounts are either kept in pounds, shillings, Glass bottles, empty
gross 0 0 6
pence, and farthings, or in rix-dollars, schillings, and stivers Bricks, tiles, or slates
1000 0 3 0 Paving stones
ton 0 1 6
of a penny; Cocoa-nuts
10:00 3 0
2 Pence, url schilling. Rattans
100 bundles 0 2 6
18 Pence, or I rix-dollar. T'irch or rosin
cask 0 0 6 Couls
ton 0 1 6 The Commissariat department grant bills on the Treasury at Millstones
stone 0 2 6 a premium of 15 per cent. Fir and teak timber
load of 50 cubic feet 0 2 0 Mahogany and timber, not being fir er teak of 50
Banks, &c.- Two joint stock banking companies have been cubic feet
load O 30 established in Cape Town; the Cape of Good Hope Bank, Deals, planks, boards, battens, and all wood cut from
established in 1837, with a paid up capital of 70,000.; and the tog (except staves) load of 30 cubic feet 0 3 0 the South African Bank, established in the following year, Stares, vir. crown pipe
the 1000 0 7 6 with a prid up capital of 60,100%. Both banks transact ordi crown hogshead
0 5 0 nary banking business, and allow interest on deposits, hut the other pipe
0 5 0 fint only issues notes. Joint stock companies have also been other hogshead
0 3 6 formed for conducting the business of insurance and for other barrel and heading
0 2 6
purposes. Masts or spars, under 8 inches diameter each 0 0 9 above
0 3 6 Heavy goods, not otherwise described
ton 0 2 6
Weights and Measures. The weights made use of in the Horses, mules, or asses
each 0 5 0
Cape ire derived from the standard pound of Amsterdam; and Calves, chert, or pigs
those assizes are froin 50 11. down to I loot, or the 320 part of
each 0 0 3 Horncratrie, cows, bulls, and oxen
each 0 25
a pound, which is regarded as unity, On Canale shirped. - Wine, spirits, lime juice, oil, or other liquida 100 imp. pall. O 1 0
Liquid Measure. Beef, mork, Initter, candles, tallow, flour, meal, fruits,
1 Anker. dried and green
cwt. 0 0 2
1 Am. Wheat, barley, rye, oats, bran, peas, beans, and
4 A ams
1 Leaguer lentils
Imp. quarter 0 0 6 Hay 100 lbs. 0 2
Corn Measure. Finh, dried and pickled
ton 0 2 6 Hide of horses or herned cattle
100 O 40
1 Muid. Skins, call, goat, seal, or of wild animals 100 0 0 6
1 Lol 107 schepels = Sheep skins
100003 82 Winch. bushels, or 4 schepels = 3 Imp. bushels, very Bne, hoofs, or glue pieces
ton 0 1 0 nearly. Horns
1000 0 2 0 The mud of wheat weighs, at an average, about 110 lbs. Isory
100 lbs. 0 0 6
Dutch, being somewhat over 196 lbs, English. Ostrich feathers
package 26 Wool
100 tbs. 006
Cloth and Long Measure. Argol, aloes, gum, or war
ton 0 1 6 All other articles not enumerated or otherwise de.
19 Rhynland inches = 1 Rhynland foot. scribed
ton 0 1 0
= 1 Dutch ell. If mero rement goods not otherwise enumerated or
I Square foot, descubd
40 cubic feet 016
114 Square feet
I Rood. Hores, mules, or asses
each 0 4 6
= 1 Morgen. Horned ctt'e
each 0 1 6 Sheep, goats, or pigs • each 0 02 Colonial Weights and Measurer compared with those of England
Wrights Errmptions. - Ist. All public stores, naval or military 100 lbs. Dutch nenrly 109 lbs. English avoirdupois. bazuage, and personal hagange of passengers. All goods roastwise, whether shippel or landed, er
100 lbs. English = nearly 92 lbs. Dutch. cept imported goods upon which wharfage has not been once
Wine or Liquid Yeasure. paid. 3rd. Ship stores outwards.
0-6 Old gallon, or 4.946 Imperial gallons 4th. All guas exported, upon which wharfage had been
ditto. paid upon importation.
ditto. I leaguer 152
1266 ditto. Commission. The following rates of commission are charged
ditto. and allowed, namely:
Per cent. Saldanha Bay, in lat. 330 6 S., long. 170 58" 15". E., being 1. On the net amount of all sales of goods by public sale,
16} leagues north of Cape Town, is one of the best and and on the gross amount of all other sales
most commodious harbours in the world. It is perfectly safe 2. Goods consigned, and afterwards withdrawn
. 23 at all seasons. 3. On parhases effected, from the proceeds of goods on
which a commission has already been charged . 23 Besides the Cape Almanac for 1848, one of the hest of that 4. On at other purchases, or shipinents of goods . 5 class of publie ations, and the other authorities referred to, we 5. On the sale or purchase of ships, houses, os lands • 2) hare derived part of the above details from the Geographical 6. On ships' disbursements
.5 Dictionary, the papers of the Board of Trade, &c.
CAPITAL, in political economy, is that portion of the produce of industry existing in a country, which may be made directly available, either for the support of human existence, or the facilitating of production.--(Principles of Political Economy, 3d ed. p. 96.) But in commerce, and as applied to individuals, capital is understood to mean the sum of money which a merchant, banker, or trader adventures in any undertaking, or which he contributes to the common stock of a partnership. It signifies likewise the fund of a trading company, or corporation; in which sense the word stock is generally added to it. Thus we say the capital stock of the Bank, &c. The profit derived from any undertaking is estimated by the rate which it bears to the capital that was employed.
CAPSICUM. See Pepper.
CARAVAN, an organised company of merchants, or pilgrims, or both, who associate together in many parts of Asia and Africa, that they may travel with greater security through deserts and other places infested with robbers; or where the road is naturally dangerous. The word is derived from the Persian kervan, or cârrân, a trader or dealer. -( Shaw's Travels in the Levant, p. 9. 4to ed.)
Every caravan is under the command of a chief or aga (caravan-bachi), who has fre. quently under him such a number of troops or forces as is deemed suflicient for its defence. When it is practicable, they encamp near wells or rivulets; and observe a regular discipline. Camels are used as a means of conveyance, almost uniforınly, in preference to the horse or any other animal, on account of their wonderful patience of fatigue, eating little, and subsisting three or four days or more without water.
There are generally more camels in a caravan than men. -(See Camel.)
The commercial intercourse of Eastern and African nations has been principally carried on, from the remotest period, by means of caravans. During antiquity, the products of India and China were conveyed either from Suez to Rhinoculura, or from Bussorah, near the head of the Persian Gulf, by the Euphrates, to Babylon, and thence by Palmyra, in the Syrian desert, to the ports of Phænicia on the Mediterranean, where they were exchanged for the European productions in demand in the East. Sometimes, however, caravans set out directly from China, and, occupying about 250 days in the journey, arrived on the shores of the Levant, after traversing the whole extent of Asia (Gibbon, vol. vii. p. 93.) The formation of caravans is, in fact the only way in which it has ever been possible to carry on any considerable internal commerce in Asia or Africa. The governments that have grown up in those continents have seldom been able, and seldomer indeed have they attempted, to render travelling practicable or safe for individuals. The wandering tribes of Arabs have always infested the immense . deserts by which they are intersected; and those only who are sufficiently powerful to protect themselves, or sufficiently rich to purchase an exemption from the predatory attacks of these freebooters, can expect to pass through territories subject to their incur. sions, without being exposed to the risk of robbery and murder.
Since the establishment of the Mohammedan faith, religious motives, conspiring with those of a less exalted character, have tended to augment the intercourse between different parts of the Eastern world, and to increase the number and magnitude of the
Mohammed enjoined all his followers to visit, once in their lifetime, the Caaba, or square building in the temple of Mecca, the immemorial object of veneration amongst his countrymen; and in order to preserve continually upon their minds a sense of obligation to perform this duty, he directed that, in all the multiplied acts of devotion which his religion prescribes, true believers should always turn their faces towards that holy place. In obedience to a precept so solemnly enjoined and sedulously inculcated, large caravans of pilgrims used to assemble annually in every country where the Mohammedan faith is established; and though, owing either to a diminution of reli. gious zeal, or the increasing difficulties to be encountered in the journey, the number of pilgrims has of late years declined greatly, it is still very considerable. Few, however, of the pilgrims are actuated only by devotional feelings. Commercial ideas and objects mingle with those of religion; and it redounds to the credit of Mohamined, that be granted permission to trade during the pilgrimage to Mecca; providing at the same time for the temporal as well as the lasting interests of his votaries. " It shall be no crime in you, it ye seek an increase from your Lord by trading during the pilgrimage.”— (Sale's Koran, c. 2. p. 36. ed. 1764.)
The numerous camels of each caravan are loaded with those commodities of every country which are of easiest carriage and readiest sale. The holy city is crowded during the month of Dhalhajja, corresponding to the latter part of June and the beginning of July, not only with zealous devotees, but with opulent merchants. A fair or market is held in Mecca and its vicinity, on the twelve days that the pilgrims are allowed to remain in that city, which used to be one of the best frequented in the world, and continues to be well attended.
“ Few pilgrims," says Burckhardt, “ except the mendicants, arrive without bringing some productions of their respective countries for sale : and this remark is applicable as well to the merchants, with whom commercial pursuits are the main object, as to those who are actuated by religious zeal; for, to the latter, the profits derived from selling a few articles at Mecca diminish, in some degree, the heavy expenses of the journey. The Moggrebyns (pilgrims from Morocco and the north coast of Africa) bring their red bonnets and wollen cloaks; the European Turks, shoes and slippers, hardware, embroi. dered stuffs, sweetmeats, amber, trinkets of European manufacture, knit silk purses, &c. ; the Turks of Anatolia bring carpets, silks, and Angora shawls; the Persians, Cashmere shawls and large silk handkerchiefs ; the Afghans, tooth-brushes, calloni Mesouak Kattary, made of the spongy boughs of a tree growing in Bokhara, beads of a yellow soapstone, and plain coarse shawls manufactured in their own country; the Indians, the numerous productions of their rich and extensive region; the people of Yemen, snakes for the Persian pipes, sandals and various other works in Icather; and the Africans bring various articles adapted to the slave trade. The pilgrims are, however, often disappointed in their expectations of gain; want of money makes them bastily sell their little adventures at the public auctions, and often obliges them to accept very low prices." --( Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 21.)
The two principal caravans which yearly rendezvous at Mecca are those of Damascus and Cairo. The first is composed of pilgrims from Europe and Western Asia; the second of Mohammedans from all parts of Africa.
The Syrian caravan is said by Burckhardt to be very well regulated. It is always accompanied by the pacha of Damascus, or one of his principal officers, who gives the signal for encamping and starting by firing a musket. On the route, a troop of horsemen ride in the front, and another in the rear to bring up the stragglers. The different parties of pilgrims, distinguished by their provinces or towns, keep close together. At night torches are lighted, and the daily distance is usually performed between 3 o'clock in the afternoon and an hour or two after sunrise on the following day. The Bedouins or Arabs, who carry provisions for the troops, travel by day only, and in advance of the caravans; the encampment of which they pass in the morning, and are overtaken in turn and passed by the caravan on the following night, at their own resting place. The journey with these Bedouins is less fatiguing than with the great body of the caravan, as a regular night's rest is obtained; but their bad character deters most pilgrims from joining them.
At every watering place on the route is a small castle and a large tank, at which the camels water. The castles are garrisoned by a few persons, who remain the whole year to guard the provisions deposited there. It is at these watering-places, which belong to the Bedouins, that the sheikhs of the tribe meet the caravan, and receive the accustomed tribute for allowing it to pass. Water is plentiful on the route; the stations are nowhere more distant than 11 or 12 hours' march; and in winter, pools of rain-water are frequently found. Those pilgrims who can travel with a litter, or on commodious camel-saddles, may sleep at night, and perform the journey with little inconvenience : but of those whom poverty, or the desire of speedily acquiring a large sum of money, induces to follow the caravan on foot, or to hire themselves as servants, many die on the road from fatigue. — (Travels in Arabia, vol. ii. p. 3—9.)
The caravan which sets out from Cairo for Mecca is not generally so large as that of Damascus; and its route along the shores of the Red Sea is more dangerous and fatiguing. But many of the African and Egyptian merchants and pilgrims sail from Suez, Cosscir, and other ports on the western shore of the Red Sea, for Djidda, whence the journey to Mecca is short and easy.
The Persian caravan for Mecca sets out from Bagdad; but many of the Persian pilgrins are now in the habit of embarking at Bussorah, and coming to Djidda by sca.
Caravans from Bagdad and Bussorah proceed to Aleppo, Damascus, and Diarbeker, laden with all sorts of Indian, Arabian, and Persian commodities; and large quantities of European goods, principally of English cottons, imported at Bussorah, are now distributed throughout all the eastern parts of the Turkish empire by the same means. The intercourse carried on in this way is, indeed, every day becoming of more importance.
The commerce carried on by caravans, in the interior of Africa, is widely extended and of considerable value. Besides the great caravan which proceeds from Nubia to Cairo, and is joined by Mohammedan pilgrims from every part of Africa, there are caravans which have no object but commerce, which set out from Fez, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and other states on the sea-coast, and penetrate far into the interior. Some of them take as many as 50 days to reach the place of their destination; and as their rate of travelling may be estimated at about 18 miles a day at an average, the extent of their journeys may easily be computed. As both the time of their outset and their route is known, they are met by the people of the countries through which they travel, who trade with them. Indian goods of every kind form a considerable article in this traffic; in exchange for which, the chief commodity the inhabitants have to give is slaves.
Three distinct caravans are employed in bringing slaves and other commodities from Central Africa to Cairo. One of them comes direct from Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan, across the Libyan desert; another from Senaar; and the third from Darfur. They do not arrive at stated periods, but after a greater or less interval, according to the success they have had in procuring slaves, ivory, gold dust, drugs, and such other articles as are fitted for the Egyptian markets. The Mourzouk caravan is said to be under the best regulations. It is generally about 50 days on its passage ; and seldom consists of less than 100, or of more than 300, travellers. The caravans from Senaar and Darfur used formerly to be very irregular, and were sometimes not seen in Egypt for 2 or 3 years together ; but since the occupation of the former by the troops of Mohammed Ali, the intercourse between it and Egypt has become comparatively frequent and regular. The number of slaves imported into Egypt by these caravans is said to amount, at present, to about 10,000 a year. The departure of a caravan from Darfur is looked upon as a most important event; it engages for a while the attention of the whole country, and even forms a kind of æra. -(Browne's Travels in Africa, 2d ed. p. 78.) A caravan from Darfur is considered large if it has 2,000 camels and 1,000