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A General View of the (legalised) Export Trade to Foreign countries, at the Port of Canton, during
the Year 1845, specifying the Description and Quantities of Commodities exported, as well as their estimated Value, and distinguishing the Nations to which the Ships belonged in which they were exported, viz. :
31,039 $54,496 Anisped, star
611 6. , oil
146 Bamboo ware
30 10 Brass leaf
2,229 Canes of all sorts
2,23 Cassia lignea
4,840 40,150 buds
31 China root
121, Copper, tin, and pewter wares
5 142 8,37 Cracker and fireworks
3 170 15 5,267
32 56 21,775
220 56,160 59,5 Furniture and woodware
55 Glass and glass ware
2,049 89, 1.3 Grissloth • carties 2,256 11,888
6,721 2,085 8,052 31,718 Ilarialt or orpiment
89 312 174 398 170 7.427 15 904 Kitt sols
2 910 Lacquer wares
18 14 12 18 21 501 9191 Mats and matung
21% 17,6751 lis Musk
1401 12,1141 Nankeens and dyed cottons piculs
21,19t Paper of all kinds
143 165 I'reserves
10 17,19: Ratian work
2 1,035 21,112 Rhubarb 82.3 521 28 84 180
2.672 111,5 Silk, raw
5,359 2,617,710 , Coarse and refuse 4,191
4,191 -, thread and ribands
2,951 2,900 15,399 > piece goods
69.49 112,623 536 659 21,611 8,266 17,157 2,001 234,794 1,557,7% Silk and cottun inixed stufts 24,487
100 42,57 Say
3 Sugar, raw
139,557 70.444 candy
42,672 319,** Tea 429,467 139,2112 1,931 16,109
60 3,08 4 600,191 21,23, Trunks, leather
39.23 Miscellaneous articles
value 213,073 154,154 1,033 2,046 3,008 1,586 965 2,416 378,583 Value of exports • £ 20,734,018 7,979,864 9.9,010 635,533 320,744 419,973 163,688 219,596 Total $ 50,566,46
Or, £ 6,622,120
A Return of the Quantities and Values of the Merchandise exported from Shanghai, in British Vessels,
£ Alumn piculs 2,7011
470 Tea, continued Musk
piculs 3,160 Rhubarb
12 69,889 462,746 Silk, raw, viz:
1,1.52 Tsailee piculs 5,818
Imperial 9,505 792,489
2,13 Tea, viz
Silk piece goods piculs Congou piculs 56,371
570 Souchong 2,703
202 Hung Muey 173
Total 1,250,091 Consular Fees. - The consular fees imposed in 1843 have been withdrawn (anté, p. 229.), and the following table of fees, payable by British ships in all the ports of China, has been substituted in its stead. TAR A:
Noting a protest
1 do! Certificate of due landing of goods exported froin
Order of survey the U. Kingdom 2 dollars Extending a protest or survey
1 Signature of ship's manifest
1 Certificate of origin, when required
Via of passport
1 cent, Signature of muster-roll, when required
Attending sales, per cent. where there has been a charge Aitestation of a signature, when required
for valuing; otherwise 1 per cent. Administering an oath, when required
Attendance out of consular office at a shipwreck, five dollars Seal of office, and signature of any other docu.
per diem for his personal experises, over and above his tra. ment not specified herein, when required
5 dollars TABLR B:
Manageinent of property of British sutjects
• 21 cent. Trade between British India and China. - This trade is decidedly more valuable and important than that carried on between Great Britain and China. The greatest article of export from India to Canton used to be cotton wool, principally from Bombay; but it is now becoine insignificant as compared with opium, the imports of which into China, as seen above, are worth, at present, about 25,000,000 dollars. The erlicts of the einperors are as unable to prevent its introduction, as the proclamations of
James and Charles were to hinder the use of tobacco in England. The smuggler is, if anything, even more omnipotent in China than in Spain. Opium is everywhere imported with ease and safety. The trade was at first principally conducted at Whampoa; but the exactions of the Chinese authorities drove it to Macao, where it increased, but whence it was subsequently driven by the exactions of the Portuguese.
It is now principally carried on in the Bay of Lintin and generally along the east coast. At Lintin the opium used to be kept on board receiving ships, of which there were frequently not less than 12 quietly lying at anchor, without danger or molestation of any sort.
The exports from China to India consist of sugar for Western India, tea, porcelain, nankeens, cassia, camphor, &c.; but the amount of these is not very considerable, and the returns are principally made in bills and bullion. We subjoin an Account, stated in Pounds' Weight, of the Total Quantities of Tea exported from Canton in 1844,
specifying the Countries for which the same were shipped, and the Quantity shipped for each. The United Kingdom lbs. 52,179,533
6,000 The United States 15,495,500
337,705 Nova Scotia 2,339,967 East India Islands
Cape of Good Hope Belgium 17,109 Peru
Total 72,567,111 449,613 Account of Teas exported from China for the United Kingdom during each of the 3 years ended 30th
June, 1846, specifying the different Varieties of Tea, and the Quantities of each.
44,975,557 Teas, Green. Hyun Skin
2016,978 Young llyson
2,537,061 Total Green
12,609,004 Total Black and Green
57,584,561 The quantitie exported in 1844 were stripped in 97 vessels; those exported in 1815, in 103 vessels; and those exported in 1846, in 117 vessels.
Export of teas to the United States, in 50 vessels, during the year ending June 30th, 1945. Black, 6,950,459 lbs., green, 13,802,099 lbs.: making together 20,752,458 lbs.
Currency. - Doubts having been entertained respecting the taken to render it compulsory on any person to accept at any value of the coins current in Hong Kong and its dependen one payment a larger amount in silver coins of the United cies, the f*wing rates at which such coins are made legal Kingdom of lower denoinination than 1.., or in the half. tenda were fixed by proclamation date list May, 1845:
quirt r, or e chi rupee peees herein-before mentioned, than * The gold mohur of the East India Company's territory, the equivalent to s sterling money, or a larger amount in coined since the 1st day of September, 1835, at the rate of copper coins of the United Kingdom, or in the Chinese copper 293. ed. sterling money of the United Kingdom.
coins before mentioned, than the equivalent to ls. Blering * The dollar of Spain, Mexico, or the South American money." States, at the rate of is. 2d. sterling
The Portuguese trade, particularly that with the possessions “ The rupe of the East India (ompany's territory, coined of Porcunal on the continent of India, was considerable during since the 1st day of September, 1835, at the rate of Is. 10d. the war, but has since greatly declined. A nation of more sterling: and the hall rupee, quarter rupee, and eighth of spirit than the Portuguese would, with the advantaje they rupee pieces, in proportion.
enjoy in the possession of the convenient station of Mac3o, be "The cash, or copper coin current in China, at the rate of able to carry on the Chinese trade with superior success. 298 cash for ls. sterling.
There is a considerable intercourse, carried on in Spanish The following proviso estallishes with respect to silver cur- ships, between Canton and Manilla. The Philippine Islands rency the same principle that prevails in England:
afford many commodities in demand in the Chinese markets; "Provide asays, nevertheless, and we do further ordain but the Spaniards are deficient in the skill and enterprise re. and declare, that nothing herein contained shall be deemed or quired fully to avail themselves of these advantages
Trude with the Indian Islands, &c. In his evidence before the select committee of the House of Commons, Mr. Crawfurd gave the following details with respect to the native foreign trade of China :
Native Foreign Trade of China. -" The principal part of the junk trade is carried on by the four contiguous provinces of Canion, Fokien, Chekiang, and Kiannan.
"No foreign trade is permitied with the island of Formosa ; and I have no means of describing the extent of the traffic which may be conducted between China, Corea, and the Leechew Islands. The following are the countries with which China carries on a trade in junks; viz. Japan, the Philippines, the Soo-loo Islands, Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Singapore, Rhio, the east coast of the Malayan peninsula, Siam, Cochin China, Cambodia, and Tonquin; and these may, in all, einploy about 222 junks. The ports of China at which this trade is conducted are Canton, Tchao-tcheou, Nombong, Hoeitcheon, Suheng, Kongmoon, Changlim, and Hainan, in the province of Canton ; Amy and Chinchew, in the province of Fökien; Ningpo and Siang-hai, in the province of Chekiang; and Soutcheon, in the province of Kinnan.
* The above estimate does not include a great number of small junks belonging to the island of Hainan, which carry on trade with Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Siam, and Singapore. Those for Siam anount yearly to about 50, and for the Cochin Chinese dominions to about 43; these alone would bring the total number of vessels carrying on a direct trade between China and foreign countries to 307. The trade with Japan is contined to the port of Ningpo, in Chekiang, and expressly limited to 10 vessels ; but as the distance from Nangasaki is a voyage of no more than 4 days, it is performed twice a year.
* With the exception of this branch of trade, the foreign intercourse of the two provinces Chekiang and Kiannan, which are famous for the production of raw silk, teas, and nankeens, is contined to the Philippine Islands, Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, and Siam ; and none of this class of vessels, that I am aware of, have ever found their way to the western parts of the Indian Archipelago. The number of these trading with Siam is 24, all of considerable size; those trading with the Cochin Chinese dominons 16, also of considerable size; and those trading with the Philippines 5; making in all 45, of which the average burden does not fall short of 17,000 tons.
“ Besides the junks now described, there is another numerous class, which may be denominated the colonial shipping of the Chinese. Wherever the Chinese are settled in any numbers, junks of this deseription are to be found ; such as in Java, Sumatra, the Straits of Malacca, &c. ; but the largest commerce of this description is conducted from the Cochin Chinese dominions, especially froin Siam, where the number was estimated to me at 200. Several junks of this description from the latter country come annually to Singapore, of which the burden is not less than tom 300 to 400 tons.
* The junks which trade between China and the adjacent countries are some of them owned and built in China, but a considerable number also in the latter countries, particularly in Siam and Cochin Chivi. or those carrying on the Siamese trade, indeed, no less than 81 out of the s9, of considerable size, were represented to me as being built and owned in Sian. The small junks, however, carrying on the trade of Hainan, are all built and owned in China.
“ The junks, whether colonial or trading direct with China, vary in burden from 2,000 piculs to 1son, or carry dead weight from 120 to 900 tons. Of those of the last size I have only seen 3 or 4, and these were at Siam, and the same which were commonly employed in carrying a mission and tribute yearly from Siam to Canton. of the whole of the large class of junks, I should think the average burden wil not be overrated at 300 tons each, which would make the total tonnage employed in the native foreign trade of China between 60,000 and 70,000 tons, exclusive of the small junks of Hainan, which, estimatea at 150 tons each, would make in all about 80.000 tons.
*** The junks built in China are usually constructed of fr and other inferior woods. When they arrive in Cambodia, Siam, and the Malayan islands, they commonly furnish themselves with masts, ruilders. and wooden anchors, of the superior timber of these countries. The junks built in Siam are a superior class of vessels, the planks and upper works being invariably teak. The cost of ship-building is higtiest at the port of Amoy in Fokien, and lowest in Siam. At these places, and at Chang-lim in Canto the cost of a junk of 8,000 piculs, or 476 tons burden, was stated to me, by several commanders of junks, to be as follows: At Siam
7,400 dollars Chang-lim
A junk of the size just named has commonly a crew of 90 hands, consisting of the following officers, besides the crew ; a commander, a pilot, an accountant, a captain of the helm, a captain of the arctior, and a captain of the hold. The commander receives no pay, but has the advantage of the cabin modation for passengers, reckoned on the voyage between Canton and Singapore worth 130 Spanish dollars. He is also the agent of the owners, and receives a commission, commonly of 10 per cent on the profils of such share of the adventure, generally a considerable one, in which they are concerned. The pilot receives for the voyage 200 dollars of wages, and 50 piculs of freight out and home. The helmu has 15 piculs of freight and no wages. The captains of the anchor and the hold have 9 piculs of freight each; and the seamen 7 piculs each. None of these have any wages. The otticers and seamen of the colonial junks are differently rewarded. In a Siamese junk, for example, trading between the Siamese capital and Singapore, of 6,000 piculs burden, the commander and pilot had each 100 dollars for the voyage, with 12 piculs of freight apiece. The accountant and helmasman had half of this allowance, and each seaman had 13 dollars, with 5 piculs of freight.
" In construction and outtit, Chinese junks are clumsy and awkward in the extreme. The Chinese are quite unacquainted with navigation, saving the knowledge of the compass: notwithstanding tuis, as their pilots are expert, their voyages short, and as they hardly ever sail except at the height of the monBuons, when a fair and steady 7 or 8 knots' breeze carries them directly from port to port, the sea risk is very small. During 13 years' acquaintance with this branch of trade, I can recollect hearing of but 4 shipwrecks; and in all these instances the crews were saved.
" The construction and rigging of a Chinese junk may be looked upon as her proper registry, and they are a very effectual one; for the least deviation from them would subject her at once to foreign charges and foreign duties, and to all kinds of suspicion. The colonial junks, which are of a more con mouious form and outfit, visiting China, are subjected to the same duties as foreign vessels. Junks bude in Siam, or any other adjacent country, is constructed and fitted out after the customary model, are ad initted to trade to China upon the same terms as those built and owned in the country. If any part of the crew consist of Siamese, Cochin Chinese, or other foreigners, the latter are admitted only at the port of Canton; and if found in any other part of China, would be seized and taken up by the police exactly in the same manner as if they were Europeans. The native trade of China conducted with foreign countries is not a clandestine commerce, unacknowledged by the Chinese laws, but has in every case at least the express sanction of the viceroy or governor of the province, who, on petition, decides the number of junks that shall be allowed to engage in it; and even enumerates the articles which it shall be led to export and import. At every port, also, where such a foreign trade is sanctioned, there is a hong or body of security merchants, as at Canton; a fact which shows clearly enough that this institution is parcel of the laws or customs of China, and not a peculiar restraint imposed upon the intercourse with Europeans,
“ The Chinese junks properly constructed pay no measurement duty, and no cumshaw or presenti duties, bowever, are paid upon goods exported and imported, which seem to differ at the different provinces. They are highest at Amoy, and lowest in the island of Hainan. The Chinese traders of sin informed me that they carried on the fairest and easiest trade, subject to the fewest restrictions, in the ports of Ningpo and Siang-hai in Chekiang, and Soutcheon in Kiannan. Great dexterity secins every where to be exercised by the Chinese in evading the duties. One practice, which is very often followe, will afford a good example of this. The coasting trade of China is nearly free from all duties and otber imposts. The merchant takes advantage of this; and, intending in reality to proceed to Siain or Cochin China, for example, clears a junk out for the island of Hainan, and thus avoids the payment of duties. When she returns she will lie 4 or 5 days off the mouth of the port, until a regular bargain be made with the Custom- house officers for the reduction of duties. The threat held out in such cases is to privred to another port, and thus deprive the public officers of their customary perquisites. I was assured of the frequency of this practice by Chinese merchants of Cochin China, as well as by several commanders of junks at Singapore. From the last-named persons I had another fact of some consequence, as counecird with the Chinese trade ; viz. that a good many of the junks, carrying on trade with foreign ports in the westward of China, often proceeded on voyages to the northward in the saine season. In this manner they stated that about 20 considerable junks, besides a great many small ones, proceeded annually from Canton to Souchong, one of the capitals of Kiannall, and in wealth and commerce the rival of Canton, where they sold about 200 chests of opium at an advance of 50 per cent. beyond the Canton prices Another place where the Canton junks, to the number of 5 or 6, repair annually, is Chinchew in the ovince Cappen of Canton, within the Gulf of Pecheley, or Yellow Sea, and as far north as the 37th degree of
Report of 1830, p. 298.) A Chinese ship or junk is seldom the property of one individual. Sometimes 40, 50, or even 100 different merchants purchase a vessel, and divide her into as many different compartments as there are partners ; so that each knows his own particular part in the ship, which he is at liberty to fit up and secure as he pleases. The bulk-heads, by which these divisions are formed, consist of stout planks, so well caulked as to be completely water-tight. A ship thus formed may strike on a rock, and yet sustain no serious injury; a leak springing in one division of the hold will not be attended with any damage to articles placed in another; and, from her firmness, she is qualified to resist a more than ordinary shock. A considerable loss of stowage is, of course, sustained; but the Chinese exports generally contain a considerable value in small bulk. It is only the very largest class of junks that have so many owners; but even in the smallest class the number is very considerable.
Population of China. — For some remarks on the conflicting accounts and theories that have been put forth with respect to the population of this empire, the reader is referred to the Geographical Dictionary, art. China.
CANVAS (Fr. Toile à voile ; Ger. Segeltuch ; It. Canevazza, Lona ; Rus. Parussnce polotno, Parussina ; Sp. Lona), unbleached cloth of hemp or fax, chiefly used for sails for shipping. Masters of ships are required to make entry of all foreign-made sails and cordage, not being standing or running rigging, in use on board their respective ships, under a penalty of 1001. Sails in actual use, and fit and necessary for such ship, are imported free ; but when otherwise disposed of, they are liable to an ad valorem duty of 20 per. cent.--(3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 56.) It had been the practice for a considerable period to grant bounties on the exportation of canvas or sail-cloth; these, however, finally ceased on the 1st of January, 1832. By an act passed in the reign of Geo. 2., new sails were ordered to be stamped with the maker's name and place of abode ; but this regulation was repealed by the 10 Geo. 4. c. 43. & 9.
CAOUTCHOUC. “ This substance, which has been improperly termed elastic gum, and vulgarly, from its common application to rub out pencil marks on paper, India rubber, is obtained from the milky juice of different plants in hot countries. The click of these are the Jatropha elastica, and Urceola elastica. The juice is applied in successive coatings on a mould of clay, and dried by the fire or in the sun; and when of a sufficient thickness, the mould is crushed, and the pieces shaken out.
Acids separate the caoutchouc from the thinner part of the juice at once, by coagulating it. The juice of old plants yields nearly two thirds of its weight; that of younger plants less. Its colour, when fresh, is yellowish white, but it grows darker by exposure to the air. The elasticity of this substance is its most remarkable property; when warmed, as by immersion in hot water, slips of it may be drawn out to 7 or 8 times their original length, and will return to their former dimensions nearly. Cold renders it stiff and rigid, but warmth restores its original elasticity. Exposed to the fire, it softens, swells up, and burns with a bright flame. In Cayenne it is used to give light as a candle." - (Ure's Dictionary.)
Caoutchouc has become an article of very considerable importance. M. de la Condamine, who was one of the first to communicate authentic information with respect to it, mentions, that, owing to its being impervious to water, it was made into boots by the Indians. -(Voyage de la Rivière des Amazones, p. 76.) It is now employed in a similar way here. Means have, within these few years, been discovered of reducing it to a state of solution; and when thin filaments of it are spread over cloth or any other substance, it is rendered impervious alike to air and water. Air cushions and pillows are manufactured in this way; as are water-proof cloaks, now in very extensive demand, hats, boots, shoes, &c. It is also extensively used in the manufacture of braces and other articles which it is desirable should possess considerable elasticity; and there can be little doubt that it will be employed still more extensively, and in a still greater variety of ways.
Previously to 1830, the importations of caoutchouc were comparatively inconsiderable, having in that year amounted to only 52,000 lbs. ; whereas, in 1840, the duty of 1s. a cwt, produced 3221., showing that 6,6-40 cwts., or 721,280 lbs, had been entered for consumption. It is principally imported from Brazil, Colombia, and other parts of S. America. The imports from Brazil (Para) amounted, at an average of the 3 years ending with 1842, to 3,790 cwts. a year. -(Parl. Paper No. 309. Sess. 1843.) of caoutchouc varied in the London market, in January 1843, from 7a. to Is. 3d. per Ib.
CAPERS (Fr. Capres ; Ger. Kappern ; Du. Kappers ; It. Cappari ; Sp. Alcaparras ; Rus. Kaperszü; Lat. Capparis), the pickled buds of the Capparis spinosa, a low shrub, generally growing out of the joints of old walls, and the fissures of rocks, in most of the warm parts of Europe. Capers are imported into Great Britain from different parts of the Mediterranean; the best from Toulon in France. Some small salt capers come from Majorca, and a few flat ones from about Lyons. The duty of 6d. per lb. on capers produced, in 1840, 2,1001. nett, showing that 84,000 lbs. had been entered for home consumption.
CAPE-TOWN, the capital of the British territory in South Africa, at the bottom of Table Bay, about 32 miles north from the Cape of Good Hope, and on the western side of the territory to which it gives its name; lat. 33° 55' 56'' S., long. 18° 21' E. The town was founded by the Dutch in 1650; and remained, with the territory subject to it, in their possession, till it was taken by the British in 1795. It was restored to the Dutch by the treaty of Amiens ; but being again captured by the British in 1806, it was finally ceded to us in 1815. The streets are laid out in straight lines, crossing
each other at right angles; many of them being watered by canals, and planted on each side with oaks. The population in 1842 amounted, according to the statement in the Cape Almanac, to 22,543, of whom about a third were blacks. The town is defended by a castle of considerable strength. Table Bay is capable of containing any number of ships; but it is exposed to the westerly winds, which, during the months of June, July, and August, throw in a heavy swell, that has been productive of many distressing accidents. This, in fact, is the great drawback upon Cape Town, which in all other respects is most admirably fitted for a commercial station. At the proper season, however, or during the prevalence of the easterly monsoon, Table Bay is perfectly safe; while the cheapness and abundance of provisions, the healthiness of the climate, and above all its position, render it a peculiarly desirable resting place for ships bound to or from India, China, Australia, &c.
The subjoined plan of Table Bay is taken from the survey of the Cape of Good Hope, executed by Lieut. Vidal and others, under the direction of Captain Owen.