Imatges de pàgina
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Foreign Merchants. These consist of British, American, French, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Spanish, and Portuguese, with l'arsee and Indian Mohammedan British subjects. The Americans, French, and Dutch have each consular agents recognised by the Imperial government. The same privileges have been, or are to be, conceded to all foreigvers that have been granted to the English.

Rates of Coinmission in China, agreed upon in November, 1831, and revised by the Chamber of

Commerce, March, 1838. 1. On all sales of opium, otton, cechireal,

agents or owners or commanders, on the caraphor harus tirl' nesis, amids,

amront of freight, whether the same an other precious stones, pearls, sa

passes through the hands of the agent and house

3 per cent.
or not

5 per cent. 2. Oni sa es of all other goods + to, 21. On receiving inward freight

1 ditto. 3. On returns, it in gols dito. 22. On ship's chistursements.

. 2 ditto. 4. On returas, if in treasure, bullion, or lills

1 dito.
23. Oa chartering ship for other parties

25 ditto. 5. On purchases, not being retum. for goods

21. On eflecting insurance, or writing orders sold:

for insurance

ditto. 1st. Of raw silk

3 ditto. 25. Settling insurance losses, total or partial, 2d. Of nanufactured silk

5 ditio.

and on procuring retum of premium 1 ditto, 3d. Of all ther gouts

5 ditto. 26. Delta, where * proxess at law or arbitra. 6. On inspecting teas, whether for returns or

tion is necessary, 2) per cent.; and if other* ise, an additional charge of

I ditto.
recovered

5 ditto. 7. On sale, purchae, or shipment of Inullian 1 ci to. 27. Collecting hoque rent

2 ditto. 8. On drawing, sale, or negotiation of bills

28. Acting for the estates of persons deceased, when in solving responsibility

as executors or administrators

5 ditto. drawer or endorser

1 ditto. 29. The management of the estates of others, 9. On drawing, sale, or negotiating of bills

on the amount received

24 ditto. who uaranteed by the Agent as drawer

30. All cash receipts, not serving for the pur. or endorser, and not covered by adequale

chine of goods, and not otherwise specisecurity

• 2 ditto.
fied above

1 ditto. 10. On purchasing bills, or effecting rernit

31. Shroffing

? per mil. tance by dulls, of the ag nt or otherwise 1 ditto. 32. Transhipping goods

1 per cent. 11. On negotiating loans le pandenia

2 ditto. 33. All advan es not punctually liguidated, the 12. Om guaranteeing bills, bonds, or other en

agent to have the option of charging a 2 gernents

24 ditto.

second comunission, as upon a fresh ad13. On guaranteeing sales when especially re

vance, provided the charge does not oceur quired without including responsibility

twice in the salue year

1 ditto, for remittances

2) ditto. 31. Al the eption of the agent, on the amount 14. On guaranteeing both sales and remittance

debited or credited within the year, in. 1 ditto.

cluding interest, and excepting onls itens 15. On bills of exchange, returned noted, or

on which a commission of 5 per cent, has protested

ditto.
been changed

1 d.tto. 16. On letters of credit for mercantile purtaxes 24 ditto.

N. B. - This charge not to be applied to 17. On all advanres of money for purposes of

paying over a balance due on an ac. trade, whether the goods are consigned

count made up to a particular period, to the age it or not, and where a com

unless where such balance is withdrawn mission of 5 per cent is not charge 2) ditto.

without reasonable notice. 18. On ordering goods, or superintending the

Port Charges are fised under the new treats at 5 mace per fulfilment of contracts, where no other

register ton, in full of all charges; so that the complex systein commission is derived

• 21 ditto. that previously obtained for charging those duties is pow, in so 19. Op all gowls, treasure, &c. consimned, and

far at least as British ships are concerned, at an end. Vessels afterwards with r. wnur went to auction,

importing rice or other grain into any of the five porta in and for gods consigned for addicional

to British vessels, are bale to no charges whatever ; but it delivery to others

com they take away an export cargo, they then have to pay the

mission. duties on such cargo agreeably to the tariff, and one molety 20. On procuring freight, or advertising as

of the tonnage dues, or 2, mace per ton.

Trade between England and China. Down to 1834, the trade between the United Kingdom and China was monopolised by the East India Company, but in the above year this monopoly was happily abolished, and the trade with China thrown open to all classes under the conditions specified in the act 3 & 4 W. 4. c. 93. Tea has always been by far the principal article of import from China; and it is mainly owing to the diffusion of the taste for it, and its consumption by all ranks and orders of the people, that the trade with China has attained its present importance: and, as already seen, we believe we must principally look to the increased consumption of tea that would, no doubt, follow the effectual reduction of the exorbitant duties with which it is at present loaded, for the future increase of the trade. The other articles of import are raw silk and silk manufactures, nankeens, cassia lignea, and a few other articles; but they are of very inferior value and importance as compared with tea.

The great articles of export from this country to China consist of cotton stuffs and yarn, woollen goods, linen, &c., earthenware, iron and steel, &c. Bullion used to be largely exported to China ; but latterly the current has begun to set in the opposite direction.

Previously to the abolition of the monopoly, in 1834, the real value of the merchandise annually exported from the U. Kingdom to China did not exceed 600,0001. ; whereas it had increased in 1836 to 1,326,3881. ; and though it fell off in 1897 to 678,375l., it rose in 1838 to 1,204,3561. The interruption of the regular trade, by the disturbances and hostilities that afterwards ensued, prevents any accurate conclusions in regard to its probable future amount being deduced from the returns for 1839, 1840, and 1841.

But in 1842, the exports from the U. Kingdom to China amounted to 969,381l. ; in 1843 they were 1,456,1801. ; and in 1845 they rose to the unprecedented amount of 2,394,8272.! And great as this amount may seem, most probably it would, at no distant period, be very much increased but for the difficulty the Chinese experience in making returns; a difficulty which would, however, be very materially diminished were the duty on bohea reduced, as it should be, to 6d. or 8d. per Ib., and that on other teas in the same proportion.

The act 6 & 7 Victoria, cap 80., anthorises the superintendent of the trade of her Majesty's subjects in China, being al the same tine governor of Hong Kong, to issue, with the advice of the legislative

council of the Island, laws and ordinances for the government of British subjects in China, or within 100 iniles of the same. Laws and ordinances so issued are to be laid before parliament.

Account of the Quantities of Tea imported into the United Kingdom direct from China, in each Year

from 1793 to 1845, both inclusive.

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Account of the Quantities of Raw Silk, Nankeen Cloth, Silk Manufactures, Cassia Lignea, and other Articles of Chinese Produce, imported into the United Kingdom, in each Year from 1830 down to 1845, both inclusive.

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Las. Pieces. Pieces 18.30 19.198! 22,758 161 1851 8,37:

2,500 85 IR32 98,105

126 1813 22,181 9,700 1,873 1874

584,834 24,00 4,276 1833 7.37,189 11,436 4,13.3 1836 1,277,027 11,900 6,395 16371,751,252 129,467 30,051

693,248 59,1138 21,670 18.99 314,549 36,400 21,327 1510 247,755 2,700 2,256 1811 277,093 5,599 13,578 18.2

180,114 3,340 9,730

264,301 7.85119,253 1914 339,793 66,293 7,510 1845 1,169,643 31,081 13,250

Nomber. Pieces. Los. Number. Lbe. Lbs. L. 6,485 925 2 327,3661 6,5.38 2,074 45 546,673

36,373 6.755 138 6! 485,568

73,114 10,763 2,422 51,087,275

105,589 973

23'1,102,283 110,697 139, 158 56,717 6,646

1,956 313 2,058,564 153,637 55,429 94,515 1,56 2,630' 4,595 613,854 74,883 . 41,028 10,618 7,718 47,478 1,209,902 8,252 23,580 85.0.38 8,131

3,713 18.440 461,953 44,142 12,449 55,811 7,2016 13,563 381 523,352 54,206 33,406 36,739 3, 110 7 301,948

15,986 8,288 12,106 41 730,989 38,766 9,124 43,610 2, 1.33 20,771

94 587, 46,276,117 19,716 72,318 8,217 16,620 11,007 312,56 647,390 91,272 172,182 12,7 18 1,2952 13,023 742,570 6307,912 196,434 141,255 6,266

9,834 6,222 753,3371752,176 394,2211221,030

12,798 12,152 6,376

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2,181 605

183

An Account of the Number of Merchant Ships, specifying the Amount of their Tonnage, and the

Number of their Crews, that have cleared out from the different Ports of the United Kingdom for China, and entered inwards for the same, during each of the last Thirteen Years.

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Account of the declared Value of the principal articles of British Produce and Manufacture exported

from the United Kingdom to China during each of the Six Years ending with 1815.

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Detailed Account of the legalised Import and Export Trade carried on in British Vessels at Canton

during the Year ended 31st December, 1845.
Imports.

Quantities.
Estimated

Estimated
Value.
Exports.

Quantities.

Value.

Sp. Dollars.

33,986

24,123

1,4371 17 1,230

8,446 9,125 2348 8,170 13,324

60,834 2,004,460

120,637 683,854

Green Ter, 89,600. Black Tea, 340,267.

15,825,954

2,496

1. BRITISK MANUFACTURES AND

STAFLK ARTICLRS.

1.- Manufactures of Wool. Bread cloth, Spanish stripes,

habit and medium cloth changs NaTuw woollens,

not described Long ells Carlets Bombazets Buntings Blankets

pairs Woollens not enumerated value

2.- Manufactures of Cotton. Long cloths, grey

• pieces Do. white

Do. twilled Cambrics and muslips Chintzes and prints Handkerchiets

dozens Ginghamns, pulicates, dyed cottons, velvets, vel veteens, silk and cotton mixtures, wool and cotton mixtures,

and all kinds of fancy goods value Cotton yarn and thread • piculs 3. - Miscellaneous Articles, raw and

manufactured. Clocks and watches, including

telescopes, writing desks, and
dressing cases, hardware,
ironmongery, cutlery, per
furnery, &c.

• value Farthen ware of all kinds Fints

• piculs Glass and glass ware •

value Iron in bolts, bars, rods, hoops, &c.

piculs Steel, ray Tin plates

• boxes Lead

piculs inalts Wine, beer, and spirits value IL PRODUCTIONS OF INDIA AND

OTHER COUNTRIES. Betel-nuts

-piculs Bicho de Mar Brilants

- catties Cotton, viz.! Boinbay

450,440)

12,599 dras

57,933

piculs Miscellaneous

6,331 Cow Bezoar

catties El phants' teeth Fishmaws

piculs Gum Olibanum

minth
not enumerated or de
scribed

value Horns, buffalo and bullock - piculs Horns, whicorn and rhino

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Sp. Dollars

I. RAW PRODUCE.
Alumn

piculs

30,782 Aniseed stars

106 Camphor

1,202 145,472 800,257 Cares

mille

117 Cassia lignea

piculs 15,897 377,210 503,289' Cassia buds

502 912,937 41.3,652 (hina root

3,016 119,751 232,320 Hartall or orpiment

207 15,458 22,083 Musk

cattles

106 987 1,729 Quicksilver

piculs 130 3,916 23,569 Rhubarb

1,505 7,336 7,356, Silk, raw, Nankin 3467

Do.,
Canton
1725 )

5,192 679,412 1,867,932 Silk, coarse and refuse

4,191 106,735 455,861 Sugar, raw

136,283 3,070 9,134 Tea, iz. :2,127

7,274
Congou

289,160 2.3,426 54,974

Souchong

10,856 14,1261 29,236

Pekoe

5,248 Orange pekoe 16,734 Caper :

10,481 Miscellaneous sorts 7,752 Twankay 24,137

429,867 $19,050 19,050

Hyson 20,416 313,8.35 Hyson skin

1,463 Young hyson. 25,998 Imperial

8,154 Gunpowder 18,062 Tobacco

278 II. MANUFACTURED ARTICLES. Bangles or glass armlets

127

• boxes $28,5401 28,540 Bamboo ware

. piculs

138 $1,940 1,510 Brass leaf

• boxes

117 13,411 7,860 Bone and horn ware

Catties

329 $3,927 3,927 China ware

piculs 4,718 Crockery

value 24,083

$1,055 60,405' Copper, tin, and pewter ware piculs

173 30 Crackers and fireworks 1,006

791 7,082 Fans of all sorts

- catties

5,496 716

3,587 Furniture and wood ware 280

piculs 268 12,674 Glass and glass ware $5,650

275 5,650 Glass beds

boxes 1,639 Grass cloth

catties 2,256 4,770,960 Ivory, mother of pearl, sandal 15,935

60,151
wood, and tortoiseshell ware

878 420 10,420 Kittssols

boxes 935 125 3,267|| Lackered ware

piculs

263 Mats and matting

1,765 Yankeens and cotton cloth

253 Oil of aniseed 527,201 4,727,834

24 Do, cassa

35 Paper of all sorts

2,149 10

176|| Preserves and sweetmeats boxes 5,0113 15,271 14.963| Rattan work

plculs 1,696

75,285 Silk thread and ribbons calties 2.831 246 11.256! Silk manufactures

69,519 4,099 23,645 Silk and cotton mixtures

24,487 6 52 Soy

piculs 430 Sugar Candy

42,614 $1,355 4,3.83 Trunks of leather

nests

262 15 1,195 Vermilion

boxt > 560 2,760 III. MISCELLANEOUS EXPORTS, AND 419 3,927 ARTICIXS NOT ENUMERATED IN THE

TARIFY.

40 Including bees' wax, cochineal, 995 4,066 capoor cutchery, curiosities and 4,865 21,635 fancy articles, ready-made clothes, 902 9,082

drums, dragon's blood, artificial 9,581 9,52 flowers, glans pictures, hats and 26,8671 53,120 caps, glue, incense sticks, China 5,616 2,675 indigo galls, gamboge, hemp,

Value es152 1,1.36 China ink, lanterns, lead white

timated at 6,084 120,861 ard red, mace, marble slabs, mir

$209,524 rors, paintings in oil, pictures on

rice paper, pearls factitious, shoes, 9,946 19,654

women's, silversmitb's work,

smalts, China tinfoil, turmeric, 63,935 6,123 umbrellas, silk, &c. 103

35 22,593 202,640 395 763

Total exports in British ships

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91,648 1,0531 7,652 3,813 6,210 5,652 4,963 31,985 5,860 4,392 1.767 12,585 10.556 12,756 3,254 8,616 82,116 22,512

2,9751 19,726 48.3,818 72,520

4,2361 319,127

3,6701 28,946

148

20,524,494

Mother of pearl shells
Metals, copper

rods,
sheets, &c.
Metals, tin in blocks
Pepper
Putchuck
Rattans
Rice
Rose Maloes

cattles Saltpetre

piculs Shark fins Skins and furs, viz. :

Ox hides, and otter
Hare, rabbit, beaver, and No.

Racoon skins
Soap, common

-catties Ser horse teeth Wood, sandal

piculs

209,524

Do. sapan

20,734,018 £4,492,370

111. M18CELLANEOUS IMPORTS, AND

ARTICLES NOT ENUMERATED IN TRK
TARIFY.
Including agar-agar, agates,

alum, amber, assafoetida,
blacklead, blue stone, books,
carpets, cloves, coals, coral
rough, and coral beads,
corks, cornelians, and cor
nelian beads,cud bear, furns-
ture, glass (broken), goat
skins, gold and silver thread,
guano, paper and stationery,
pearls and precious stones,
provisions, raisins, snutt,
unber, tobacco, wearing
apparel, and a number of
small articles belonging to
the trade of India

• value

N.B. The above returns have been compiled from entries in the books kept in the consulate of Canton, and the quantities specified are those that have paid duty. The weights and measures stated are those in use at Canton. I catty is equal to

1 pound avoirdupois, and 100 carties correspond with 1334 lbs. in England. I chang is 4 Englisb yards nearly. The value given has been coinputed upon the average prices of the year in the Canton market. The Spanish dollars have been reduced to sterling at the rate of 4a. 1d. per dollar. The above merchandize

was imported into the Port of Canton in 159. British vessels of 78,843 tons burthen, and in 60 Hong Kong torchas of 3,508 tons burthen.

$215,650

IV. TREASURE

215,650 10,392,934

322,568 10,715,502 42,321,6921

Total imports in British ships

A Return of the Number and Tonnage of Merchant Vessels which arrived at, and departed from, the

Port of Canton during the Year ending the 31st December, 1845, distinguishing the Countries to which they belonged.

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An Account of the Quantities of Tea imported into the United Kingdom during each of the 14 Years

ending with 1846 : specifying the Quantities re-exported, the Quantities annually entered for Home Consumption, the Rates of Duty, and the annual Produce of the Duties.

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Account of the Imports of the different sorts of Opium into China from 1816-17 to 1837-38, both

inclusive.

625

Patna and Benares.

Malwa.

Total.

Turkey.
Seasons
No. of Aver. Total No. of Aver. Total No. of

No. of ! Aver Total
Chests. Price.
Value. Chests. Price. Value.

Value.
Chests.

Chests i Price Vaile
Dollar.. Dollars.

Dollai ..
Dollars.

Dollars.

Dullars. Dora 1816-1817 2,610 1.200 3.132.000 600 875 525.000 3,210 3,637,000 750 31 37.44 1817-1818 2,530 1,265 3,200,450 1,150 612 603.800 3,680 3,904,250 1,000 6.0 1818-1819 3,050 1,000 3,050,000 1,530

725
1,109,250 4,580 4,159.250 700

437,50 1819-18202,970 1.235 3.667,950 1,620 1,175 1,915,250 4,600 5,583,200 200

975

195.000 IN211821 3,050 1,900 5,795.000 1.720 1,515 2,605,800 4,770 8,400 800 30 1,525

45,760 1821-1822 2,910 2,(175 6,038 250 1,715 i 1,325 2,276,350 4,628 8,314,620 500

5!2,00 1822-1823 1,822 1,552 2.29.930 4.000! 1,299 5,160,000 5,922 7,988.930 226 1,270 287,080 1823_1824 2,910

1,60)

4,656.000 4,172 925 3,859,100 7,082 8.515,100 1824-1825 2.655 1.175 3,119.625 6,000 750 4,500,000 8,655 7.619,625 1825-1826 3,442 913 3,141,755 6.179 723 4.466,450 9.621 7.608,205 1826-1827 3,661 1.002 3,668,565 6,308 9426,941,520 9.969 9,610,080 1827-1828 5.114 998 5,105,073 4,361 1,204 5,251,760 9,475 10,356,833 1828-1829 5,961 940 5,604,235 7,171 966 6.922,880 13,132 12,633,115 1829-1830 7.113

No account has been 858

861 5,149,577 6.837

5,907,580 14,000 12,057,137 1830-1831 | 6.660 5,789,794 12,100 587 7,110,227 18,760 12,900,031

kept of Turkey 1831-1832 5.672 967 5,481,340 7,831 695 5,447,355 13,503 10.931.695

opium during these 1832-1833 8,167 792 6,551,059 15,403 570 8,781,700 23,670 15,322,759

years. 1833-1834 8.672 639 5,545.845 11,114 676 7,510,695 19,786 13.056,540 1834-1835 7.767 572 4,431.545 0.747 595 5,223,125 19,514 9.655 010 1835-18366,173 696 4,292,900 10,612 580 6,146,975 16,785 10,539,875 1836-1837 8.078 724 5,48,236 13,430 628 8.439.694 21,509 14,287,300 1837-1838 6,165 33 3.94:3,129 13,875 503 6.950,029 20,040 10.883,157

869

Opium, which is by far the most important and valuable of all the articles imported into China, is excluded from the Table of Imports (next page), which comprises those articles only that are legally admissible. Although, however, it be nominally excluded, opiuin is openly, systematically, and easily introduced ; the trade in it being, in fact, as safe and as regular as that in any other commodity, while it is incomparably more extensive. The table above exhibits a detailed account of its importation into China from 1816-17 to 1337-38. We regret we have no means of continuing it down to the present time; but the imports have since continued rapidly to increase ; so much so, that we are assured by Mr. M.Gregor, the very intelligent consul at Canton

that the imports of opium in 1845 amounted to 38,000 chests, worth 23,000,000 dollars ! being little short of double the value of all the other articles of import put together! (Returns of Trade of China in 1845, p. 40.) A General View of the (legalised) Import Trade from Foreign countries, at the Port of Canton, during

the Year 1% 15, specifying the Description and Quantities of Commodities imported, as well as their estimated Value, and distinguishing the Nations to which the Ships belonged in which they were imported, viz. :

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piculs

625

Areca, or betel nuts

15,9.35 12,058

45
5,095

2,088 35,221 130,795 Biche de mar 420

4.896 5,259 132,825 Birds' nests, edible • carties

193
775

25,651

20,5311 232,061 Clocks, waiches, &c. va ue 28,546 6,564

33,110 35,110 Cochineal

cattes
1.650

1,100

2,780 6,312 Cotton - piculs 527,21 32,243

1,283 13,631

180 5,516 580), 514 5,192,139 Cottons, plain pieces 816,147 334,286

16,118

51,955 1,257,36 3,462,16,9 trilled 3,020 132,937

4,740 137,77 420,911 cambrics and muslina 2,427

2,427 7.276 - printed and dyed 23, 120 2,981

330 27,183 69,672 - handkerchiefs doz. 14, 1261 1.2.59

210 105)

13,680

33,158 not enumerated

value
19.000 50,794

246 2,818

11,326 81.240 84.224 Cotton yarıs, and thread

picul
20,1161
1,785

25

1,031 23.5.31 400,161 Earthenware

value
1,10
125

1,965 1,9651 Elephants' teeth cattles 15,271

1,147 16,418 16,723 FishmaWS piculs 1,696

136 1, 32, 82,035 Plinics

15,411

3,168

325

52 19,927 9,214 Glast and glass wares valuel 3,927

3,812

376

3,280 11,625 11,6.25 Ginseng

piculs
2,256

2.12 153,519 Gum olabanum

4,1189 2.3,645 - myrrh and other gums value! 4,407

4,407 4,407 Homs, buffalo and bullock piculs 45

45 1,195 rbinoceros

10

64 3,00 Mother-of-pearl shells 419 1,545)

22 1,986

12,579 Metals, copper wrought

2
676
120

810' 1.0416 36,957
ironi Citto -
24,083 4,375

630

840 29,931 74,952 steel

7

290
20

317

1,270 tin in blocks 225

225 7161 18,971

1,312 21,076 106,107 spelter

1,36

11.1751 tin plates

boxes
1,906 190

7
36

1,239 Pepper

picul

1,028
374 1,121 94

316 7,58 39,531 Puthuck

902
290

263 1,4,57 14.618 Rattans

9.391
11,870

5.789
94 70

12,109 39,313 112,937 Rive and paddy 26, -67 112,404 4,881 4,434

5,871 12,281

166,739 496,725 Satpetre

152
692

ti 376 Sharks fins 6,044

27,018 33,102 129,679 Skins and fury No. 9,910) 10,948

9,995

30,89 Smalts

piculs
280

33

313

14,189 Soap, common cattles 63,9531 13,685

77.618 8,03 'me, beer, and spirits value 5,60 10,652

765

1,180 18,93 18,2031 Woods, sandal wood picula! 22,543

2
1,142 28.703

214,00
Sa pan wood
393 716

3,439 6,570 12,9:31 Woollens, broad

chang
145,474 8,215

1,760 1.319

4,110 161,436 890,996 narrow 73,2.36 22,03

6,415

6,615

12.768 784,637 1,115,013
blankets
pairs 3,916 1,118

620
1,374 7,0728

40,137
not numerated
value

7,536 7,536 Miscellaneous imports 219,536 30,486 922 7,800 2,266 12,934 258 15,408

288,610 Value of imports 10,392,934 2,478,048 8,318 77,751 134,658,123,530 22,182 $25,060 Total - 14,062,811

Or, £ 3,046,942

lead in pigs

12,281

656)

N.B. - See Table of Export Trade on top of next page. But in addition to the trade carried on with the port of Canton, we carry on a considerable trade with the other ports opened to us under the treaty of 1842, especially with Shanghai. And taking these into account, the total amount of the legitimate trade carried on under the British flag with China in 1845, will be

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Carton
Amoy
Foochowfoo

86,087
6,655

765
1,926
15,971

£ 2,321,692

147,194 *43,981

10.398 1,082,207 3,605,772

98.277
6,655

765
1.926
10,760

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.40,293

17.195 Shanghai

1,239,091 Total 111,401

124,35,3

5,824,727 * The consul's returns contained on both sides (imports and exports) the value of a cargo which was not unladen, amounting

to 28, 1n6l. This was deducted. Shanghai is situated in the S. part of the province of Kiang-Su, at a considerable distance from the sea, on the river Woo-Sung, in about lat. 31° 10 N., long. 1200 50 E. The river, which may be navigated by large ships for a considerable distance above the town, crosses the grand canal, and, consequently, makes Shanghai an entrepôt for all the vast and fertile countries traversed by the canal and by the great rivers with which it is connected ; and hence the present importance of this emporium, as evinced by the extent of our trade with it in 1845; and hence, also, the intinitely greater im- . portance to which its commerce will hereafter most probably attain.

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