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Account of the Number of V'essels which arrived at and departed from Cagliari in 1837.

Departed.
Nations.
Tonnage.

Tonnage. Crews.

Arrired.

Vessels.

Crews.

Vessels.

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Total

469

58,496

4,213

469

58,496

4,213 Money, Weights, and Measures. - Accounts are kept in lire, reall, and soldi. 5 soldi = | reale =4fd.; 4 reali = lira = is. 6d.; 10 reali=1 scudo = 38. 3d. ' The paper money consists of notes for 5, 10, and 20 scudi.

Farm produce and the coarser metals are weighed by the pesi di ferro : 12 Sard. oz. =1 lb.=]4 oz. 5 dr. avoirdupois ; 26 lbs. = 1 rubbo ; 4 rubbi= 1 cantaro == 93 lbs. O oz. 8 dr. avoirdupois. The starello, or corn measure, is equivalent to 1 bush. 14 peck Eng. The palm = 104 Eng. inches.

Canses of the depressed State of Sardinia. — The above statements sufficiently show that the commerce of Sardinia is very far from being what might naturally be expected from her extent, fertility, admirable situation, and the excellence of her many harbours. She contains an area of about 9,500 square miles, being, in point of size, but little inferior to Sicily; and in antiquity was reckoned, along with the latter, a principal granary of Rome. “ Siciliam et Sardiniam benignissimas urbis nostra nutrices." - (Val. Mux. lib. vi. cap. 6.)

Utraque frugiferis est insula nobilis arvis :
Nec plus Hesperiam longinquis messibus ullæ,

Nec Romana magis complerunt horrea terræ. - Lucan, iii. lin. 65. But the establishment of the feudal system in its worst form, and the unfavourable political and municipal regulations under which the island has latterly been placed, have gone far to neutralise the advantages it owes to nature. The agriculturists of Sardinia principally consist of two great classes-- those who cultivate small farms on the métayer principle, and those who work on the estates of others, getting, in most instances, a patch of land for their support, and cultivating it at such times as they are not employed on the lord's lands. Both classes are excessively poor. The agreements under which the former class hold are seldom for more than a year ; the landlord furnishing the seed as well as the land, and receiving half the produce. Those who occupy land for which they are obliged to pay a rent in corvees, or other feudal services, are, if possible, still worse off; having usually to borrow the seed either from the landlord or from the Monti Frumentarii established for that purpose, and having also to defray the tithe and a host of other burdens. Another disadvantage under which all classes labour, is the want of houses on their farms: the peasants live together in villages, and have frequently to perform a journey of several miles in going to and coming from their farms.

Lands belonging to a canton or commune are frequently cultivated on a kind of partnership system, being divided into three portions : one of these, called vidazzone, comprises all the lands that are in cultivation, and which are distributed by lot among certain individuals, while the other two portions are occupied in common as pasture. But, as a new distribution takes place every year, it is plain that no individual can take any interest in the improvement of the soil; and this sort of tenure becomes, in fact, the most effectual that can be devised for the extinction of industry. Latterly, however, the government has been making efforts to promote the formation of inclosures and the division of the lands; which, though opposed by the prejudices of the people, have made some progress. --(Marmora, Voyage en Sardaigne, lib. v. cap. 1.)

Even these, however, are not perhaps the greatest discouragements to agriculture. As if to annihilate the possibility of the peasantry emerging from their depressed condition, and to oblige them to confine their industry to the supply of their indispensable wants, it has been enacted that no corn shall be exported if its price exceed 30 reals the starello ; and a beavy duty is laid on all that is exported, as a substitute for a general land-tax. Most other articles of export have been loaded with similar duties ; and it would really seem that every device that ignorance and short-sighted rapacity could suggest had been practised to reduce this benignant nurse” of imperial Rome to a state of poverty and destitution.

Happily, however, as already seen, the bounty of nature has proved an overmatch for the perverse ingenuity of man; and such is the fertility of this fine island, that, notwithstanding the influence of the duty now referred to, and the wretched system of agriculture, it exports in good years considerable quantities of corn. The culture of the vine is gradually increasing in importance, and about 3,500 Catalan pipes are exported, chiefly from Alghero and Ogliastro. Olive oil, owing to the little care taken in its preparation, and its consequent bad quality, has hitherto been but little exported; but it is susceptible of an indefinite increase, and might be made an important article. Tobacco is a royal monopoly, and brings about 7 million livres a year into the public treasury. Flax, linseed, saffron, hemp, and barilla are grown to some extent; silk is

produced only in limited quantities, but its produce might, no doubt, be vastly in. creased ; some cotton is produced, and also small quantities of madder, which last grows wild in the island. The mountains are clothed with forests of oak, beech, chesnut, and other timber ; but, from the want of roads, these are nearly useless. The agricultural implements and processes are excessively rude. The Sardinian plough, the counterpart of that described by Virgil, does little more than scratch the ground. It is without a coulter, and is very frequently wholly constructed of wood. Oxen only are used in ploughing and other field labour. The corn is left in the fields till it be thrashed, an operation effected by the primitive practice of treading with horses and oxen.

We are glad, however, to have to state, that within the last few years some very intiportant changes for the better have been introduced into the island, and that some of the worst of the abuses previously noticed have been obviated. In 1836, in pursuance of inquiries previously commenced, feudal jurisdictions were completely abolished; and since then the feudal systein has been wholly subverted. And if

, as is to be hoped, government follow up the enlightened course of policy on which it has entered, by giving freedom to commerce, the probability is, that the island will, at no very remote period, recover a large share of its ancient prosperity. According to a law passed in 1839, all lands were declared to be the property of individuals, communes, or the crown; the latter becoming the possessor of all waste lands, or those to which neither private parties nor communes could show any title. Lands which had been cultivated or applied to use, whether inclosed or not, were assigned in perpetuity to the occupiers undisturbed possession being held to confer a sufficient right to the property in the absence of any other title: those whose interests were at all affected by the new changes received compensation in money or lands, or by an assignment of public funded property. The king substituted himself in the place of the barons : he took all the feudal rents into his own hands: and their value being estimated at 20 years' purchase, public securities to the amount, bearing five per cent. interest, were made over to the nobles in exchange for the privileges of which they had been deprived. All kinds of vassalage were, at the same time, made redeemable; and courts of law placed under the direct control of the state were substituted in the place of the feudal jurisdictions where the barons were at once suitors and judges ! It is impossible to overrate the importance of these changes ; and there cannot be a doubt that they will have the greatest and most beneficial influence. (Von Raumer, Italy, &c. i. 295–301.) We may, also, mention, in proof of the recent improvement of the island, that the population, which, in 1816, amounted to only 352,000, had increased, in 1838, to 524,633. A good road has been constructed, uniting Cagliari and Sassari, and cross roads have been carried from it to some of the more considerable places in the island. Stringent measures bave recently, also, been adopted for the suppression of the banditti, with which the island has long been infested. And should these measures of improvement be properly carried out, the administration of justice simplified and freed from the abuses and venality by which it has long been disgraced, and all restraints on exportation abolished, it may be confidently predicted that Sardinia will gradually become more and more prosperous; that the revenues of the crown will be increased in a tenfold proportion; and that the popu. lation will cease to be conspicuous only for ferocity, idleness, and contempt of innovation. — (See Geographical Dictionary, art. SARDINIA, and the authorities therein referred to.)

CAJEPUT OIL, the volatile oil obtained from the leaves of the cajeput tree. (Melaleuca Leucadendron Lin.) The name is a corruption of the native term cayu-puti, that is, white-wood oil; because the bark of the tree which yields it has a whitish appear. ance, like our birch. This tree is common in Amboyna and other Eastern islands. The oil is obtained by distillation from the dried leaves of the smaller of two varieties. It is prepared in great quantities in Banda, and sent to Holland in copper flasks. As it comes to us it is of a green colour, very limpid, lighter than water, of a strong smell resembling camphor, and a strong pungent taste. It burns entirely away without leav. ing any residuum. It is often adulterated with other essential oils, coloured with resin of milfoil. In the genuine oil, the green colour depends on the presence of copper ; for, when rectified, it is colourless. — ( Thomson's Dispensatory.)

Cajeput oil not being used except in the materia medica, oply small quantities are imported. In July, 1831, it sold in bond at about 7d. an ounce; but an idea having then got abroad that it was one of the most efficient remedies in cases of cholera, its price rose in November, 1831, to no less than 1ls, an ounce! But it soon after fell into discredit with the faculty, and additional supplies having been obtained from Holland, its price declined almost as fast as it aad risen. It is not at present (1843) worth more, in bond, than from 4d. to 9d. an ounce.

CALABAR SKIN (Fr. Petit-gris ; Ger. Grauwerk; It. Vaor, Vajo; Rus. Bjelka ; Sp. Gris pequeno), the Siberian squirrel skin, of various colours, used in making muffs, tippets, and trimmings for clothes.

CALAMANDER WOOD, a beautiful species of timber brought from Ceylon.
It is so hard that common edge-tools cannot work it, so that it must be rasped and almost ground into

Jews

465 185 314

32 272 450

59 171 122 195

8 79 233

shape. It is singularly remarkable for the variety and admixture of colours. The most prevailing is a fine chocolate, now deepening alınost into absolute black, now fading into a medium between fawn and cream rolours. It arrests the eye from the rich beauty of the intermingled tints, not from any undue showiness. It takes a very high polish, ana is wrought into chairs, and particularly into tables. Sir Robert Brownrigg, late governor of Ceylon, hari the doors of the dining-room of his seat in Monmouthshire made of calamander. It is scarce in Ceylon, and is not regularly imported; all that is in Great Britain has been imported by private gentlemen, returning from the colony, for their own use.

It is by far the most beautiful of all the fancy woods. The nearer it is taken from the root of the tree, the finer it is.--- (Milburn's Orient. Com.; Lib. o Entertaining Anowledge, Vegetable Substances, p. 179.)

CALCUTTA, the principal city of the province of Bengal, the capital of the British dominions in India, and, with the exception perhaps of Canton, the greatest emporium to the eastward of the Cape of Good Hope. Its citadel is in lat. 22° 34' 49" N., long. 88° 27' 16" E. It is about 100 miles from the sea, being situated on the eastern bank of the western branch of the Ganges, denominated by Europeans the Hooghly River, which is the only arm of the Ganges navigable to any considerable distance by large ships. At high water the river opposite to the town is about a mile in breadth ; but during the ebb the side opposite to Calcutta exposes a long range of dry sand banks. Owing to the length and intricacy of the navigation from the sea, it cannot be undertaken without a pilot; so that, even if it did not exceed our limits, it would be useless to attempt any description of it in this place. —(See the reduced Plan of the Mouths of the Hooghly River, in the Mercutor's Chart in this work.)

In 1717 Calcutta was only a petty village ; but it subsequently increased very rapidly, and was supposed towards the close of last century to have 600,000 or 700,000 inhabitants. This, however, was a gross exaggeration; and it appears, from a census taken in 1837, that the population of what is properly called the town amounted to only 229,700, composed as follows: Males. Females.

Males. Females. English

1,453
Chinese

243 119 Eurasians

1,796 Madrasses Portuguese 1,715 1,475 Native Christians

30

19 French

Hindows

85,145 82,506 Armenians

Mohammedans

38,934 19,810 Low Castes

12,074 7,010 Mouls Pances

Totals

. 144,893 84,812 Arabs Thug

General Total

229,705 A great part, however, of what may be fairly considered the population of Calcutta, consisting of labourers, mechanics, and persons engaged in trade, reside at night in the suburbs, or neighbouring villages ; coming into town early in the morning to their respective employments. These were estimated, in 1837, on tolerably good data, at 177,000. The small number of English resident in Caicetta (where, however, they are far more numerous than in any other part of India,) may well excite surprise. It was supposed that the cessation of the Company's monopoly, and of the probibition of European resort to India, would occasion an influx of British setilers and capital. But this anticipation has not been realised. Scarcely a single English agriculturist, with capital sufficient to cultivate 100 acres of land, has established himself in India, and there has been no immigration of artisans. And this, after all, is only what might have been expected; the country being too fully occupied, the burdeos on the land too heavy, and the wages of labour far too low, to admit of anything like an extensive immigration. The Eurasians, the progeny of white fathers and native mothers, are mostly employed as clerks in the government offices and mercantile establishments; and are said to be an industrious and useful class. --( Bengal and Agra Gazetteer, vol. i. part iii. p. 10,&c.) The town, excluding suburbs, extends about 4 miles along the bank of the river, with an average breadth inland of about 14 mile. Fort William, the citadel, lies on the same side of the river, a little lower down. It is a strong regular fortification; but so extensive that it would require a garrison of 10,000 men for its effectual defence. Calcutta possesses great natural advantages for inland navigation; all sorts of foreign produce being transported with great facility on the Ganges and its subsidiary streams to the north-western quarters of Hindostan, over a distance of at least 1,000 miles, while the productions of the interior are received by the same easy channels.

The principal merchants and traders consist of British and other Europeans, Portuguese born in India, Armenians, Jews, Persians from the coast of the Persian Gulph, commonly called Parsees, Moguls, Mohammedans of Hindostan, and Hindoos; the latter usually either of the Brahminical or mercantile castes, and natives of Bengal. The native Portuguese and Armenian merchants have of late greatly declined in wealth and importance. On the other hand, the Persian merchants have increased in numbers and wealth, several of them being worth 250,0004. sterling. The large fortunes of the Hindoo merchants have been much broken down of late years by litigation in the courts, and naturally through the law of equal coparcenary among brothers. To counter balance this, there has been, since the opening of the free trade in 1814, a vast augmentation of the number of inferior merchants, worth from 20,0001. to 50,0001. sterling. There are but few Hindoo merchants at present whose wealth exceeds 200.0004. sterling.

The principal foreign business is conducted by English merchants ; but other parties also, either in partnership with the English, or on their own account, speculate largely to Europe, America, and especially to China. The brokers known under the name of Sircars and Baboos are all Hindoos. The general rates of agency commission are as follow:Rates of commission and mercantile agency, revised by a

Per cent. general meeting of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, 3d 9. On making advances, or procuring loans of money for December, 1839.

eominercial purposes, when the aggregate commission Per cent. does not exceed 5 per cent.

4 1. On the sale, purchase, or shipment of bullion, gold 10. On ordering goods or superintending the fulfilment of dust, coin, Jewellery, pearls, and precious stones

contracts, or on the shipment of goods where to com2. On the purchase (whea in funda) or sale of indigo,

mission except that of account is derived

. 2) silk, and opium

- 27 11. On guaranteeing hills, bonds, or other engagements, 3. On purchasing do. when funds are provided by the

anul on becoming security for administration of agent. 4. On all sales or purchases of other goods

estates, for contracts and agreements, &c.; and to : s

government, for the disbursements of public money, 3. On the sale or purchase of shipa, factories, houses, lands,

where the funds of the individuals are insufficient to and all property of a like description :

cover risk

21 6. On returns for consignments, if made in produce 12. On dei credere, or guaranteeing the due realization of 7. On do. if in bills, bullion, or treasure

sales

- 2) 8. Un goods and treasure consigned, and all other property 13. On esecutorship, or administration to estates of deceased

of any description referred to agency for sale, which shall be afterwards withdrawn and on goods con 14. on the management of estates for executors or adminiscimed for conditional delivery to others, and delivered; on invoice amount at the exchange of us. 15. On chartering ships or engaging tonnage

: : per rupee

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16. On advertising as the agents of owners or comman:

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Money. - Accounts are kept here in rupees, with their sub divisions, annas and pice: 12 pice make 1 anna ; 16 annas 1 rupee; and 15 rupees 1 gold mohur. To this currency must all the real specie de converted, before any sum car be regte larly entered in a merchant's books. The coins current are guld moburs, with their subdivisions - halves and quarters; rupees, halves and quarters ; annas, pice, and half pice. The two last are of copper. There are two mints under the Bengal presidency: that at Calcutta; and that of Ferruckabad, in the north-western provinces. The first is probably the most splendid establishment of the kind in the world; the original cost of the machinery, suppbed by Messre. Bo ton and Watt of Birmingham, having exceeded 300.0001 Gold money is coined at Calcutta only but silver, which is now, and has always been, the standard of India, equally at both m The following statement shows the weight, tineness, and ster ling value of the coins formerly coined, reckoning the value of gold at 31. 178. 101.d. per standard ounce, and silver at 54. 2d.

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Per cent. ders of ships for passengers, on the amount of passage money, whether the same shall pass through the agents hands or not.

- 2) 17. On procuring freight, or advertising as the agent of the

owners or commanders; the commission to be calculated on the gross amount of the entire freight

- 5 19. On etecting insurances, or writing orders for the same, whether on lives or property

19. On settling insurance losses and averages, and on pro

curing returns of premium 2). On purchasing, selling, or negotiating bills of exchange

- 1 21. Ondebts or other claims when a process at law or arbitration is incurred in claiming them

- 2) If recovered by such means

- 5 22. On bill of exchange returned dishonoured

-1 23. On collecting house rent

2 24. On ships, disbursements

- 2 25. On negotiating loans on respondentia

2 26. On granting letters of credit 27. On sale or purchase of government securities and bank

shares, and on every exchange or transfer, not by

purchase from one class to another 28. On delivering up government securities and bank

shares, or depoiting them in the treastiry 29. On the amount debited or credited (at the option of the

agent) within the year, less the balance brought forward, and all items on which a commission of 5

1 30. Od all advances not punctually liquidated, a second

commission may be charged, as on a new advance,

provided it do not occur within the same year. *** Brokerage, when actually paid, is considered a separate charge.

Revised table of rent (per month) of goods lodged in the bonded warehouse, chargeable from 1st November 1811.

Co.'s rs. as. ps. Whole pipe, butt, or puncheon

- 080 Half pipe or hogshead

04 0 Quarter pipe

0 2 0 Large cask, containing glass or earthenware

0 6 0 Tierce, containing giass or earthenware or provisions 0 5 0 Large crate, containing 12 doz. bottles

0 6 0 Smaller, containing crate 8 or 6 doz. or more or less 04 0 Chest above 12 doz. size

- 0 8 0 Chest of 12 doz. size, or above 6 doz.

• 06 0 Chest of 6 doz. size, or above 3 doz.

- 030 Quarter chest, or 3 doz,

0 2 0 All boxes under 3 doz. and above 1 doz. size, each - 0 1 0 One doz. box

. 009 Spirits

per pipe 0 12 0 Ditto

per hbd. 0 6 0 British piece goods, per case above 12 doz. size . 08 0

Do. per case of 12 doz, size, or above 6 doz. . 0 6 0 Do. per case of 6 doz. size, or above 3 doz. - 0 3 0 Do. per case of 3 doz. size, or less

. 0 2 0 Do. per bale of size of large bale of twist - - 06 0 Do. per bale of smaller size

. 04 0 Mule twist, per bale of 100 or 500 lbs,

- 0 6 0 Do. per bale of smaller size, but above 200 lbs. . 040 Do. per bale of 200 lbs. or less

0 3 0 Turkey red twist

per bale 06 0 Canvas

per bule 0 3 0 Silk

per bale 06 0 Indigo

per chest 060 Opium

per chest 0 6 0 Cotton

per screwed bale 0 4 0 Sugar, rice, linseed, and mustard seed.

per 100 Ind. mds:

2 80 Cutch

per 100 Ind. mds. 2 0 0 Shell lac and lac dye

per chest 0 3 0 Vermilion

per box 0 2 0 Arsenic

per box 03 0 Brass leaf

per box 0 2 0 China paper

per case 0 3 0 China cases of nankin, cassia, camphor, silk, anniseed, &c.

per case 0 3 0 Safflower

- per Ind. md. 0 0 6 Ginger and turmeric

per 100 Ind. mds. 3 0 0 Betel nut

per Ind. md. 0 0 6 Cloves

per Ind. md. 0 1 0 Coffee, pepper, cardamum, cummin seed, annieed, in Laurs or bales

per Ind. md. 0 1 0 All other articles in bags or bales per Ind. md. 0 0 6 Sugar, spices, and any other similar articles in hogsheads

per hhd. 040 Ditto in tierces

per tierce 0 2 0 Tea

per whole chest 0 1 0 Ditto

per smaller box 0 0 6 Sugar candy

per fub 006 Paint

per keg 56 lbs. 0 0 6 Salmon, herrings, or other fish

per keg 006 Turpentine, linseed, and other vegetable oils, per jar 02 0 All cordage

per cwt. 0 1 0 Resin and dammer

per Ind. md. 0 1 0 Rattans

per 100 bundles 0 2 0 Gunnies

per large bale 0 6 0 Ditto

per smaller bale 0 4 0 Cow hides

per large bale 0 12 0 Ditto

per smaller bale 0 8 0 Goat skins

per bale 0 S 0 Tobacco, manufactured

per ind. md. 0 0 6 Quicksilver

per Ind. md. 0 2 0 Steel

- per tub 0 0 6 Iron

per Ind. md. 0 0 24 All other unwrought metalo

per Ind. md. 0 0 4 All wronght metals

per awt. 0 2 0 All zoods in packages not enumerated nor comprehended in the above list

. per cubic foot 0 0 4 Hent will not be charged for a shorter period than half of a month, and after half of a month, the shortest bruken period for which it will be charged is it quarter of a month.

When goods have been in store for certain periods, abatements from the preceding rates are made as follows: After 6 months 10 per cent. After 18 months 25 per cent, - 19 months 20

24 months 30

The charge for coining silver at the Calcutta mintis 2 per cent, if the bullion be the standard fineness; but where it dit fers, a proportional charge of from to per cent is made for refining

Company's Rupee. - The variety of rupees of different weighs and values, circulating in different parts of India, was long found to be productive of considerable inconvenience. But this is now nearly obviated, it having been enacted that, frora the ist of September, 1835, the coinage of former rupees should cease at all the mints throughout India, and that in future there should be coined a rupee (with doubles, halves, and quarters), to be called "The Company's rupee," which contains 165 grains (11-12ths) pure silver, and 15 grains (1-12h) alloy. This new ripee, which is made legal tender in all payments, is nearly equal to the former Bombay, Madras, and Ferruck abad standard rupees, and is receivable as an equivalent for them and for the Sonat rupee, and for 15-16ths of the Calcutta sicca rupee. It is worth, reckoning silver at 58. 20. and 58. 6d. an ounce, ls. Ild. and 28: 0.d. sterling, its current value being 28. The new, or Company's rupee, bears on the one side the head of the reigning sovereign of Great Britain, and on the obverse the words " East India Company," and the designation of the coin in English and Persian.

Mokur. - It has also been enacted, that from the 1st of September, 1635, no gold coins shall be coined at any mm in India, except gold moburs or 15 rupee pirees with the subvisions), containing ench 165 grains (11-12ths) pure gold, and 15 grains (1-12h) alloy. Such mours are consequently worth 29. 21. each. These coins are marked in the saine way as the new rupees, but they are not legal tender.

Other sorts of rupees are met with in Bengal, differing in fineness and weight, though their denominations be the same. From this, and from the natives frequently punching holes in the rupees, and filling them up with base metal, and their fraudulently diminishing the weight of the coin after coming from the mint, the currencies of the different provinces are of different values. This defect has introduced the custom of employing shroff, or money-changers, whose business is to set a value upon the different currencies, according to every circumstance, either in their favour or their prejudice. When a sum of rupees is brought to one of these shrofls, he examines them piece by piece, and arrarges them according to their fineness; then, by their weight; he then allows for the different legal battas (premiums) upon siccas and sonnats; and this done, he values in gross, by the Company's rupees, what the whole are worth.

A lac, means 100,000 rupees; and a crore 100 lacs, or 10,000,000. The following are the monies of account, premising that the lowest denomination is represented by a small smooth shell, a species of cypræa, chiefly imported as an article of trade from the Laccadive and Maldive islands, and current as long as they continue entire: 4 Cowries

= 1 Gunda 20 Gundas

El Punn. 5 Punns, or 12 pice =lanna. 15 Company's rupees El Gold mohur

Weights. – The unit of British Indian weights is the tala of 180 grains English Troy weight; and from it are derived the greater weights of chittacks, seers, and muns or maunds; and also the smaller weight of massas, rutties, and dhans. Thus, 5 Tolas

= 1 Chittack. 16 Chittacks

= I Seer 40 Seers

SI Mun or Maund = 100 lbs.

Troy = 82 2-7ths lbs. av. This maund corresponds very closely with, and is legally equivalent to the bazaar maund of 82 lbs. 2 OL. 2 133 drs. avoirdupois. The factory maund is 10 per cent. lesa, being 74 lbs. 10 oz. 10 666 drs, avoirdupois. 80 Tolas

= Calcutta bazaar seer. 60 Ditto

a Serampore seer. 82 Ditto

= a Hooghly seer. 84 Ditto

a Benares Mirzapore seer. 96 Ditto

231 Allahabad and Lucknow

seer. A Calcutta factory seer is equal to 72 tolas, 11 annas, 2 punns, 10 gundas, 3:63 cowries.

Gold and Silver. 4 Punkhos

= 1 Dhan, or grain. 4 Dhans

= Rutty. 6 Rutties

= 1 Anna 8 Hutties

Si Massa. 96 Rutties

= I Tola. 12 Massas

1 Tola.

Liquid Measure.

Tong Measure. 5 Tolas = Chittack.

3 Barley corns, or jows}= 1 Finger. 4 Chittacks = 1 Pouah, or pice.

(barley) 4 Pouatus = 1 Seer.

4 Pingers

= 1 Hand, 40 Seers * 1 Maund.

8 Hands

=l Span. 5 Seers 1 Pungaree, or measure.

2 Spans

Trubit, or arm = 18 inches, 9 Measures = 1 Bazaar maund.

4 Cubits

=> 1 Fathom. Grain Measure.

1 Cows = mile 1 furlong 1,000 Fathoms

3 poles 3 yards. 4 Khaoniks

1 Raik. Raiks = 1 Pallie = 9.08 lbs. avoird.

Cloth Measure. to Pallies = 1 Soallie.

3 Jorbes

= 1 Angulla 16 Soallies =1 Kbahoon 30 bz. mds.

3 Angullas

1 Oberh. Square Measure.

8 Gherichs

= 1 Haut or cubit = 18 inches. 5 Cubits,orhauts in length { 1 Chittack, or 45 feet (Eng.

2 Hauts

=lguz sl yard. x 4 in breadth

square). 16 Chittacks =l Cottah.

For Goods reckoned by Tate. 0 Cottahs = 1 Biggah = 14,440 sq. ft. 5 Particulars

(iunde 39 Biggahs = 1 English statute acre.

4 Gandas, or 20 particulars = 1 Koorje, or 1 corge. Commercial Weights and Measures of India, with their Equivalents in English Avoirdupois, Bengal

Factory, Madras, and Bombay Weights.

0
0

220
560
135 10
360
74
82
560 0
90 4
28
30 0
133
543

7
495 0
485 5
300 0
405 0

0
8 12
560 0
500 0
133 5
37 5
74 10

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2 16
6 16

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1 24
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19 20 16 18 0

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8.6

20
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Commercial Measures, &c.
Avoirdapols. Bengal Factory. Madras.

Bombay.
Lhe.
oz. dr.
Mda. S. Ch.

ds. Vis. Pol. Mds. S. Acheen bahar of 200 catties

Pier. 6 13 5 26 13 26 7 19

15
guncha of 10 nelly

0 O
2 37 137

6 16

7 34 Anjengo candy of 20 maunds

7 20
0
22

8 20 0 0 Batavia pecul of 100 catties

1 32 10
5 3 16

4 33 224 Bekoolen bahar.

7 20 0
22 3 8

20 0 0 Bengal factory maund

10
1 0 0

2 7 35.7 2 26 20 baar maund

0
2 11.3

% 37 10 Hombas i andy of 20 maunde

20 0
22 3

20 0 0 Bussurah maund of 76 vakias

1 8 5.6 3 4 35.2

8 27.9 24 ditto

0 15 4.3

1 0 214 Calicut maund of 100 pools

0 16 1.1 1 1 24

1 2 25.7 China pecul of 100 cattes

1 31 6

5 Cochin candy of 20 paunds

7 11 2-6 215

1916 12.9 (iombroon bizarr candy

0 4 0

0 10 21.4 Gon candy of 20 maunds

6 25 2-9 19

17 27 Jonk cevlon bahar of capins

5°3
6 20 0

17 13 Madras cands of 20) maunds

0
6 28 0

17 34 Malacca bahar of 3 peculs

0

5 16 15 Mocha bahar of 15 frazils

0
6 0 1

16 2 25.7 Muscat Custom-house maund

0

0 11 More candy of 7 morahs

7 20 0

38 Pegu candy of 150 vis.

6 28 0

0 0

17 34 Penank pecul of 100 catties

1 31 6
2 26

14.3 Surat maund of 40 seers

5.3 0 20 0

1 3 37.9 1 13 Pucca maund

107 1 0 0

3507 2 26 Teicherry candy of 20 maunds

600

8 0

24 0 0 21 17 4:3 Banks, Banking. - The paper currency of Calcutta is supplied as follows:

The Bank of Bengal was founded in 1806, and was chartered in 1809. Its capital has been increased to 1,079,0001. sterling, divided into shares of 4,000 rupees each, and quarter shares, of which the East India Con pavy hold a considerable number. The shares are now (1843) at a high premium. It is managed by nine directors ; three appointed by government, and six elected by the proprietors: time of service, for the latter, three years. The secretary to government in the financial department, the accountantgeneral, and the sub-treasurer, are the ex officio government directors. The bank secretary and treasurer Is also a civil servant. This bank possesses peculiar advantages, its notes being received at all the public offices, in payment of revenue, by the collectors in all the districts below Benares ; and, consequently, its circulation extends over a very large and the wealthiest portion of our Indian territory. The govern. ment being such considerable shareholders, too, it is generally supposed by the natives that the Bengal Bank is part and parcel thereof; and it enjoys, therefore, the same credit. The charter of 1809 limits the responsibility of the shareholders to the amount of their shares.

The act of 18:9 establishing the Bank of Bengal on its present footing, and the resolutions of the directors, provide

1. That the bank shall discount no negotiable security that has a longer period than 3 months to run, or lead any money for a longer period than 3 months.

2. That the directors shall make no loan or advance unless the cash in possession of the Bank, and immediately available, be equal to one fourth part of all the outstanding claims against the bank payable on demand.

3. That the bank shall not be at any time in advance to government more than 71 lacs rupees. 4. No account can be overdrawn.

5. bank may issue promissory notes payable on demand or at 30 days after sight. provided the total amount of such notes does not exceed 2 crores rupees, and that none of them be for a less sum than 10 rupees.

6. The bank makes advances on goods not of a perishable nature ; and it makes no charge for transacting the business of its customers, and allows no interest for the money in its hands.

The rates of discount, &c., vary, from time to time, with On deposit of opium and sait, 9 per cent. the state of the money market. In 1847 they were as On deposit of metals and indigo, 9 per cent. follows:

On deposit of mule twist, slk, woollens, cottons, and other Rate of Interest and Discount. - Discount. -On private bills goods, 10 per cent. and notes, at or within three months, 10 per cent.

No loans on Company's paper or goods granted for less than On Government acceptances, at or within 3 months, 6 per cent.

No credit opened for less than 10,000 rupees. Interest charged. - On loans and accounts of credit not exceeding 3 months, and on deposit of Company's paper, 9 per cent.

The Union Bank was founded in 1829. It was, previously to its downfall, the only private bank in Bengal: the Bank of Hindostan, the Commercial Bank, and the Calcutta Bank, noticed in the first edition of this work, having all been discontinued. The capital of the Union bank was 1,000,0001. sterling, divided into shares of 1001. or 1000 rupees each, held by all classes of the community. Its notes circu. lated in Calcutta and its immediate neighbourhood. The main object of this establishment was to fill up the space in the money market, occasioned by the restrictions imposed on the Bank of Bengal by its chartei.

We regret to have to add that this bank was obliged to suspend its payments in 1847; and tha: the disclosures that have since taken place show that its affairs had been most shamefully mismanaged. The majority of its directors appear to have been deeply engaged in mercantile and other speculations ; and they farther appear to bave availed themselves, without scruple, of the funds of the bank to assist them in their enterprises, most part of which have proved to be of the most ruinous description. The depositors of money with the bank will be paid in full; but it is believed that the entire capital of the

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