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variety of long-stapled cotton, raised from seeds brought from Dongola and Senaar, growing in the garden of Mahè Bey at Cairo. Jumel having represented its superiority to the Pacha, its cultivation was undertaken on a large scale on account of the latter; and has succeeded so well, that Mabe or Makko cotton
has been for a lengthened period by far the principal article of export from Egypt. At a later period seeds of the Sea- Island cotton were introduced; and for a while it also answered remarkably well; its produce, which in Egypt was called Senaar, and in England“ Egyptian Sea-island," ranking next in the estimation of the manufacturers to genuine " sea-island." Unfortunately, however, this variety was found to degenerate, and its culture, which was never very extensive, as well as that of the old shortstapled variety, has, we believe, been wholly abandoned. We subjoin
An Account of the Exports of Cotton from Egypt from 1831 to 1840, both inclusive.
NB. The gross weight of a bale of Eg ptian cotton at At all events, we arprehend that the cotton of that country Alexandria averages 250 rostoli or 4207 b, and allowing 12 rottoli as lare for sacking and cordatge, the nett weight of
European markets in competition when prottible cent in the the bale will be about 219 It's. The cantar of cotton was fixed sidering the extreme low price at which the latter can be wild. in 1836 at 100 rottoli. Exclusive of the cotton shipped fron We have aluded to the degeneracy of the Sea-island citim in Egypt, about 311,0x10 cantars a year are supposed to have been Egypt, and it is alleged that the Mahe is also d generati: annually wrought up in the Pacha's coiton factories at an We need not, therefore, be surprised shou'd it be fvund ne esa verage of the 10 years ending with 1838; but, owing to the sary to abandon the culture of cotton in Egypt. But in the failure of most of these establishments, the quantity is now culture of wheat, beans, barley, and rice, Ekipt has nothing much less. - (See the valuable Tract of George R. Gliddon, to fear from any rivalry. In this department of industry she Esg. on the Cotton of Egypt.)
is, if not superior to every other country, interior to none. We doubt, however, whether the encouragement given to We subjoin some accounts illustrause of the urade and navithe culture of cotton has not been really injurious to Egypt.gation of Alexandria in 1819.
Account of the Quantities and Values of the different Articles exported from Alexandria in 1849.
Shipping. - The arrivals of Vessels of all Nations in this Port during 1849 were,
Account of the Arrivals and Departures of Shipping at Alexandria in the under-mentioned Years,
1919 Arrive 1.6
3.36 Sad 678
Constantinople and the islands of the Archipelago are the Usages of the Port. - The general usage of the port in ivad. Ereat markets for the wheat and other gran exported from ing and unloading vesses, when no clause of the i harterparty Egypt. The supplies are, however, extremely uncertain. exists to the contrary, is that loward Cargoes are landed into Every thing in Egypt depends on ihe Nile ; and when it does the Custom House, at the ship's expense. As regards Outward not ne to the usual height, the crops are very much below cargoes, cotton is taken from the Shoona (warehouse) at the an average. Beans are extensively cultivatexi, and have some cost of the merchant, and is delivered to the ship-master on times we brought to England, but rare's, if ever, with the quay. The charges for porterke, marking, king and advantage to the importers. They are inferior to Enginh commission, come to 1. piast. per bale The ship's subbeans, and are pecularly subject to the worn. No cats are sequent outlay for pressing, lighterage, stowage, &c. is 7 or 8 raind in Egypť, the hors being entirely fed upon barley. plast. per baie. bits o en to conne et ent. The date-jalin thrives in every Com, seeds, &c. are shipped at the charge of the merchant, part 1ype, and the fruit is largely exported. It is singular, at the cost of 27 paras per arileh. that notwithstanding the luxuriance of many of its vegetable Flax is delivered by the merchant on the quay, and bis outProductions, Egypt should be entirely destitute of timber. lay is much the same as or cotton. This article is not pressed,
Amy. - Accourts are kept at Alexandria, as at Cairo, in and the ship's expenses for lighterage and stowage are about furtest you stres, each pia tre being equal to 10 paras, or medini, 2 piast. per bale. and each medino to 30 aspers. The medino is also divided The charge of lighters is 9 or 10 piast. per diem. Arabs into 5 borbi, ort farli. A purse contains 27,000 medini. At working on board in stowing, &c, are paid 6 plast. per do. the close of 1842 the exchange with England was 11:09 cur. It often occurs that lighters left in the charge of vessels rent pastres per 11.; but in mineral calculations 100 piastres whilst loading meet with injury. In that case the Arab owners are supposed to equal Il. Payments, in transactions of any apply agunst the inaster, and recover. Importarce, are generally made in Spanish dollars.
Most cargoes of corn,&c. are taken from the Pacha's Shoona, Weight and Meatu741. -- The yant, or pik, = 26-8 English and a clause in the charterparu generally oblimes the ship Inchen; hence 100 piks=71.43% English yards. The measures to conform to its distribution. That is effected by the res form are the rhekete, and the quilled or kisloz; the former ceiver being classed and drawing lots for priority. 1364 English brauchels, the latter == 1.729 ditto. The rantaro There is a fine claimed against res vels that discharge their or gota 100 roft , but the rottolo has different names and ballast into the harbour, instead of causing it to be taken on Wrights: I mittelo forfuro = 9317 lb. avoirdupois; I nittolo to s place aj pointed. Budino = 1.335 16. titto; I rotolo zauro or puro = 2:07 The. Charges on business at Alexandria, are as follow. ditto ; 1 rok do mina = 1.67 lb. ditto. Manud Universel de Nelkesztrecer.)
ON SELLINO. Duties. - With the exception of the arbitrary principles on
Per Cent.' whch the Pacha fires the prices of commodities, there is no. Freight 205. to 308. per ton of 40 feet, and 10s. thinz sectionable in his policy as to commerce. The duties primare, say
2 to 3 on imports are only 3 per cent. We believe, however, that a Custo Tuties
5 er all' increase of the customs duty would compens te the
Porterake and Camel hire, piast. 12 to 15 per Parha for the abolition o other oppressive charges, and there package. can be little doubt that his subjects would be materially bene
Shretlage Sted Is the chance.
House and Street Brokerage Plotage - The pilotage paid by ships of war, for being Commission for elect.ng Sale brought into the W. harbour is 5 dotius, and 4 dollars for Dit o for attempting Sale beng takot of do. Merchant-vesse's pay 3 dollars both on Ditto il proceeds are remitted by Bill or tu Specie entering and clearing. The pilot-service, though not exempled (exclusive of 1 ppt mil. brokerage) fron detects, is tolerably well conducted. It would be conre. Del Credere, if taq
<quired nient wete pilots stationed nearer the entrance of the port, at Warehouse Rent Marabout Island for example, or at the watering place. Quarantint, - Merchant sessele coming with foul bills of
ON BUYING. health perform 15 days' quarantine, whether with or without caran. When the bills are usreted," the guarantine is 15 Custom Duties
12 ders, if with cargo, and 10 days it in ballast. But a vease! may House and Street Brokerage
to! be admitted to free-pratique 10 days after the total discharge Commission on l'urchasing of her cargo. The period of quarantine for goods is 20 da $. Commission on Drafts Stipe of war, bringing foul bills, perform 12 days ; with Brokerage l per mil. on ditto. susperted" bills, 7 days.
Warehouse Rent never incurred on Government The Quarantine Charges are
Produce, which is shipped from the Shoona. For? guards, 10 past. sach per diem, and board.
When other Produce is stored, the Rent depends Fc gard-loai, 15 Piast. For den.
on the time and on the bulk of the Goods. Pur disnerting goods, 1 to 15 plast. per bale, according Shipping Charges :
On Government Cotton, Piast. 14 per Bate. Por dues, 8 to 35 piast. per diem, according to tonnage.
Private ditto, 1 piast. 30 puras, do. For the interrogatory, from 2 to 20 piast. according to ton
Government Corn, 27 paras per Ardeb.
Private ditto, piast. 2, per Arieb). Bi li of health for vessels bound to the Levant, 1 to 24
Government Flar, piast. 14, per Cant. piast, according to size of vesel.
Private ditto, piasi. 2, PT Cant. Travellers in Lazzaretto pay for the guard 10 piast. per day,
Gume, Barrels, 18 to 19 piast. end 15 piat. for the whole term, as rent of room, and price of Other Charges 4 piast. 20 paras. fumizations.
Policy of Mehemet Ali. — It is much to be regretted that Mehemet Ali, who was in many respects one of the most extraordinary men of his age, should have had no just conception of the principles by the adoption of which his plans of improvement might have been perpetuated, and industry established on a solid foundation. He interfered with every thing, and left as little as possible to the discretion and enterprise of individuals. He may, indeed, be said to have been the sole proprietor, manufacturer, farmer-general, and wholesale merchant in his dominions. It was, no doubt, stipulated in the treaty concluded between this country and the Turkish government in 1838, the provisions of which extend to Egypt, that the monopolies which previously existed in the different parts of the Turkish empire should all be abolished, and that, in future, all parties should be at liberty to buy and sell all descriptions of produce at such prices and in such a way as they thought fit. This stipulation has, however, been of little consequence in Egypt; for, as the largest and best portion of the land has become the property of the Pacha or his dependents, and the taxes are mostly all paid in produce, the government continues, in effet, in possession of its old monopoly of the produce of the country, and has power to determine the price at which it shall be sold. A system of this sort is injurious alike to the interests of the producers and mercharts ; inasmuch as they are both liable to have their plans and speculations deranged by the caprices and regulation
thos in authority. It is difficult, however, to suggest any means by which this inconvenience might be avoided ; and it is much to be regretted that, when the European powers dictated the terms on which the Pacha and his family should hold the country, they did not make some stipulations in favour of the rights of the population ; which, had they been properly derised, would have been as much for the advantage of the Pachas as of their subjects.
Ancient Trade of Alexandria. -- As already remarked, Alexandria was, for a long series of
first under the Greek successors of Alexander, and subsequently under the Romans, the principal entrepôt of the ancient world. Most part of the traffic be
tween Asia and Europe that had at a more early period centered at Tyre, was gradually diverted to this new emporium. An intercourse between the ports on the eastern coast of Egypt, and those on the opposite coast of Arabia, had subsisted from a very early period. That between Egypt and India was more recent. It was at first carried on by ships, which having sailed down the Red Sea from Myos Hormos and Berenice, coasted along the Arabian shores till they reached Cape Rasselgate, whence a short course brought them to India near the mouth of the river Indus. This was the course fola lowed during the dynasty of the Ptolemies: but about 80 years after Egypt had been annexed to the Roman empire, Hippalus, the commander of an Egyptian ship trading to India, having observed the regular shifting of the trade winds, ventured to sail with the western monsoon from the Straits of Babelmandeb right across the Arabian Ocean; and was fortunate enough, after a prosperous voyage, to arrive at Musiris, in that part of India now known by the name of the Malabar coast. Having taken on board a cargo of Indian produce, Hippalus returned in safety with the eastern monsoon to Egypt. This discovery was deemed of so much importance, that the name of the discoverer was given to the wind which had carried him across the ocean to India : and how trifling soever this voyage may now appear, those who consider that Hippalus had no compass by which to direct his course, and that owing to this circumstance, and the otherwise imperfect state of the art of navigation, the ancients seldom ventured out of sight of land, even in seas with which they were well acquainted, will be forward to admit that his enterprise and daring were nowise inferior to his success ; and that he was well entitled to the gratitude of his contemporaries, and the respect of posterity.
From the epoch of this discovery, fleets traded periodically from Egypt to Musiris, conveying the products of Europe to India, and conversely. The Indian goods having been landed at Myos Hormos and Berenice were thence conveyed by caravans to Coptos (the modern Kenné), on the Nile, where they were put on board lighters and sent to Alexandria, whence they were distributed all over the western world. The goous sent to India were conveyed to Myos Hormos and Berenice by the same route. Myos Hormos was situated on the shore of the Arabian gull, about a degree to the north of the modern port of Cosseir. The distance froin it to Coptos, in a straight line, is about 70 English miles. Berenice was situated a good way further south, being nearly under the tropic. It was built by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Its distance from Coptos is stated by Pliny at 258 Roman miles; the different resting. places on the road were determined by the wells, and the journey occupied about 12 days. Ptol any seems to have preferred this station to Nyos Hormos, though the land carriage to Coptos was so much further, from its greater proximity to the Straits of Babelmandeb, and its lessening the voyage up the Red Sea.
Pliny says that the cost of the Indian commodities brought to Rome through Alexandria was increased a hundred fold (centuplicato veneant) by the expense of carriage, &c. We suspect, however, that this
a rhetorical exaggeration, meaning merely that their price was very materially enhanced If the increase was anything like that mentioned, it must have been owing to the imposition of oppressive tolls and duties, for it could not possibly have been occasioned by the mere expenses of conveyance. (Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. vi. cap. 23.; Amcilhon, Commerce des Egyptiens, pp. 161 — 176, &c.; Robertson's Ancient India, note 20, &c.)
Besides this important traffic, which supplied Rome and the western world with the silks, spices, precious stones, and other products of Arabia and India, a great trade in corn was carried on from Alexandria to Rome. Egypt, for a lengthened period, constituted the granary from which Rome, and afterwards Constantinople, drew the principal part of their supplies; and its possession was, on that account, reckoned of the utmost consequence. Augustus employed merchantmen of a larger e.ze than any that had previously traded in the Merliterranean to convey the corn of Egypt to Ostia. They were escorted by ships of war. The tit:et received the names of sacra and belir embole; and enjoyed sereral peculiar privileges. The ships belonging to it were the only ones authorised to hoist the small mail called supparum, when they drew near the coasts of Italy. Some of the fast-sailing vessels attached to the fiect were sent on before, to give notice of its approach; and a deputation of senators went down to Ostia to receive the ships, which anchored amid the acclamations of an immense number of spectators. The captains were obliged to make oath that the corn on board their ships was that which had been delivered to them in Egypt, and that the cargoes were entire as shipped. - (Huet, Commerce et Navigation des Anciens, cap. xlviii.; Senecæ Epist. cap. Ixxvii. &c.)
Intercourse with India through Alerandria.--These few details will, perhaps, serve to give a faint idea of the importance of Alexandria in the commerce of antiquity. It is impossible, indeed, for any one to glance at a map of the world, or of the ancient hemisphere, and not to perceive that Egypt is the natural entrepol of the commerce between Europe, and all the vast countries stretching E. from Arabia to China. The discovery of the route to India by the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498, must, no doubt, have, under any circumstances, diverted a considerable portion of the trade with the western states of Europe, and in the heavier and bulkicr class of articles, into a new channel. It is, however, abundantly certain, that had the same facilities for conducting the trade with the East existed in Egypt in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that existed in it in antiquity, she would have continued to be the centre of the trade for all the lighter and more valuable products, and the route of the greater number of the indivi. duals passing between Europe and Asia. But the lawless and arbitrary dominion of the Mamelukes, who loaded all individuals passing through the country with oppressive exactions, at the same time that they treated all foreigners, and especially Christians, with insolence and contempt, put an entire stop to the intercourse so long carried on by this shortest, most direct, and most convenient route. Happily, however, a new era has begun, and Egypt has once more become the grand thoroughfare of the eastern and western worlds. After good order and a regular government had been introduced into Egypt by Mehernet Ali, it was seen that it might be again inade the channel of communication with India, and the importance of tacilitating the intercourse with that continent forcibly attracted the attention of the British governnient and the East Lydia Company. We believe, however, that the public are principalig
* In the 16th century, the cost of Indian commodities brought to Western Europe by way of Alexandria and Aleppo was about three times the cost of those brought by the Cape of Good Hope. - isee post, EAST INDIA COMPANY, Histcry of.) But Egypt was then occupied by the Mamelukes and Turks who threw every sort of obstacle in the way of commerce, and loaded it with the most oppreszire exactions.
indebted to the exertions of Mr. Waghom for the early and successful opening of what has been called the "over-land route" to India. At all events the establishment of a steam communication between Europe and Southern Asia, by way of Alexandria and Suez, is one of the most striking and important events in recent times. it has shortened the journey to India from England more than a hall, and rendered it comparatively safe and expeditious. Steamers ascend the Nile as far as Cairo ; and the passengers and mails are thence conveyed across the desert to Suez, and conversely, by horses and carriages, no fewer than 7 inns or khans being established along this road, which is travelled with comfort and expedition ! We subjoin the following details :
The steamers that take the Southampton mail call at Gibraltar, and arrive at Malta about the 30th. The mails from Marseilles leave that pre ry one of her Majengo's steamets almut the 10th and 27th of each month, and arrive at Malta the 14th and 31st. A: Malta the mails are transhipped, and conveyed loy steamers to Alexandria.
7th of each month.
each abrut 20th of each month
month. The contract steamer with the outward mail walts at Alexandria for the homeward mail, and arrives at Malta about the 15th and 21th of every month, where the Marseiles portion is tranaferred to one of her Majesty's steamers, which carries it to Marriles, whence it is sent by land to Paris and via Lover to London; the remaining portion is landed at Southampton, and is thenie sent by railway to London. Average time to or from Bombay via Marseilles 31 days, and to or from Calcutta via Marseilles about 12 and 18 days, and via South unpton about 47 and 53 days. By ship round the Cape 4 months. The news Faxt proprietors run expresses from Marseilles on the arrival of each mail, and thus are enabled to publish the news some 2 days before the letters arrive in London.
And Route, via Marseille - By steamer to Boulogne ; railway to Paris and Chalons-sur-Saone; thence to Lyons, A vimon, and to Mars illes. Time occupied 3 days. French governinent steatocrs leave Marseilles the 9th, 19th, and 2h of every month, calling at leghorn, Cinta Vecchia, Naples, Malta, and Messina. French government steamers also leave Marseilles on the 6th and 231 of every month for Alexandria and Beyrout direct, calling at Malta on the way.
The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company have published the following Statements :-
Rates of Passage, exclusive of Expenses of Transit through Egypt, between England and
95 0 0 100 0 0
.. d. A berth in the general cabin throughout for a gentleman 65 00 101 00 106 0 0 115 00
for a Huy
70 0 0 110 00 115 00 12400 For a genteman and his wife in the same cabin
190 00 266 0 0 275 0 0 293 0 0 Children with their parents. Not excerding two years
Free. Free. Free.
Free. Two years and under five
29 00 3900 44 00 34 00 Five years and under ten
42 00 57 00 62 00 72 00 Passengers' Servants. European servants
27 00 36 0 0 42 0 0 52 0 0 Native servants :
22 00 24 00 30 00 36 0 0 For large families an allowance will be made in the foregoing rates to Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta.
N. B. - In addition to the above mentioned rates of passage by the Company's steamers, the expenses of transit through Ek will be charyed at the Company's offices, at the time of securing the passage, for account of the Egyptian Government, in conformity with the subjoined cxtract from the TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION TARITY.
From Alexandria to Suez,
and vice versa.
In vans acTORS
6 Free, 10
| The rates of passage inclade steward's fees and table, wines, &c., for first class passengers. Belding, linen, and all regelte cahin furniture, is provided in the Company's steamers, together with the attendance of experienced male aud Bersale servants.
Baggage. - First-class passengers are allowed, in the Company's steamers only on either side of the Isthmus, 3 cwt of pereunal baggage free of freight, and children and servants 1 cwr. each. All baggage must be shipped on the day previous to saiing, except carpet bags or hat boxes. All other baggage received on The charge for conveyance of extra baggage, should there be room in the vessel, will be 2. per owt. between Suez and India, and 11. per cwt between England and Alexandria.
Passengers will have to pay the Egyptian Transit Company in Egypt 168. per cwt. for conveyance of baggage through, should It exceed, for first-class passengers, 2 cut, and children and servants 1 cwt. No package of baggage should exceed! $0 it. weight. The best dimensions for a trunk or portmanteau are, lengthi, ft. 3 in. -- breadth, I ft z in-depth, I n. 1 in.
Passengers taking articles of inerchandive in their baggage will incur the risk of seizure by the Custorns' authorities, and of detention for freight by the Company's agents.
Canal between the Nile and the Red Sea. We are assured, that were it not for the hostilities in which the Pacha has been almost always engaged, he would have atteinpted to reopen the famous canal that formerly connected the Red Sea and the Nile. cording to Herodotus, this canal was commenced by Nechos, king of Egypt, and finished by Darius (lib. ii. §. 158. iv. 39.). Under the Ptolemies, by whom, according to some authorities, it was completed, this canal became an important channel of communication. It joined the E., or Pelusiac branch of the Nile at Bubastis the ruins of which still remain; it thence proceeded E. to the bitter or natron lakes of Temrah and Cheik-Aneded, whence it followed a nearly S. direction to its junction with the Red Sea at Arsinoe, either at or near where Suez now stands. It is said by Strabo (lib. xvii. p. 805.) to have been 1000 stadia (122 m.) in length; but if we measure it on the best modern maps, it could hardly have exceeded from 85 to 95 miles. Herodotus says that it was wide enough to admit two triremes sailing abreast. This great work having fallen into decay after the downfal of the Ptolemaic dynasty, was renovated either by Trajan or Adrian; and it was finally renewed by Amrou, the general of the caliph Omar, the conqueror of Egypt, anno 639 (Herodote, par Larcher, iii. 450.). The French engineers traced the remains of this great work for a considerable distance, and it would be of singular advantage to Egypt and the commerce of the world were it reopened.
Marshal Marmont states that the ground has been carefully examined by M. Lepère, an able engineer, and that it presents no sort of difficulty that may not easily be overcome. This, indeed, might have been inferred from the fact of its former construction ; for the ancients being unacquainted with the use of locks had to encounter difficulties in the construction and working of canals which are now obviated with the utmost facility. According to M. Lepère, the cost of constructing a navigable canal from the Nile to the Red Sea would not exceed 17,000,000 francs, or less than 700,0001. (Marmont, iv. 161.) The completion of this work need not, therefore, be despaired of. The opening of the Mahmoudieh canal from Alexandria to Atféh shows what the present government is able to achieve ; and an enterprise like that now under consideration, though more difficult, would be of still greater importance to Egypt as well as to Europe and Asia. Marshal Marmont appears to think that the ground between Suez and Cairo is quite unsuitable for a railway, to which project the Pacha is, however, understood to be most favourable. In fact, a portion of the iron rails for this undertaking have been ordered from England, and are now in Egypt; but the attention of the Pacha having been diverted to other matters, the project has been, for the present, abandoned.
ALICANT, a sea-port town of Spain, in Valencia, lat. 38° 20' 41” N., long. 0° 30% W. Population about 14,000, and declining.
The port is an open and spacious hay, between Cape de la Huerta on the north-east, and Isla Plana on the south, distant from each other $. W. and N. E, about 10 miles. Ships may enter on any course between these points, steering direct for the castle, which stands on an eminence about 400 feet high. Those of considerable burden moor N. and S., distant from to 1 mile from shore, in from 4 to 8 fathoms water ; they are exposed to all winds. from E. N. E. to s. by W.; but the holding ground is good, and there is no instance during the last twenty years of a ship having been driven from her moorings. Small craft lie alongside the mole, which is already 320 yards in length, and is continuing to be projected still further into the sea. There are no pilots. The trade of Alicant, though still considérable, has declined much within the last few years ; a consequence partly of the emancipation of America from the Spanish yoke, but more of the oppressive duties laid on the importation of most articles of foreign produce into Spain (see Cadiz), and the extensive smuggling carried on from Gibraltar, Algiers, &c.
Raisins form the principal article of export; and their produce, which amounts to nearly 200,000 cwt., has increased rapidly of late years. They are principally taken off by England, the shipments thither, in 1842, having been 146,496 cwt. But with this single exception all the other articles of export hare declined. The principal are silk, wool, barilla, almonds, wine, salt, oil, lead, mats, saffron, brandy, anise, saffron, &c. The exportation of barilla, which formerly amounted to from 50,000 to 100,000 cwt., has declined, partly from its having been largely adulterated, but principally from its being to a great extent superseded by soude factice (artificial soda), to little more than 20,000 cwt. The imports consist principally of sugar, coffee, cocoa, and other colonial products ; cotton, and linen stuffs, and other manu. lactured goods, from England and France; salted fish, tobacco, iron and hardware, deals and tar, &c. : but it is impossible to form any estimate of the imports from official or other returns, as by far the largest portion are supplied clandestinely. Indeed, the whole population of this part of Spain are clothed in prohibited articles, which are sold as openly in the towns as if they were of Spanish manufacture ! (Consul's Report for 1841.) An Associaciun Britanica has recently been formed in this port for smelting and retining the rich argentiserous load ores of Almagrera and other parts of the province of Murcia.