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Acrount of the Exports of Boracic Acid from Leghorn during the Nine Years ending with 1835.
- 789,000 And we are informed that the exports have gone on increasing in the interval nearly in the same proportion.
In 1811, 15,205 cwts. boracic arid and 4,124 cwts, tincal were entered for consumption. The former was worth in Lordon, In January 1843, from 458. to 468. a cwt., duty (6d.) included; and the latter from 40s. to 45o. a ton, duty (1s.) included.
BORDEAUX, a large and opulent commercial city of France, on the Garonne, about 75 miles from its mouth, lat. 44° 50' 26" N., long. 0° 34 W. Population 107,000. The commerce of Bordeaux is very extensive. The Garonne is a noble river, with depth of water sufficient to enable large ships to come up to the city, laying open, in conjunction with the Dordogne and their tributary streams, a large extent of country. The commerce of Bordeaux is greatly promoted by the famous canal of Lan. guedoc, which communicates with the Mediterranean. By its means Bordeaux is en abled to furnish the south of France with colonial products at nearly as cheap a rate as Marseilles. Wines, brandies, and fruits are the staple articles of export; but the merchants apply themselves more particularly to the wine trade. Most part of their other business is confined to dealing on commission ; but this they conduct almost invariably on their own account. The reason they assign for this is, that the difficulties attending the purchase, racking, fining, and proper care of wines, so as to render them fit for exportation, are so very great, as to make it almost impossible to conduct the business on any thing like the ordinary terms so as to satisfy their employers. Colonial products, cotton, dye stuffs, pepper, hides, tobacco, rice, form the principal articles of importation.
Money is the same at Bordeaux as in other parts of France. league S. E. by E. * E., from the Tour de Cordouan. All accounts are kept in francs, the par of exchange being 23 There are two main channels for entering the riret, -- the fr. 20 cent, the pound sterling. -- (See EXCHANGE.)
Passe du Nord, and the Passe de Grave. The fornier 1 Weights and Measures. - With the exception of wines and between the north side of the river and the banks in the mid! brandi's, the new or decimal system is of general application about 11 inile south from the Point de la Cobre: the water, in Bordeaux, both in wholesale and retail operations. (See where shallow, being about 4 fathoms, The courwhence WETEXTS AND MEASULES.)
is nearl S. E. E. The other principal passage des between Wine is still sold by the tun of 4 bogsheads. The hogshead the Tour de Cordouan and the point de Grave, nearly in a contains 30 veltes.
N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction. In some places it has not Brandy by the 50 veltes.
more than 13 feet water; and is in all respects very inferior to Spirits of wine by the velte.
the other passage, which is always to be preferred, esper The role is an old measure of which 50 = to 3.8 hectollereg. with a large ship. The tides, both ebb and flood, set thr with
Ou is sold by weight (per 50 kilog.) 50 = 811 imperial the channels with great rapidity, so that a good deal of autica gallons
is required on making the river ; but having once entered, Entrance to the River. This lies between Point de la Coubre there is no further danger. Spring ride riiul4 to 15 feet, on the north, and Point de Grave on the south, bearing from and neaps from 7 to 8; but the depend a good deal other each other nearly S. E. and N.W., distant about leagues. tion of the wind. All vessels, except Frer ch coasters uover $ There are light on oth the e points, but neither of them is tona burden, and small craft froin ihe north of Spain, Catering elevated to any great height above the level of the sea.
the Garonne, are obliged to take a pilot on board as 318 middle part of the entrance to the river is encumbered with one offers himself. In summer, pilots are 004 un'r X1.1.5 extensive sand banks and rocks. On one of the latter, in lat. met with 30 or 40 iniles west of the Tour de Cordouan, but 1335 1-3d' N., long. 10 10 W. stands the Tour de Cordouan, in winter they seldom venture far beyond the banks, wd surde one of the most celebrated light-houses in Europe. Itwas erected times cannot proceed even thus far. - (Sex Lanie's Plan of in 1600, but has been materially inproved since. It is 206 the Bay of Biscay, with the Sailing Directions, feet high. The light, which is revolvin, erhibits in succession Shipping: -- In 1837, the customs duties in Bordeaux TO a brilliant light, fecble light, and an eclipse, the changes duced 9,811,861 fr.; but in 1811 they imousted to 15,000,00 following each other every half minute. It may be distin. fr. During the sanie year there belonged to Bordeu 384 gui hed at the distance of sor 9 leagues, The Point de la ships, of the burden of 68,566 tons. Coubre is 2, leagues N. W., and the Point de Grave 1 Port Charges. -- Account of Port Charges, Brokerage, and other public Disbursements payable in Bora
deaux on account of a French or English Vessel of 300 Tons Burden, from a Port of England to Bordeaux, or from Bordeaux to a Port of England, or from or to any other British Possession in Europe.
On a Fr. or Brit. Vessel.
On a Foreign Vexel.
Nature of Charges.
Report and pilotage from sea to Bordeaux for a vessel drawing 14
French feet water (15 ft. 39 in. British)
In ballest, 50 c. per ton (5d.), say 120 fr. at most (1l. 16.17
19 16 0
11 10 0 12 0
0 75 0
49 11 2 0 11 12 0 12 0
N.B. – No regard paid to the nature of the cargo, as all goods are imported either for consumption or exportation, which does not expose vessels to pay more or less charges.
British vessels are on a perfect equality with French vessels when they come from British ports in Europe, otherwise they pay pilotage and tonnage dues like all other foreign vessels, as stated in the foreign column.
1.-Account of the Number and Tonnage of the Foreign Ships which arrived at and departed from
Bordeaux in 1812, specilying the Countries to which they belonged.
11. - Account of the Number, Tonnage, and Destination of the British Ships which sailed from
Bordeaux in 1842.
III. --- Account of the Number and Tonnage of the French Ships that entered at and cleared from
Bordeaux in 1842.
The following are the species of articles exported from Bordeaux to the diferent parts of the world
To Martinique and Guadalupe. – Provisions, four, wine, brandy, and a small quantity of manufactured goods
ro Bourbon. Wines, provisions, cattle, fum ture, coarse and fine hardwares, perfumery, silk, cotton and lien stuffs, stationery, fashionable articles, &c.
To the United States. - Wines, brandy, almonds, prunes, Terdiris, and a trit) ng quantity of manufactured goods.
To Spanish América, Cuba, e-Wines, brandy, silk, cloths, statinety, fasnions, jewellery, perfumery, saldlery, &c.
To the South Seu - Wines, brandy, liqueurs, and all sorts of manufactured articles.
Tithi Kast Indies and China. - Wines, brandy, furniture, silver, &c.
To bagland. - Wines, brandy, liqueurs, fruits, tartar, crean of artar, p!ums, chesnuts, walnuts, loaf sugar to Guernsey and Jersey, Lorey seed, annotto, corn, flour, skine raw and dressed, cork wodard corks, vingar, turpatine, reins, &c.
To the North Of Europe. - Wines, brandy, spirits of wine, tutar, cream of tartar, colonial produce, loal-sugar, molasses,
Wise. - This forms the great article of export from Bor. deaux The estimated prulure of the department of the Gironde in wines of all kinds, and one year with another, is fissti 2000 to 250,00 tuns; the disposal of whuch is, ap. proximately, as fo low:
Cated in the department, about 50,000 tuns.
125.000 Converted into brandy
25,000 Exported to foreign countries
250,000 tuns. The principal exports of wine to foreign countries in 1839 were -- to England 1,339 tuns, Russia 2,499 ditto, Sweden and Norway 149 ditto, Prussia 2,964 ditto, Denmark 612 ditto, th- langa Towns 8,1$$ ditto, and Holland 7,621 ditto. During the year ended the 30th of September, 1511, the United States potted from France 2,328,769
gallons of wine in casks, ex. chive of a considerable quantity in bottles. Wine is also shipped from Bordeaux for the East and West Indies, the lerant, &c.
The red wines are divided into three great classes, each of which is subdivided into several sorts.
Class 1. embraces the Medoc wines,
Grave, and St. Einillott,
common, or cargo wines The first class is composer of the "grands crus," the "crus bourgeois," and the "crus ordinaires."
The grands crus" are further distinguished as firsts, seconds, and thirds.
The firsts are the wines of Château Margaux, Lufitte, Latour, and Haut Brion. The latter is properly a Grave wine, but it is always cus d amongst the first Medocs.
The seconds are the wines of Kauzan, Leoville, Larose, Mouton, (ierse, &c.
The thirds, win · which are produced by the vinevards touching those above named, and which differ 1 ttle in yutiny from them.
The quantity of "grands crus " wine of the above description do not exceed 3,000 tuns, and sells at from 1,000 fr. to 3,520 fr. per tun on the lees
The "crus bourgeois" consists of the superior Margaux, St. Julien, Pauillac, St. Estephe, &c. quantity estimited about 2,000 tuns, and prices on the lees 800 tr. to 1,800 tr. per
The “crus ordinaires " sell at 300 fr. to 700 fr., according to the year and the quality. Ouwstity 25,000) to 35,141 uns.
The whole produce of Meloc is therefore ahout 411,48 tuns.
The "grands crus" and "crus bourgeois" require 4 years care and preparation, before delivery for use or for exportation, and thus auginents their price from 30 to 35 per cent.
The second class is composed of the red wines of Grare and St. Emilion, which are in greater quantity, and am got theint some of a very superior quality, that are generally bought for mixing with Mertoe. The first quality of these wing
Selts from 800 fr. to 1,800 fr. per tun. The second qualities Queyries, Montferrand, Bassans, &c. - 300 fr. to 600 fr.
The third dass consists of the common or cargo wines, the greater part of which is consumed in the country, or converted Into brandy. The portion exported is sent off the year of its growth. Prices from 160 fr. to 250 fr. per tun.
The white wines of the first "crus, such as Hant Barac Preigac, Beaumes, Sauterne, &c. are only fit for bare at the end of 4 or 6 years, and for exportation at the end of 1 or 2 years more. Prices on the lees vary from 800 fr. to 1,500 fr. por tun.
The “grand crus" of white Grave, St. Briés, Carbonieux, Dulamon, &c. sell, in good years, from 500 fr. to 800 fr. Jaferior white wines 130 fr. to 400 fr. per tun.
The expenses of all kinds to the wine-grower of Medoc, for the cultivation, gathering, and making his wine, and the cask, are estimated to annount, in the most favourable years, to 50 fr. per hogshead, or 200 fr. per tun.
The merchants in general purchase up the finest crus as soon as sufficiently adraneed to judge of their character ; or more frequently they are bought up for a series of years, whether good or bad. They are transported to their cellars or chays," in Bordeaux, 80 situated and protected by surrounding houses, as to preserve a tolerably equable temperature throughout the year ; and in these they ripen, and undergo all the different processes of fining, racking, mixing, &c. considered necessary to adapt them to the different tastes of the foreign consuners.
It is pretty generally the practice to adapt the wines for the English market by a plentiful dose of the strong, full-bodied, and high-flavoured wines of the Rhone, such as Hermitage, Cote Rotie, and Croze especially the first, by which means they are hardly cognisable by the Medoc Navour. Perhaps the principal reason for keeping these wines so long before they are used is to give them time to acquire a homogeneous flavour, destroyod by the mixture of several different qualities. The wines shipped under the titles of Château Margaux, Lafitte, and Latour, are also mixed with the wines of the surrounding vineyards, which, from the nature of the soil, and proximity, cannot be greatly different. Other gooi wines are also said to enter largely into the composition of these celebrated crus; and those of a superior year are employed to bring up the quality of one or two bad years, so that it is easy to conceive, that the lainous wines of all, and of the years 1815, 1819, and 1825, are not speedily exhausted. Some houses pretend to keep their wines pure; but the practice of mixing is, at any rate, very general.
The purchase of the wines, whether from the grower or merchant, is always effected through brokers, some of whom have acquired a reputation for accuracy in dissecting the different flavours, and in tracing the results of the wines by certain measures of training or treatment.
England takes off nearly half the highest priced wines, and very little of any other quality. Except in Bordeaux itself, there is but a very moderaie portion of the supérior Medoc consumei in France. The capital takes off only second, third, and fourth rate wines.
The Dutch, who are large consumers of Bordeaux wine, go most economically to work. They send vessels to the river in the wine season, with skilful supercargoes, who go amongst the growers, and purchase the wines themselves cheaper even than a broker would do. They live on board the ship, take their own time to select, and wait often for months before the cargo is completed; but they attain their object, getting a supply of good sound wine, and at as low a rate, with all charges of shipping included, as the wine merchants can deliver it into their stores in Bordeaux. They never purchase old wins ; they take only that newly made, which, being without the support of stronger bodied wines, must be consume in the course of 2 or 3 years. They follow the same system at Bayonne, where 2 or 3 ships go annually for the white wines of Jurançon, &c.
The cargo wines are so manufactured that it is hardly possible to knov. of what they are composed. They are put free on board for 2. per hogshead and upwards, according as they are demanded. They are such as will not bear exposure in a glass when shipping; the tasters have a small fat silvercup expressly for them. These wines are principally shipped to America and India, and some at a higher price to the north of Europe.
The principal wine merchants have agents in London, whose business is more particularly to introduce their wines to family use; and it is to that end they pay them from 3001. to 8001. for travelling expenses and entertainments, besides allowing 3 per cent. or more on the amount of sales. They generally look out for individuals for their agents of good address, and some connection amougst the upper classes,
Brandies, and Spirits of Wine.-- The quantity distilled in the neighbourhood of Bourdeaux is estima at about
18,000 pieces, of 50 veltes each. Ditto, in the Armagnac
ditto Dittw, in the Marmanduis 8,000
46,000 pieces, ordinary proof. of this quantity, France takes off about 23,000 pieces for consumptiou ; England, 2,500; United States, 10,000; Iudia, 2,500 ; north of Europe, 5,000; in all, 43,000 pieces.
Languedoc produces annually about 40,000 pieces, of 80 veltes each, the greater part of which comes to Bordeaux to be forwarded to the different ports of the north of France, or to foreign countries.
France consumes about two thirds of the above quantity; the remaining one third goes to the north of Europe.
The prices of brandy are from 130 fr. to 150 fr. per 50 veltes, ordinary proof; spirits of wine, from 4 fr. to 5 fr. per velte.
It is at the port of Formay, on the Charente, that the greatest shipments of brandy take place to England Cognac, from which the brandy takes its naine, and where there are large distilleries, is a few leagues up the river. The quantity exported is far greater than what is made at Cognac ; the two leading distillers there (Martel and Henessey) buying great quantities from the small cultivators. The greater part of the wines made about Angoléme, and thence down toward the sea, are of interior quality. and fit only for making brandy; and so little do the prices vary, that the proprietors look upon it nearly in the same light as gold. When they augment their capital by savings or profits, it is employed in keeping a larger stock of brandy, which has the further advantage of paying the interest of their capital by its improved value from age. England is said to receive upwards or 6,000 pieces annually from Charente.
At Bordeaux, as at Paris and Marseilles, there is a constant gimbling business in time bargains of spirits of wine. It is in the form of spirits of wine that nearly all the brandy consumed in France is expedited, as in this form there is a great saving in carriage. (For an official account of the exports of wine and brandy from France, see WINE.)
'The fruits exported consist almost entirely of prunes and almonds. The latter come principally from Languedoc.
The revolution in the Spanish American colonies, and the troubles in Spain, have made many wealthy Spaniards settle in Bordeaux. They are in possession of the greater part of the American Spanish traie of this port, and are viewed with a jealous eye by the old merchants. They have also contributel great' to beautily the city, by employing their wealth in building, which they have done to a considerable extent. They have also reduced the rate of interest, and contributed to the facilities of discounting bills. The Spanish houses generally discount long bills at 1 or 2 per cent. lower than the Bank.
Bordeaux possesses some iron founderies, cotton factories, sugar refineries, glass works, &c., but labour and living are too high to adınit of its becoming a considerable manufacturing city.
Banking Establishments. - There is only one banking company in Bordeaux -- the “ Bordeaux Bank." It has a capital of 3,000,000 fr., in shares of 1,000 fr. cach.' It issues notes for 1,000 and 510 fr. (4 d. and 201.) payable in specie on demand. Its atlairs are managed by a board of directors, named try the 50 principal shareholders. This board fixes the rate of discount, and the number of names that out to guarantee each bill; it being left to the discount committee to judge of the responsibility of the signaturas on the bills presented. At present (1H43) the bank discounts bills having more than 40 days to run, ant guaranteed hy 3 signuures, at 1 per cent.
When billoare presented not having the required number of names, or those deemed suspicious, they
take, in guarantee, public stock bonus, or other effects, advancing to the extent of 9-10ths of their cur. rent value.
The bank advances aths of the value of gold and silver in ingots, or in foreign money deposited with them, at the rate of 5 per cent. per amm. It also accepts in deposit diamonds, plate, and every kind of valuable property, engaging to re-deliver the same in the state ieceived for 4 per cent. per quarter, or I per cent. per annum.
Those who have accounts current with the bank may have all their payments made, and money received, by the bank, without fee. It allows no interest on balances, and never makes advances either on personal securily or on mortgage.
The affairs of the bank are subject to the inspection of the Prefeet, to whom half yearly reports of its situation are made. These are printed entire, and distributed to the 50 principal shareholders ; an abstract being, at the same time, published in the Bordeaux journals.
Brokers. - No one is allowed to act as a mercantile broker in France who is not 25 years of age, and who has not served 4 years in a coinmercial house, or with a broker, or a notary public. They are nomipated by the king, after their qualifications have been ascertained by the Chamber of Conunerce. All brokers must deposit the sum of 8,000 fr. in the treasury as a guarantee for their conduct, for which they are allowed interest at the rate of 4 per cent. At present there are in Bordeaux 21 ship brokers, 24 merchandise do., 20 wine and spirit do., 7 insurance do., and 20 money and exchange do.: the latter form a separate class.
All foreigners are obliged to employ ship brokers to transact their business at the Custom-house; and although masters and owners of French vessels might sometimes dispense with their services, they never do so, tinding it to be, in all cases, most advantageous to use their intervention. All duties outward on Vessels and cargoca are paid by the ship brokers, who invariably clear out all vessels, French as well as foreign.
Katis of Commission. - 1. Ship brokers : – Vessel in ballast, 50 cents (50.) per ton; vessel loaded per charter or on owner's account, I fr. (10d.) per ton. 2. Merchandise brokers : - per cent. on colonial produce, and other goods. 3. Wine and spirit brokers :- 2 per cent. on wine, &c. 4. Insurance brokers:- per cent. 5. Money brokers: - per cent. on Paris and foreign paper ; # per cent. on Bordeaux do. 6. Merchants : - 2 per cent. on all sorts of operations between natives ; 24 per cent. on all sorts of operations between strangers ; 5 per cent. on litigious affairs ; 1 per cent. on goods in transilu, when the constituent is present ; & per cent. on banking affairs.
Insurance of ships, houses, and lives is effected at Bordeaux. The first is carried on partly hy indi. viduals, and partly by companies ; the last two by companies only. The partners in these associations are generally liable only to the amount of the shares they respectively hold.
For statements as to the Warehousing System, Smuggling, &c. the reader is referred to the article HAVRE.
Quarantine is performed at Trompeloup, where a spacious lazaretto has been constructed. Bordeaux is a favourable place for repairing and careening ships, and for obtaining supplies of all soris of stores.
The erchange or money brokers of Bordeaux follow a kind of business pretty similar to the London private bankers. They receive, negotiate, and pay bills and orders of such houses as have accounts open with them, charging and allowing an interest on balances, which varies from 35 10 45 per cent., according to circumstances. They charge per cent. for negotiating bills, and I per ceni.on all the payments they inake.
There are, besides, numerous capitalists who employ their spare funds in discounting bills. They prefer bills at long dates, and take from 3 to 6 per cent. discount, according to the contidence they have in the paper presented.
There are not wanting individuals who guarantee, with their names, every sort of paper presented, taking from 5 to 60 per cent. for the risk.
Customary Mode of Payment, and Length of Credit. – Colonial produce, spices, dye stuffs, and metals are usually sold for cash, with 3 per cent. discount. Corn, four, brandy, and several other articles, are sold for nett cash, without discount.
Wines are generally bought of the cultivators at 12 and 15 months' credit, or 6 per cent. discount. When they change bånds amongst the merchants, the practice is to sell for cash, allowing 3 or 5 per cent. discount.
The usage is generally established in Bordeaux, to consider all paper having less than 30 days to run as cash; and with such all payments are made, where there is not an express stipulation to be paid in coin.
Tares, – The tares allowed in Bordeaux are as follows:-
In Commerce. Ceaton in bales, 6 per Large square bales, 6 per cent. Indigo, in cheats, real In chests, real tare. Sneller do., 84T cent.
In runs weighing from 45 to 55 kil. Round do., 4 per cent.
(!01 to 123 lbs.), 7 kil. Sugar in hhds., 15 perIn hids, 17 per cent.
Do. 554 to 65 kil. (102 to 146 lbs.), Shil, Tret per hhd. I bil. (2.2 lhs.)
Do. 655 to 75 kil. (143 to 1.), 9.1. Do in cases,Havannah, In cases, lavannah, &c. 11 per cent.
1,75 10 93kil. (169 to 21.7m.), 10 kil &c., 15 per cent. Tret per case, 1. kil. (2:24 lbs)
Do. 99 to 107 kil. (211 210 lbs, Du, in ble from Bour. In bales from Bourbon, c., real.
, Mauritius, Ma Mauritius, Manilla, &c., 8 per Ashes, pot and pearl, Pot and pearl, 12 per cent. nilla, &c., Dett.
12 per cent. Dr. cinyell, in bhds, Clayel, in hhds, white, 12 per cent. Quercitron bark, real | In casks of 200 kil. and above (119 white and brown, 12 Tret per hhd., I til
lbs.), 12 percent. Clayed, do, brown, 13 per cent.
Do, from 1 to 210 kil. (337 to 418 Tret per bbd. I kill
I s.), 15 per cent. Rice, from a countries, Tare nett, or 12 per cent.
Do. from 120 to 130 kil. (209 to 336
lbs.), 20 per cent. Cette in bags, tare in bags weighing Co kil. (134 lbs.), Peruvian bark, renl In chests, tare nett. nett, or 2 per cent.
In serona weighing from 45 to 57 kil. Do. from Go to 75 k11.(135 10168 lbs.),
(101 to 129 104.), X kil 1 kil.
Do. 61 to 75 kil.(131 to 168 lbs.), 10.11. Do. above 75 Hl. (169 lbs.), 2 kil. Cinnamon in chests, 12 i (ylon, in serons, or single bak, 3 kil. Coron in bags,tarenett, In bags weighing 60 kil. (134 lbs.),
Do in dont le bales, 4 kil. ex? per cent
Do. in bale ,2 per cent. China, in chests, real tare.
In bales weighing from 30% to 50 kil.
(68 to 112 lbs), real tare, or 2 kil. Pepper in bags, 2 per In bass weighing 60 kil. (134 lbs.),
In bagi, single, i kal. cent.
Cochineal, real tare.
Mace and nutinega,do. Real tase.
In casks, 4 per cent. for leaves, and
6 per crit tare. In serone, 30 to 60 kil.(112 to 131lbs.), Sarsaparilla, real tare, In bales, 5 kil.
or 2 per cent. The instructive details with respect to the trade of Bordeaux given above, so very superior to what are to be found in any other publication, bave been principally derived from the private communia cations of intelligent parties on the spot; but some particulars have been learned from official sources.
Operatim of the French Commercial System on the Trade of Bordeaux, ge. — The trade of this great city has suffered severely from the short-sighted, anti-social policy of the
French government. This policy was first broadly laid down, and systematically acted upon, by Napoleon; and we believe it would not be difficult to show that the privations it entailed on the people of the Continent powerfully contributed to accelerate his downfall. But those by whom he has been succeeded bave not hitherto seen the expe. diency of returning to a sounder system ; on the contrary, they have carried, in some respects at least, the “continental system to an extent not contemplated by Napoleon. Notwithstanding the vast importance to a country like France, of supplies of iron and hardware at a cheap rate, that which is produced by foreigners is excluded, though it might be obtained for a third part of the price of that which is manufactured at home. A similar line of policy has been followed as to cotton yarn, earthenware, &c. And in order to force the manufacture of sugar from the beet-root, oppressive duties have been laid, not only on foreign sugar, but even on that imported from the French colonies. The operation of this system on the commerce and industry of the country has been most mischievous. By forcing France to raise, at home, articles for the production of which she has no natural or acquired capabilities, the exportation, and consequently the growth, of those articles in the production of which she is superior to every other country, has been very greatly narrowed. All commerce being bottoined on a fair principle of reciprocity, a country that refuses to import must cease to export. By excluding foreign produce -- by refusing to admit the sugar of Brazil, the cottons and hardware of England, the iron of Sweden, the linens of Germany, and the cattle of Switzerland and Wirtemberg - France has done all that was in her power to drive the merchants of those countries from her markets. They are not less anxious than formerly to obtain her wines, brandies, and silks ; inasmuch, however, as commerce is merely an exchange of products, and as France will accept very few products belonging to others, they cannot, how anxious soever, maintain that extensive and mutually beneficial intercourse with her they would otherwise carry on: they sell little to her, and their purchases are, of course, proportionally diminished.
This, indeed, is in all cases the necessary and inevitable effect of the prohibitive system. It never fails to lessen exportation to the same extent that it lessens importation; so that, when least injurious, it merely substitutes one sort of industry for another
the production of the article that had been obtained from the foreigner, for the production of that which had been sent to him as an equivalent. -- (See CoMMERCE.)
France is not only extremely well situated for carrying on an extensive intercourse with foreign countries, but she is largely supplied with several productions, which, were she to adopt a liberal commercial system, would meet with a ready and advantageous sale abroad, and enable her to furnish equivalents for the largest amount of imports. The superiority enjoyed by Amboyna in the production of cloves is not more decided than that enjoyed by France in the production of wine. Her claret, burgundy, champagne, and brandy are unrivalled ; and furnish, of themselves, the materials of a vast
Indeed, the production of wine is, next to the ordinary business of agriculture, by far the most extensive and valuable branch of industry in France. It is stated by the landholders and merchants of the department of the Gironde, in the admirable Pétition et Mémoire à l'Appui, presented by them to the Chamber of Deputies in 1828, that the quantity of wine annually produced in France amounts, at an average, to about 40,000,000 hectolitres, or 1,060,000,000 gallons ; that its value is not less than from 800,000,000 to 1,000,000,000 francs, or from 32,000,0001 to 40,000,0001. sterling ; and that upwards of three millions of individuals are employed in its production. In some of the southern departments, it is of paramount importance. The population of the Gironde, exclusive of Bordeaux, amounts to about 450,000 individuals, of whom no fewer than 230,000 are supposed to be directly engaged in the cultivation of the vine.
Here, then, is a branch of industry in which France has no competitor, which even now affords employment for about a tenth part of her population, and which is suscepti. ble of indefinite extension. She has, in this single article, the means of carrying on the most extensive and lucrative commerce. “ Le gouvernement Français,” says M. Chaptal, in his work Sur l'Industrie Française, “ doit les plus grands encouragements à la culture des vignes, soit qu'il considére ses produits relativement à la consommation intérieure, soit, qu'il les envisage sous le rapport de notre commerce avec l'étranger, dont il est er effet la base essentielle.”
But instead of labouring to extend this great branch of industry, government has consented to sacrifice it to the interests of the iron-founders, the cotton and linen manufacturers, and the planters of Martinique and Guadaloupe ! We do not, indeed, imagine that they were at all aware that such would be the effect of their policy. Theirs is only one instance, among myriads that may be specified, to prove that ignorance in a ministry is quite as pernicious as bad intentions. The consideration, apparently not a very recondite one, that, notwithstanding the bounty of nature, wine was not gratuitously produced in France, and could not, therefore, be exported except for an equivalent, would seem never to have occurred to the ministers of Louis XVIII. and Charles X.