« AnteriorContinua »
1. An Account of the Quantity of the different sorts of Beer made in England and Wales, in each
Year from 1787 to 1825, both inclusive, the Rate of Duty, and the total Produce of the Duties (English Ale Gallons).
L,1,932,922 10, Má.
1,889,50 17 4 1,933,303 16 0 1,977,796 28 2,078,602 2,220,164 40 2,254,455 14 4 2,148,973 14 0 2,198,460 5 2,385,34 2,524,748 4 8 2,510,267 14 8 2,507,872 19 8 2,106,671 15 8 2,048,695 2,321,198 0 2,782,263 13 4 9,810,768 10 0 2,883,746 40 2,898,926 8 0 2,961,859 0 0 2,456,704 60 2,921,845
8 0 3,040,218 6 0 3,116,407 18 0 3,059,774 0 0 2,437,048 18 0 2,956,280 80 3,227,102 4 0 3,142,676 4 0 2,763,420 0 0 2,825,168 14 0 2,960,644 8 0 2,792,779 100 2,931,912 0 0 3,003,696 12 0 3,230,394 8 0 3,23 1,237 12 0
3,401,296 15 0
II. An Account of the Quantity of all the different sorts of Beer, stated in Barrels, made in each year,
from 5th of January 1825 to 5th of January 1830, the Rates of Duty per Barrel in each Year, and Total Amount thereof in each Year in England and Scotland. -(Pari. Paper, No. 190. Sess. 1830.)
d. 9 10 9 0 9 10 9 0 9 10 9 0 9 10
0 9 10
L. 8. d.
76,885 9 11 1830 94,397
161,488 16,566 67,896
71,733 17 5 N. B.-The duty on beer being repealed in 1830, there are no later accounts of the quantity brewed.
The stationary consumption of malt and beer during the greater part of last century is, most probably, in great part ascribable to the introduction and rapid diffusion of a taste for tea and coffee, and to the consequent change that was effected in the mode of living of the middle and upper classes. No doubt, however, the oppressive duties with which malt and beer were loaded in the latter part of last century and down to 1830 narrowed their consumption in an extraordinary degree. After various previous additions the duty on malt was raised in 1804 to 4s. 54d. per bushel, or 35s. 10d. a quarter, the beer duties being then also raised to 10s. per barrel (old measure); and as a quarter of malt produced about three or three and a half barrels of beer, it follows that the duty on malt used in breweries really amounted at that period to from 658. 10d. to 70s. 100. a quarter, making the duty on strong beer, exclusive of that on hops, about 20s, a barrel. The duty on malt continued at this exorbitant rate till 1816; and to show its influence it is only necessary to state that during the 12 years ending with 1816 the consumption of malt amounted to no more than 23,197,754 bushels a year, being, notwithstanding the vast increase of wealth and population in the interval, less than it had been a century previously, the consumption having amounted to 24, 191,304
The ale gallon contains 282 cubic inches, and the Imperial gallon 2774: the latter being 160th part less than the former.
bushels a year during the 12 years ending with 1720! – (See art. Malt.) The duties had, in fact, bero completely overdone ; and besides hindering the consumption of malt and malt liquors, they had the mischievous effect of vitiating the public taste and stimulating the consumption of ardent spirits, especially of those made from raw grain. In 1816, however, the duty on malt was reduced to 28. 5d. a bushel, and since 1823 it has amounted to 28. 7d. a bushel, or 20s. M. a quarter; and the beer duty haring been abolished in 1830, this has been the only duty with which malt liquor has since been affected.
And though we are unable, from the want of subsequent returns, to state how much the consumption of beer has increased since 1830, the increase in the consumption of malt shows that it must be very consider. able. We subjoin An Account of the Quantities of Malt brewed by the Twelve principal London Porter and Ale Brewers,
during the 5 Years ending with October 1842 (from Slater's Brewers' Malt List).
Those marked thus * brew porter only. The duties on beer were even more indefensible from the mode in which they were charged than from their amount. They affected only that description of beer which was brewed for sale; and as all the higher classes brewed their own beer, the duty fell only on the lower and middle ranks of the community, and particularly the former. It is singular that a tax so grossly unequal and oppressive should have been so long submitted to.
But besides the obstacles to the consumption of beer arising from the oppressive duties with which it was burdened, the system formerly in force for granting licences for its sale opposed obstacles that were hardly less formidable. Previously to 1830 no one could open a house for the sale of beer without first obtaining a licence renewable annually from the magistrates; and as these functionaries were accustomed only to grant licences to the occupiers of particular houses, the brewers naturally endeavoured, in order to ensure the sale of their beer, either to buy up those houses or to lend money upon them : and in many extensive districts a few large capitalists succeeded in engrosssing most of the public houses, so that even the appearance of competition was destroyed, and a ready market and good prices secured for the very worst beer. We, therefore, look upon the abolition of the beer duties, and the granting of leave to all persons to retail beer on their taking out proper licences, as highly advantageous measures. The conditions under which such licenses are taken out, and the sale of beer conducted, are fixed by the acts 1 Will. 4. c. 64. and the 4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 85. Under the former the commissioners of excise, or other persons duly authorised, were bound to grant licences, costing 21. 28. a year, to all persons not excepted in the act, empowering them to sell ale, beer, porter, cider, &c. to be drunk indifferently either on or off the premises. But in consequence of the complaints (whether well or ill founded it is now needless to inquire) of the increase and bad character of beer shops the act 4 & 5 Will. 4. c. 85. makes the obtaining of a licence to retail beer to be drunk on the premises contingent on the applicant being able to produce a certificate of good character, subscribed by certain persons rated at a certain amount to the poor ; it also raised the cost of such licence to 31. 3s., and reduced the cost of a licence to sell beer not to be drunk on the premises to ll. 18. We subjoin an abstract of the acts
Persons applying for a Licence to sell Beer to be drunk on the Premises, to deposit a Certificate of good Character, &c. – Every person appling for a licence to sell beer or cider by retail, tu le drunk in the house or on the premises, shall annually produce to and deposit with the commissioners of excise, colle tor, or other person authorised to grant such licence within the parish or place in which the person applying intends to sell beer or cider by retail, a certificate signed by 6 persons residing in and being and describing theinselves to be inhabitants of such parish, place, &c., and respectively rated therein to the poor at not less than 6., or o cupying a house therein rated to the poor at not less than 61., none of whom shall he maltsters, cominon brewers, or persons licensed to sell spirituous liquors or beer or cider by retail, nor owners or proprietors of any houses licensed to sell liquors, beer, or ciuer by retail, stating that the person applying for the licence is of good character; and at the foot of such certificate one of the overseers of the parish, township, or plare shall certify of the fact be so) that such 6 persons are inhabitants respectively rated as aforewid, and such certificate shall respectively be in the form of the schedule annexed to this act: provided always, that in any parish, township, or district maintaining its own poor, in which there are not 10 inhabitants rated to their relief to the amount of til. Each, or not occupying houses respectively rated to the poor at til.each (not being maltsters, common brewers, or persons licensed to sell spirituous iiquors or beer or rider by retail), the certificate of the majority of the inhabitants of such parish, township, or district maintaining its own poor, as are rated to the amount of 61. each, shall be deemed to be a sufficient certificate for the purpose of this act. -- 4&5 Wil. 4. & 2.
Peruilty on Overseers. - Any overseer who shall, without due cause, refuse to certify that the persons who have signed the certificate are respectively rated to the poor's rate as aforemaid, tu forfeit not more than 51. - $3.
Bay drunk in Sheds. - Any persons licensed under the act 1 Will. 1. c. 61., to sell beer, cider, &c. not to be consumed on the premises, who shall employ, permit, or sutter any person or persons to take or carry any heer, Sc. from his house or premix, to be drunk or consumed for his benefit or profit, in any other huuse, tent, shed, &c. belonging to, or hired, used, or occupied hy kuch licensed person, such bet, c. shell be held to has been consumed on the premises, and the person selling the same shati be subject to the like forfeitures anu penalties as if it had been actually drunk or consumed in a house or upon premises licine only for the sale thereof.
bilding - Provisions for billetting soldiers under mutiny acts to extend only to those licensed to sell beer of cider to be drunk in the house or on the premises, and sint to extend to those licensed to sell teer 1100 W be consumel on the premises. -$5.
Justices to regulate the Opening and Closing Houses, - Justices in petty sessions are authorised to fix the hours at which houses and remises licensed to sell beer under this act shall be opened and closed: but any person thinking himself aggries by any such order may appeal at any time, within i months from its date, to the justices in quarter sessions, on giving the juss
tices making the order 14 daya notice of hate intention ; and the decision of the justices in quarter sessions shall be Ana': pro. videi, however, that the hour befused for opt111.2 arybause shall not in any wine er than 5 o'clock in the morn'ng, nor for closing the smelter than lurteck a neht, or before ! o’lock in the afternoon on Sunday, Good Friday, Christmas Day, or asylar appointed for a public fast or thanksiving; and the hours so naeri big the justices, with reference withe districts Within their jurisdictions, hai be taken to be the hours to be observed and complied with under this act as fully as if the same had been specially appointed hy it.-6.
Cunsluites, fc. to risit licensed Housi4, - All constables and officers of police are authorised to enter into all houses licensed to selleer or spirilgo lors to be consumed upon the premises whenever they ahall think propret: and if any person li ensed as aforesaid, or any servant or person in his employ or by its direction, shall refuse to admitsuch constables, &c. into such house or premises, the person havi g the licence shall for the first offence forfest and pay any suni not exceeding 84., together while the cris of conviction, to the recovered within 20 days before I or more justices and in shall be lawful for Any 2 or more justices, upon any person bring convicted of such offence for the second time, 10 ad udge if they think he) that such othender be dinjuals. feltrom selling beer, ale, porter, cider, or perry, by retail, for 2 years aftit such conviction, or for such shorter space as they may think proper. - 7.
Penalty for making or using false Certificates. - Persons certifying any matter having reference to this act as true, who know the same to be false, or using any certificate, knowing the same to be forved, shall, on cunsiction of such offence before y or more jusuces, forfeir ant pay the sun of 27; and every licenc kranted to an per on making use of any quicate to bidin the same, auch person kring sah certificate to be forged, or the matteri ceritied therein the false, shall be volta all intents and purposes, and any person sing suuh ceruncate sliall be disqualified for from obtaining a licence to well ber of cicer by retail. ss.
No Licence to ke kranted without a Certificite. - No licence for the sale of beer or cider by retail to be consumed or drunk in the house or on the preinises shall be granted, except upon the certificate hereby required provided, that in all extra parochial places the certificate required by this act may be signed and given by inhabitants rated to the poor ai ni. in any adjoining parista or parishes. - $ 9.
Retailers to produce their licences on Requisition of 2 Magistrates. - In case any complaint beinid before 2 justices against any licensed pers in for an offence against the tenor of his licerer, or against his aut or the act I Will 4. ¢: 64., the said justices may tiqdire such person to produce his il ence before item for their examination aid if he wiifully nezect or refuse su to do, he stall forfet for such othence any sum, not exceeding 54., the said justices shall think proper; and such person mar be convicted, proceeded against, and dealt with for such off nee in the same manner, matutis mut nelia, as is directed by the act I Will. 4. C. 44. with regard to petuns guilty of a first offence against said act; and the penalty imposed for such ottence is to be applied in the manner that a penalty for å fint utlence against said act is directed to be applied. - 10.
Continuince of Porrera, The powers, provi ions, and penalties of i Will. 4. c. 61. to apply to persons licensed under this act, and to their suretes, &c. - $11.
Dnetici on Beer Licences, -- There shall be paid upon the licences hereby authorised to be granted the duties following: viz. For and upon every licence to be taken out by any person for Por and upon every licence to be taken out by ans person for the sale of beer lig retail, not to be drunk or consumed in or the sale of beer by retail, to be drunk or consume in or
pon the house or premises where sold, the annual sum of upon the horse or premises where sold, the annua sum of il.is.
31. 38. - $13. The duties to be under the management of commissioners of excise, and to be recovered and accounted for under the provi. Sion of the act I Will. 1. c. 61. $11
to 4itect Duty on Licences to retail Cider and Perry. - Nothing in this act shall affect the amount of duty payable under the I Will 4.c.61. on licences to retail der and perry; but every such licence shall specify whether it be granted for the sale of cider and p Try by retail nee to be drunk in the house or premises wbere sold, or for the retail of the same to be diunk in the house or premis where so d. - 15.
Liences under this Act not to autorise Persons to sell Wine. - No licence granted under the act ! Will. 4. c. 61. And this act shall authorise any person to take out of hold any licence for the sale of me, spirita, or sweets or mide *ines, or mead or me heylin; and it any person licensed under the act I Will. 4. c.61, and this at shall petinit or suflet any wine, spirits, &c. to be brought into his house or preimises to be drunk or consumed there, or shall suffer them to be drunk or consumed in his house or prenaises, he shall, over and alove any excise penalties to which he may be subject, forfest 201. - $ 16.
Penalty o unlicensed Persons. - Such persons selling beer and cider by retail to be drunk ott the premises, 101.; to be drunk on the premises, 201. - $11.
Bourd nie the Door. - Every person licensed to sell beer, cider, or perry, by retail, under the authority of the act 1 Will, 4. c. 14. and this art, shall, on the board required by the former act to be placed over his door, paint and keep thereon, after ibe wyrus" licensed to weil beer or cider by retail," the additional words, "not to be drunk on the premises," or "to be drunk on the premises,' as the case may be, on pain of forfeiting the penalty imposed by such act for not having such board over the door -18.
Whil is retailing of Bert, ke. Every sale of beer, or of cider or perry, in any less quantity than 45 gallons, shall be deemed and taken to be a sale by retail. - $19.
Perzalties for selling spirits or Wine without a Licence. - Persons licensed to sell beer or cider under the act I Will. 4. c.64 and this act, who sell pirits or wine, sweets, &c, without being bcensed, are liable to the penalties imposed by'he laws of excise for selling spirits or wine, swexts, &c. without licence. - $ 20. Certificate wit
to be required for Houses in certain Situations, if Population exceed 5,000. - The before mentioned rertificate shall not be required as to any house situated within the cities of London and Westimunster, or within any parish or place within the bills of mortality, nor within any city or town corporate, nor within the distance of I nile from the place used at the last election as the place of election or polling place of any town returning a member to parliament, provided that the popuiation, deterion d according to the last parisurentary census taken in such city, town, &c. shall exceed 5,000): provided, that no licence for the sale of beer, ale, porter, cider, or peity by retail on the premises in the cities of London and Westinmster, or in any parish within the loads of ionality, or in any such city or town corporate, or town returning a member to parliament as bet reinertioneel, shail be granted af er the 5th day of April, 1836, unless the house or premises specifiel as those in which brer or cider is intended to be sold shall be of the value of 10% per annum.-21.
Form of Certificate referred to in $ 2.
and respectively ratrd to the pour at not less than 6l. per annum, and none of us being maitstan, common brewers, or persons licensed to sell spirituous liquors, or being licensed to se i beer or cider by retail, do hereby certify, That . H., dwelling in street, l'here specify the streel, lune, &c.] in the said parish (or township, &c. ) is a person of good character.
(Here insert the day of signing the certificate. ]
1. K (Here state the residence of each of the per.
P.Q.) 1 do hereby certify, That all the above-mentioned persons whose names are subscribed to this certificate are inhabitants of the parish (er township, &c.) of rated to 61. to the relief of the poor of the said parish.
C. D. (Overseer of the parish or township, &c.] Dute
In addition to the above the following clauses of the act 1 Will. 4. c. 64. are still in force :
Persons trading in partnership, and in one house, shall not be ohlized to take out more than one licence in any one year, prended as one that no one licence shall authorise any person to sell beer, in any other than the house mentioned in such
In cases of riot or expected riot or tumult, every person licensed under this act, and keeping any house situate within their jurimlictions, shall close his house at any time which the justice or justices hall direct; and every such person who shall keyp open his house at or after any lour at which wuch justices shall have so ordered or direcaod such house to be closed, whali le deemed to have not maintained good order and rule therein, and to be guilty of an offence anainst the tenor of his licence. Il
Every person licensed to sell beer by retail, shall sell (except in quantities less than a ball pint) by the gallon, quart, pini, or half pint measure, sized according to the standard, and in default thereof, he shall for every such oflence forteit the tlietal measure, and pay not exceeding 40s, together with the costs of the conviction, to be recovered within thirt days next atier that on which such oftence was committed, before two justice; such penalıy to be over and above all penalties to which the offender may be liable under my other act. -$12.
Every seiler of beær by refail, having a licence under thix act, who shall permit any person to be guilty of drunkenness, or disorderly conduct, to the house mentioned in such licence, shall forfet the 'suis following for the best offence, not less than 4:18. nor inore than 31., as the justices, before whom such retailer shall be convicted, shall alijudge ; and for the set ond offence, any sum not less than 31, nor more than 101 ; and for the third offence, any um not les than 2014. nor more than 1., and it shall le lawful for the justices, before whom any such conviction for such third offence shall take place, to od ude, if they shall think fit, that such offender shall be disqualined from selling beer by retail for the space of two years next ensuing such con viction, and also that no beer shall be sold by retail, by any person in the house mentioned in the licence of soch offender; and if any person to licensed shall, knowingly, sell any beér, ale, or porter, made otherwise than from malt and hops, or shall mix, or cause to be mixed, any drugs or other pernicious ingredient, with any beer sold in hu house, or shall fraudulently dilute, or
In any way adulterate, any such beer, uch ofTender shall for the first offence forfeit not less than 104. Nor more than 201., and for the second such offence such otiender shall be adjudged to be disqualified rom selling leer, ale, or porter, by retail, for the terın of two years, or to for feit not less than 24. nor more than 501., and shall be subject to a like penalty at every hotiser where he shall commit such offence; and if any person shall during any terin in which it shall not be lawful for beer to be sold by retail on the premises of any offender, sell any ber by retail on such premise, knowing that it was not lawful to be sold, suh offender shall sorteit not less than 10!. nor more than 206.; every person suffering the conditions of the licence to be infringed to be deemned guilty of disorderly conduct. - $ 13.
Retailers' houses not to be open before four in the morning, nor after ten to the evening: nor between the hours of ten in the forenoon and one in the afternoon, nor at any titne between the hours of three and fire in the afternoon, on any Sunday, 6 od Friday, Christmas-day, or any day appointed for a public fast or thanksgiving: and any person offinding herein hall furteit 404. for every offence; every separate sale to be deemed a separate offence. - $11.
All penalties under this act, except for selling beer by any person not duiy licensed, shall be recoreret, upon the information of any person before two justices in petty sessions, and every such penalty shall be prosecuted for within three calendar months next after the oflence; and every person licensed under this act, who shall be convictel b foretro justices, shall, unles proof te adduced to the satisfaction of such justices, that such person had been theretofure convictel before tuo justices, within the space of twelve calendar inonths next precedling, be adjudged by such justices to be guilty of a first offence acainst this a t, and to forfeit and pay any penalty by this act imposed for such offence, or if no specific penalty be imposed, then any sum not exceeding 51., dogether with the costs of the conviction; and if proof be adduced to the satisfaction of such justices that such person had been previously convirted, within the space of twelve calendar months next preceding, of one such olence only, such person to be adjudged guilty of a stond offence against this act, and to forfeit and pas any penalty by this act imposed for soch offence, or if no specitic penalty be so jo posed, then any sun not exceeding 101 , together with the costs of conviction; and f proof hali be ad luced that such person had been previously convicted within the space of eighteen calendar months next pre exting, of two such separate offences, and if proof be adducat that such person, so charged, is guilty of the offence chargei apametnim, such person shall be adjudged to be guilty of a thirit offence against this act, and to fastirit and pay any penalty immed by this sit, in respect of such offence, or if no such specific penalty shall be imposed, then to forfeit and pay the sum of 501., together wih the costs of conviction, - $15.
The party, convicted of any such third offence, may appeal to the general sessions, or quarter sessions then next ensuing, unless held within twelve days after conviction, and in that case, to the then next subsequent sessions; and, in such ca e, the p rty convicted shall enter into a recognizance, with two sureties, parsonally to appear at the said general or quarter ssions, to atide the judgment of the court; and to pay such co ts as shall be by the court awarded; or, in failure of the party convic.ei entering into such recognizance, such conviction shall remain good and valid; and the said justices who shal lake such recognizance, are also required to bind the person who shall make such charges to appear at such general or quarter session, then and tere to give evidence against the person charged, and, in like manner, to bind any other person who shall have any knowla e of sucia offence; and it shall be lawful for the said general or quarter sessions to adjudge such person to be guilty of such third ofteric against this act, and such adjudication shall be final, and it shall be lawful for such general or quarter simssions to punah such offender by fine, not exceeding 1001., together with the costs of such appeal, or to adjudge the licence to be forfeited, or that no beer be by retail in he house for the term of two years, and if such licence shall be adjudged to furteited, it sal het forth be void ; and whenever, in such case, the licence of such offender shall be adjudged to he void, such oifend I shall be deemeri incapable of selling beer, ale, or porter, by retail, in any house kept by him, for the space of two years, to be compated from the time of such adjudication; and any licence granted to such person doring such term shall be void. - 16.
In default of payment of penalties, proceedings may be had against the sureties. - $ 19.
Any person summoned as a witness, who shall neglect or refuse to appear, and not make such reasonable excuse for such neglect, &c. as shall be admitted by such justices of sessions, or who, appearing, shall refuse to be examined, shall, on conviction, forfeit not exceeding 104. - 20.
Offenders refusing or neglecting, within seven days after conviction, to pay the penalty impnsed, and any costs assessed, such jis. tices may issue thir warrant, to less the amount by distress and sale, together with the costs of distress and sale; and in every such case, such oftenders, if in custody, shall be forth with discharge ; but if the goods and chattels are not sufficient, such jus. tice may cominit the offender to the common gaul or house of correction for not exceeding one calendar month, if the penalty shall not be above 51.; for not exceeding three calendar months, if the penalty shall be above 51. and not inore than 101. and for not exceeding sis calendar months, if the penalty shall be abore 101. provided, that whenever uch offender shall pay to the kaoler or keeper, or to whomsoever such juvices shall have appointed, the penalty and costs, together with all the costs wat apprehension and conveyance to gaol, at any time previous to the expiration of the time for which such offender shail have been committed, such offender ahall be forth with distharged - $ 21.
No conviction under this act, nor any adjudication made upon appeal therefrom, shall be quashed for want of form, nor removed by certiorari. - $ 27.
Every action against any justice, constable, or other person, for any thing done in execution of his duty under this act, to be commenced within three calendar months, and not afterwards; and if any person be suel, he may plead the general issue, and give the special matter in evidence. -$29.
This act not to affect the two universities, nor the vintners' company in London ; nor to prohibit the sale of beer at fairs, as heretofore.
11. Scotch Ale and Beer Duties. — The duties on ale and beer in Scotland have been for a lengthened period the same as in England.
At the union in 1707, the English duties on ale and beer were introduced into Scotland. But, besides strong and small beer, the Scotch had an intermediate species, which they called two-penny, and which was their favourite beverage. The duty on this description of beer was fixed, at the union, at 28. 147. a barrel. For thirly years after its imposition, the quantity of two-penny that paid duty was always above 400.000, and sometimes exceeded 500,000 barrels a year. But in 1760 the duty on two-penny was increased to 35. 414. and the consumption immediately fell off to between 100.000 and 200,000 barrels ! 'The quantity that paid duty in 1800 amounted to 149,803 barrels. The manufacture of this species of beer ceased entirely in 1802.
No account has been kept of the quantity of beer brewed in Ireland since 1809, when it amounted to 960,300 barrels. --(Morewood on Intoxicating Liquors, p. 353.) Perhaps it may now amount to from 1,000,000 to 1,200,000 barrels. An Account of the Number of Barrels of Beer exported from the United Kingdom to Foreign Countries
in 1841 and 1842; specifying the Countries to which they were principally sent. - (Parl. Papers, No. 175. Sess. 1843.)
12. Regulations as to the Erportation of Reer. -- Ale or beer wholly from malt which has been charged with and paid the exported to foreign parts as merchandise is allowed a drawback duty of 25.7d. a bushel, and shall also speciis in such cath the of 5$, ihe barrel of 36 gallons, Inip. meas. But before any de time when and the place where; and the brewer, being an venture for the above drawback shall be paid, the exporter or his entered and licensed brewer for sale, by whom such terror principal clerk or inanager shail make oath thereon, la fore the ale was bru ved, and that the quantity of mat used in brewing proper officer of excise, that such ale or beer was put on board u as not less than 2 bushels (Imp. meas. for every 36 gallons the esporting ship as merchandise to be sent leyond seas, and of suih bor or ale. Per ons mrking false statements forfeit no part thereof for the ship's use; and that, according to the the sum of 2001., and the debenture is void. - (1 Will. 4. cap. best of his knowledge and belief, the same has been brewed i 51. $ 11.)
ALEXANDRIA, so called from its illustrious founder, Alexander the Great, the principal seaport of Egypt, on the coast of the Mediterranean, about 14 miles W. S.W. of the Canopic mouth of the Nile; the lighthouse being in lat. 31° 11' 31" N., long. 29° 51' 28'' E. The situation of this famous city was admirably chosen. Until the discovery of the route to India by the Cape of Good Hope, Egypt formed the centre of the commerce between the eastern and western worlds; and Alexandria was placed in the most favourable position in Egypt for an emporium, being the only port on its northern coast, where there is, at once, deep water, and security for shipping through. out the year. The ports of Rosetta and Damietta, the former on the west, and the
latter on the eastern arm of the Nile, are both difficult of entrance, each having a bar, upon which there is always a dangerous surf. Ships bound for Alexandria avoid this serious inconvenience; and by means of an artificial navigation, stretching from the city to the western branch of the Nile, it has almost the same facilities for internal navigation that are enjoyed by the cities referred to.
It may be proper, however, to mention that this artificial communication with the Nile has not always been open. 'It existed in antiquity, but fell into decay during the barbarism of more modern times. After being shut up for some centuries, it has beeu re.opened by Mehemet Ali, who dug the Mahmoudio can.! from Alexandria to Atfeh on the Nile, about 27 miles above Rosetta. This important work is 44 miles in length, 90 feet in breadth, and from 15 to 18 feet deep. It was opened in 1919; but owing partly to the nature of the ground, partly to soine defects in its construction, and partly to the mud deposited by the water of the Nile, it is difficult to keep in repair; and can only be navigated by boats that draw little water, and are not suitable for the navigation of the Nile. But, with all its defects, the con. struction of this canal has been of the greatest advantage, not to Alexandria only, but to Egypt and even Europe.
Ports, &c. - The ancient city was situated a little more inland than the modern one, opposite to the small island of Pharos, on which was erected the lighthouse, so celebrated in antiquity, -- (Cæsar, de Bello Cirili, lib. iii. cap. 112.) This island was, partly by artificial means, and partly by natural causes, gradually joined to the land by a mound, and on this the modern town is principally built. The isthmus and island have now the form of a T, its head being N. E. and S.W. A square castle, or tower, built on a small islet or rock, at the extremity of a mole projecting from the north-east angle of the city, is still called the Pharos, and may, perhaps, occupy the site of the ancient lighthouse: a light was exhibited on it down to 1842, when it ceased. On each side of the city there is a port. That on the westem, or African side, called the Old Port, the Eunostos of the ancients, is by far the largest and best. It stretches from the town westwards to Marabout, about 6 miles, and is about it miles in width. It is bounded on the north, partly by the western tongue or angle of the island on which the city is partiaily built, at the extremity of which is the new lighthouse, and partly by rocks and sand banks. It has three entrances. The first, or that nearest the city, having 17 feet water is about 14 miles S. W. from the lighthouse ; but it is too narrow and difficult to be attempted by any ore not thoroughly acquainted with the port. The eastern side of the second or middle entrance is marked by buoys which lie about 2} miles S. W. from the lighthouse; it is about a quarter of a mile wide, and has, where shallowest, 27 feet water. The third or western entrance has its western boundary within about three-eighths of a mile from the cast end of Marabout island; it is about half a mile wide, and has from 25 to 27 feet water in its shallowest places. This last is the best entrance. Ships, when in, may anchor close to the town in from 22 to 40 feet water, and there is good anchorage in deep water all along the shore. Foreigners were formerly exclu ted from this port; but this prohibition no longer exists, and it is now principally resorted to bý the shipping frequenting the port.
What is called the New (though it be really the oldest) or Asiatic harbour is on the eastern side of the town. A rock called the Diamond lies a little to the east of the Pharos tower; and ships entering the port ought to have this rock about a cable's length on the right. If they get much further to the left, they will come in contact with a shoal which stretches westward from the Pharillon, or little tower, on the east side of the port. The water immediately within the port S. W. from the Pharos is from 30 to 10 feet deep; but the space for anchorage is very limited, and is exposed to the northerly gales; and the ground being foul and rocky, hempen cables are very apt to chase, and several accidents have happened in consequence to ships unprovided with iron cables. Ordinat tides rise 2 feet ; but during the overflow of the Nile the rise is 4 feet. Variation 13° west. — (See Plan of Alexandria, by Lieut. Falbe.)
Lighthouse. - The new lighthouse, on the most westerly point of the island (an. Pharos) on which the city is partly built, was erected in 1842. It exhibits a fixed light, elevated 180 feet above the level of the sea, and is visible in clear weather at a distance of nearly 20 miles. This light must, of course, be kept on the left by those entering the great or western harbour, and on the right by those entering the small or eastern harbour. We may mention that a British vessel was totally lost in attempting to enter the W. harbour by night, in December, 1844. The captain trusted to a chart which identified the lighthouse with the old tower at the entrance to the E. harbour. But the light on the latter has, as already stated, ceased to be exhibited since 1842, and all charts should be corrected accordingly.
Ancient and Modern City.- Under the Ptolemies and Romans, Alexandria was the first commercial city in the world. It suffered greatly by its reduction by the Saracens in 640; but it continued to be a place of considerable commercial importance till the despotism of the Mamelukes and Turks, and the discovery of the route to India by the Cape of Good Hope completed its ruin. Under the Ptolemies, the population is believed to have amounted to about 300,000, and the city was adorned by a vast number of magnificent structures. At present the population varies with the seasons of the year, but, when greatest, it is not supposed to exceed 100,000; and may vary between this amount and 80,000. The appearance of the modern town is most unpromising. " It may be justly said, that in the new city of Alexandria we find a poor orphan, whose sole inheritance has been the venerable name of its father. The vast extent
f the ancient city is contracted in the new to a little neck of land, between the two ports. The most superb temples are changed into plain mosques; the most magniticent palaces into houses of a bad structure ; the royal seat is become a prison for slaves ; an opulent and numerous people have given way to a small number of foreign traders, and to a multitude of wretches, that are the servants of those on whom they depend : a place formerly so famous for the extent of its commerce, is no longer any thing more than a mere place of embarking; in fine, it is not a phenix that revives from its own ashes, it is, at most, a reptile, sprung from the dirt, the dust, and corruption with which the Alcoran has infected the whole country." - (Norden's Travels, Eng. trans. 8vo. ed. p. 37.) But this striking description, though accurate at the time when it was written (1737), conveys too unfavourable an idea of the present state of Alexandria. The vigorous government of Mehemet Ali, by introducing comparative security and good order into Egypt, revived the commerce of Alexandria, which has again become a place of much importance in the trading world ; and many new warehouses and other buildings have been constructed.
Trade of Alerandria. - The imports principally consist of cotton stuffs, timber, woollen and silk stuffs, iron and hardware, including copper and tin plates, jewellery, machinery, ammunition, paper, and stationery, cutlery, &c., &c. The exports consist principally of raw cotton, sice, wheat and barley, beans, linseed, senna, and other drugs and gums brought from the interior ; indigo, opium, ostrich feathers, dates, soda, linen cloth, coffee from Arabia, &c. The exports of wheat, barley, and pulse for a while declined in consequence of the superior encouragement given to the growth of cotton ; but they have again increase 1, and in 1849 we brought from Alexandria 129,954 qrs. wheat, 247,594 qrs. beans, and 13,151 qrs. Indian corn. The culture of fax has declined: formerly from 50,000 to 60,000 quarters of linseed have been exported from Alexandria in a single season, but the exports are now much less. Sugar has been long cultivated in Egypt; but not to any great extent, though the soil and climate of Upper Egypt are said to be especially favourable to its growth. Indigo and madder are among the articles of culture introduced by the late Pacha.
Cotton has been grown in Exspt from a very remote period ; previously, nowever, to the ascendancy of Mehemet Ali it was but little cultivated, and that little was of inferior quality, short-stapled, and closely resembling “Surats," under which name the small quantities exported from the country were usually sold. But, in 1820, a Frenchman of the name of Juinel accidentally observed a very valuable