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Arrivals of Shipping in 1841.
Dutch (from foreign ports)
150 Dio (froun E. Archipelago)
262 Switch 1 21,6769 Cochin-Chinese
130 5 771 Siamese
137 Various Asiatic
Total ships and vessels 1905 124,228) Portuguese
2,227) Official Account of the Quantities of the Principal Articles of Produce exported from Java and Madura
in the following Years.
Ratans. Mace. Arrack.
10,610 21,426 13,521 5,20 466,871 11,868 535,753 139,995 4,566 5,42 439,543 40,536 25,577 4,905 1,606 2,0751
Pc. 1949 1,139,124 9,911 2,123.911 110.494
3,600 1,021,493 62,331 694),19 28,032 870 5,261 961, 1671 1.3, 477 1,577,396 120,17% 7,600 5,125 1,046,576.19,330 676,213 37,017
1,171 114? 1.013.8.34 10,111 1,627,1371 167,77 1.719 5,129 85 1.6h59,127 $81,157
1,634 4,06%, 1K13 1.018,102 23,083 1.890,-29 154,3.0 2,197 2,113
929,760,01 1,0419,774 73,585 1911,232.935 12,654 1.618,5201 156,224 2, 8,131 1,648,324.8,729 785,276 73,000
2,300) 6,7351 1813 1,006,190 11,327 11,633,869 105,751
3,403 1,455,125 73,37 447,017 51,260 830 4,37) Account of the Quantities and Values of the Principal Articles exported from Java and Madura
in 1836 and 1845.
Value of Ex. ports in 1836.
ed in 15ij.
Value of Exports in 1815.
163,242 Hid 1090 p. and 846 piculs 217,715
2701.h19 407,749 11. 1.172,382 1,653,569 lbs.
4,1,1,141 494,197% puuls
15,090,3 1,006,1%) plculs 20,123,799 Pepper
2,662,101 Spruce, More
20,354),209 T tacco
769,830 3.SII kories 2,341,10 Tin
2,715,810 73,536 piculs 4,41,518 All other articles and treasure
10,005,888 Total value of Exports from Java and Madura in 1836 - Flor. 42,261,642
65.995,169 * Equal at 20d. per florin to £3,491,264. Bank of Batavia. -- A bank, for the issue of notes and other banking business, was established at Batavia in 1827, with branches at Samarang and Sourabaya , the history of which is not upinstructive. The capital of the bank, consisting of 2.060,000 11., divided into 4,000 shares, was subseribed with difficulty ; and the most unfavourable anticipations were entertained of the success of the establishment. No sooner, however, had the bank been set on foot, than she began to enjoy a large share of prosperity. The rapid increase of cultivation and commerce in Java led to a corresponding demand for capital, and to the payment of a very high rate of interest on loans; and as the loans made by the bank consisted of bank notes, which cost next to nothing, the profits became quite enormous ; so much so that they amounted in 1637 to 33 per cent., the price of the 500 A. share of bank stock being then also 1,550 11. Bit this prosperity was as brief as it was signal. - The offer of an exorbitant interest had tempted, in noi a few cases, the bank to make advances on doubtful security ; and in Java, as elsewhere, issues of piper payable on demand necessarily stop the moment the circulation has been fully saturated with botes ; and this result having been attained in 1838, and the notes issued by the bank being henceforth returned on her for payment, she speedily became involved in the greatest difficulties; many of those who depended on her advances for support were no longer able to meet their engagements; and the whole island was subjected to a severe pecuniary and commercial crisis : in fact, but for the intervention of the government, in 1840, when bank notes were made legal tender for a iimited period, she must have stopped payments! This intervention has, however, given her tire to recover from the difficulties into which she had been precipitated ; and having again, after sustaining a very heavy loss, resumed specie payments, it is to be hoped that she may profit in future by her past experience. -- We subjoiu An Account of the Dividends paid by the Bank of Java from 1829 to 1840, both inclusive. Dividend. Disidend.
53 per cent.
• 26 1832 - 18
(See the Brochure of M. d'Argout on Java, Singapore, &c., Paris, 1842.) General Remarks on Java. — The previous statements show that the produce and trade of Java bave increased during the last dozen years with a rapidity unknown in any other colony, Cuba, perhaps, excepted. And if the resources and capabilities of this poble island be fully developed, it is quite impossible to say how much farther her trade may be extended. It would far exceed our limits, and, even were this not the case, it would involve us in discussions nowise suitable for this work, were we to enter into any detailed examination of the means by which the extension of culture in Java has been brought about. We may, however, shortly mention that the produce for exportation is principally raised on account of government, partly by contributions in kind, and partly and principally by contributions of compulsory labour applied to its production. And, provided these contributions be not carried to an excess, we ineline to think that they are at once the least onerous mode in which the natives can be made to pay their taxes, and the most profitable for the government. It is, we apprehend, idle to suppose that industry, if left to itself, will ever become flourishing in a country like Java, where the wants of the inhabitants are so few and so easily satisfied, or where
the climate indisposes to exertion. No doubt the system of compulsory labour may be easily abused and converted into an instrument of the most grinding oppression ; but so long as it is managed with discretion and good sense, we are disposed to believe, from all we can learn, that it is preferable to every other system bitherto devised for developing the resources of tropical countries. (For some remarks on this subject, see the learned and able Dissertatio Historico-Politica, on the Dutch East India Company, by Van Lijnden, published in 1839, pp. 161–171.)
Very great public improvements have also been already effected, and are still in progress, in the island. - Among others, an excellent high road has been constructed through its whole length, from Bantam on its W. to Sourabaya on its E. coast, whence cross roads lead to all the principal stations. A number of forts have, also, been constructed in commanding situations in the interior, the principal of which at Surackarta, near the centre of the island, is a regular and strong citadel. It is said to be the intention to transfer the seat of government thither from Batavia. These forts have been erected principally to keep the natives in check, and to prevent those outbreaks that have done so much to retard the prosperity of the island. Several important establishments have also been recently fo'inded along the S. coast, which had previously been all but neglected. (See Argout sur Java, Singapore, &c.)
Rice used to be the staple product of Java; but it is now far surpassed by cofiee and sugar, the culture of both of which has been astonishingly increased. In proof of this we may mention that the exports of coffee, which in 1830 amounted to 288,740 piculs, had increased in 1845 to 1,006,190 do., or to 61,090tons: while the exports of sugar, which in 1830 amounted to 108,640 piculs, bad increased, in 1845, to 1,455,423 piculs, or 88,365 tons. More than half the trade of the island centres in Batavia.
Indigo has also become an important product. The other principal articles of export are tin from Banca, tobacco, tea, and birds' nests.
The imports comprise cottons, woollens, and other manufactured goods ; wines and spirits, with iron, hardware, and machinery; opium from the Levant and from Bengal; and a great variety of other articles.
Port Regulations. - The following is the substance of the port 3 florins per coyang of 27 piculs. Tin, exported on a foreion regulations of Batavia :- 1st. The commander of a ship arrising ship to whatever port, 4 florins per picul, and by a Netherlands in the roads, is not to land himself, or permit ans of his crew ship, 2 florins per pricul. The trade in spices is inodopolixed by or passenger, to land, until his vessel le visited by a boat from the Netherlands Trading Company, the guard-ship. – xd. The master, on landing, is first to wait Goods are received in contrepot not only at Batavia, but at the on the master attendant, and afterwards report himself at the ports of Samarang, Sourabaya, and Anjiet in Java, and Rho police office...3d. A manifest of the whole cargo inust be de in the Straits of Malacca, on payment ot a duty of i per cent livered at the Custom-house within 24 hoirs of the ship's an iv. levied on the invoice value. ing in the roads. - 4th. The master of a vessel must lorige the Money. - Accounts are kept, at Batavia, in the florin or ship's papers with the master attendant when he first lands, guilder, dividel into centimes, or 100 parts, represented by a which are duly delivered up to him when he receives his port comper comage or doit. The florin is a new coin made esclearance from the same authority, - 5th. No goods can be pressly for India, but of the same value as the florin current in shipped or landed after sunset, under a penalty of 300 florins. ihe Netherlands. It is usually estimated at the rate of 12 to - 6th. No goods can be shipped on Sunday without a special the pound sterling, but the correct par is 11 florins 5 cont. permission from the water tiscal, which, however, is never per pound. Doubloons, and the coins of Continental India, refused on application. -- 7th. No muskets or aminunition can are receivable at the Custom-house at a fixed tarill: the be imported but the prohibition does not extend to fowling Spanish dollar, for example, at the rate of 100 for 250 flonns piere exceding 100 forins value.
Weights. - The Chinese weights are invariably used in con Tariff. - After a good deal of negotiation, it has been fixed mercial transactions at Batavia, and throughoui Jara and the that goods imported in English vessels shall pay an ad valorem other Dutch possessions in India. These are the pical and the duty of 25 per cent., and under the Netherlands flag, of 12) per cattie, which is its hundredth part. The picui is commonly cent. ; that is, a duty upon the wholesale price at Batavia, not estimated at 125 Dutch, or 133 lbs. avoirdupoes, but at Ratavia in bond. The export duty on coffee, if exported on a foreign it has been long ascertained and considered to be egut to bottom to a foreign country, is 5 florins per picul; if on a foreign 136 lbs. avoirdupois.-(Hogendorp, Coup d'El sur l'Ile de Jara, bottom to a port in the Netherlands, 4 florins; and if on a Ne. cap. , &c.; Evidence of Gillian Macaine, Esq. hefore the slice therlands bottorn to a Netherlands port, 2 florins. Sugar ex. Committee of the House of Commons on the fairs of the East ported on a foreign bottom pays i florins per picul; but if India Cumpany, 1851 : Nederlurudsche Staats-Courant, 13 Auexpotted on a Netherlands bottom, 1 tlorin. Rice, on what gust, 1912, and other official information. ever bottom exported, and to whatever country, pays a duty of
BATTEN, a name in common use for a scantling of wood 24 inches thick and 7 wide. If above 7 inches wide, it is called deal.
BAZAAR, a term used in the East to designate a market, or building in which various articles of merchandise are exposed for sale. Bazaars are now met with in most large cities of Europe, There are several in London, of which the one in Soho-square is the most considerable.
BDELLIUM (Arab. Aflatoon), a gum-resin, semi-pellucid, and of a yellowish brown or dark brown colour according to its age, unctuous to the touch, but brittle ; soon, however, softening between the fingers ; in appearance it is not unlike myrrh, of a bitterish taste, and moderately strong smell. Two kinds have been distinguished : the opocalpasum of the ancients, which is thick like wax ; and the common dark sort. is found in Persia and Arabia, but principally in the latter ; all that is met with in India is of Arabic origin. The tree which produces it has not been clearly ascertained. (Ainslie's Materia Indica.)
BEACONS, in commerce and navigation, public marks or signals to give warning of rocks, shoals, &c. No man is entitled to erect a light-house, beacon, &c., without being empowered by law. The Trinity House corporation are authorised to set up beacons in whatever places they shall think fit; and any person who shall wilfully remove or run down any buoy, beacon, &c. belonging to the Trinity House, or to any other corporation, individual or individuals, having authority to establish it, shall, besides being liable to the expense of replacing the same, forfeit a sum of not less than 101. nor more than 501. for every such offence. —-(6 Geo. 4 c. 125. $91.)-(See Buoys.)
BEADS (Fr. Rosaires ; Ger. Rosenkränze ; Du. Puternosters ; It. Corone , Sp. Cotonas), small globules or balls used as necklaces, and made of different materials; as pearl, steel, amber, garnet, coral, diamonds, crystal, glass, &c. Roman Catholics use beads in rehearsing their Ave Marias and Paternosters. Glass beads or bugles are imported in large quantities into India and Africa, 288,058 lbs. having been shipped from this country to the W. coast of the latter in 1841. Large quantities are sent from China to India, the Eastern islands, &c. The glass beads sent from England are nearly all imported, principally from Venice, where they are very largely produced. Their non-manufacture in this country is said to be a consequence of the excise regulations as to the manufacture of glass; but the truth is, that the Venetian manufacturers colour them better, and give them a better finish than the English.
BEANS (Fr. Féres; Ger. Bohnen; It. Fave; Rus. Boobü ; Sp. Habas; Lat. Fabæ ; a well-known vegetable of the pulse species, largely cultivated both in gardens and, fields. Its cultivation is of much importance in rural economy, inasmuch as it has gone far to supersede fallows on strong loams and clays.
BEAVER. See Skins.
BEECH (Fagus sylvatica), a forest tree to be met with every where in England. There is only one species, the difference in the wood proceeding from the difference of soil and situation. A considerable quantity of beech is grown in the southern parts of Bucks. It is not much used in building, as it soon rots in damp places; but it is used as piles in places where it is constantly wet. It is manufactured into a great variety of tools, for which its great hardness and uniform texture render it superior to all other sorts of wood ; it is also extensively used in making furniture.
BEEF, as every one knows, is the flesh of kine. It is used either fresh or salted. Formerly it was usual for most families, at least in the country, to supply themselves with a stock of salt beef in October or November, which served for their consumption until the ensuing summer, but in consequence of the universal establishment of markets where fresh beef may be at all times obtained, the practice is now nearly relinquished, and the quantity of salted beef made use of as compared with fresh beef is quite inconsiderable. Large supplies of salted beef are, however, prepared at Cork and other places for exportation to the East and West Indies. During the war, large supplies were also required for victualling the navy. The vessels engaged in the coasting trade, and in short voyages, use only fresh provisions.
The English have at all times been great consumers of beef; and at this moment more beef is used in London, as compared with the population, than any where else. – Previously to 1842 the importation of fresh beef was prohibited; and salt beef from a foreign country was at the same time charged with a duty of 128. a cwt. The entries of the latter for consumption were in consequence inconsiderable, having amounted in 1840 to only 3,892, and in 1841 to 1,698 cwts. (principally hung beef from Hamburg). Both fresh and salted beef may now be imported on paying a duty of 88 a cwt. For farther details with respect to the consumption of beef, &c. see arts. Cattle and Pro
BEER. See Ale and Beer.
BELL-METAL (Fr. Metal de Fonte ou de cloches; Ger. Glockengut ; Du. Klokspys; Sp. Campanil; Rus. Koloklnaja mjed), a composition of tin and copper, usually consisting of 3 parts of copper and 1 of tin. Its colour is greyish white; it is very hard, sonorous, and elastic. Less tin is used for church bells than for clock bells; and in very small bells, a little zinc is added to the alloy. -( Thomson's Chemistry.)
BENZOIN. See Balsam.
BERGEN, the first commercial city of Norway, situated at the bottom of a deep bay, in lat. 60° 24' N., long. 5° 20' E. Population 22,500. The bay is inclosed on all sides by rugged rocks and islands: the water is deep; but, owing to the number and intricacy of the passages, the access to the town is attended at all times with a good deal of difficulty, and should never be attempted without a pilot. Codfish, salted or dried, is the principal article of export; when dried, it is called stock-fish, and goes chiefly to Italy and Holland. The fishery is the principal employment; and considerable quantities of fish and other products are also brought hither for exportation from the more northerly parts of the kingdom. At an average, from 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 lbs. salted and dried fish are annually exported. Herrings, whale oil, skins, bones, tar, lobsters, &c. are also largely exported. The exports of timber from Bergen are inconsiderable, and none has latterly gone to England. Norway timber is not so large as that brought from Prussian ports, nor so free from knots; but, being of slower growth, it is more compact, and less liable to rot. The planks are either red or white fir or pine : the red wood is produced from the Scotch fir; the white wood, which is inferior in price and estimation, is the produce of the spruce fir: each tree yields three pieces of timber of 11 or 12 feet in length; and is 70 or 80 years of age before it arrives at perfection. The planks or deals of Bergen are, however, a good deal inferior to those of Christiana.
The imports into Bergen principally consist of grain from the Baltic ; and salt, hardware, coffee, sugar, &c. from England.
For Monies, Weights, and Measures, see CHRISTIANA ; where there are further details as to the trade and navigation of Norway.
BERRIES ( Baccæ), the fruits or seeds of many different species of plants. The berries quoted in London Price Currents are bay, juniper, Turkey, and Persian.
1. Bay Berries (Fr. Baies de Laurier; Ger. Lorbeeren; It. Bacchi di Lauro; Sp. Bayas), the fruit of the Laurus nobilis. This tree is a native of the south of Europe, but is cultivated in this country, and is not uncommon in our gardens. The berry is of an oval shape, Nesby, and of a dark purple colour, almost black ; it has a sweet fragrant odour, and an aromatic astringent taste. Bay berries, and the oil obtained by boiling them in water, are imported from Italy and Spain. - ( Thomson's Dispensatory.)
2. Juniper Berries (Fr. Genévrier; Du. Sirenboom; it. Ginepro; Sp. Embro), the fruit of the common juniper (Juniperus communis). They are round, of a black purple colour, and require two years to ripen.' They have a moderately strong, not disagreeable, but peculiar smell, and a warın, pungent, sweetish taste, which, if they be long chewed, or previously well bruised, is followed by a considerable bitterness. They are found in this country; but most of those made use of here are iinported from lol. land, Germany, and Italy. They should be chosen fresh, not much shrivelled, and free from mouldiness, which they are apt to contract in keeping. On distillation with water, they yield a volatile essential oil, very subtile and pungent, and in smell greatly resembling the herries. The peculiar flavour and diuretic qualities of Geneva depend principally on the presence of this oil. English gin is said to be, for the most part, flavoured with oil of turpentine.-(Lewis's Mat. Med. ; Thomson's Dispensatory.)
The duty on juniper berries, previously to 1832, was Ils. 1d. a cwt., being more than 100 per cent. on their price in hond. The oppressiveness of this duty seems to have been the principal reason why turpentine, which in point of Havour and all other respects is so inferior, was largely used in preference to luniper berries in the preparation of gin. This oppressive duty was reduced, in 1832, to 28., and again, in 1812, to Is. 6d.; and we entertain little doubt that this wise and liberal measure will at no distant period occasion the receipt of an equal amount of revenue, at the same time that it can hardly fail materially to improve the beverage of a large proportion of the people. la 1812, 7,7734 Cwt. juniper berries were entered for consumption.
Italian juniper berries fetch at present (Jan. 1843), in the London market, from 10s. to 128. a cwt., duty included; and German and Dutch ditto, from 98. to 10s.
3. Turkey Yellow Berries, the unripe fruit of the Rhamnus infectorius of Linnæus. They are used as a dye drug. in preparing a lively but very fugitive yellow, for topical application in calico-printing. Considerable quantities of them are exported from Salonica, to which they are brought from Thessaly and Albania. An inferior sort is produced in France. -(Bancroft on Colours.) The duty on Turkey berries is Is.; and their price, duty included, in the London market, is (Jan. 1843) 348. to 38. a cwt.
4. Persian Yellow Berries are said by the merchants to be of the same species as the Turkey yellow berries. The colours which they yield are more lively and lasting. They are high priced, fetching (duty Is. included) from 110s. to 130s. a cwt. The entries of yellow berries (Turkey as well as Persian) for home consumption, amounted in 1812 to 4,5944 cwt.
BERYL, called by the jewellers Aquamarine. This stone was suspected by Pliny to be a variety of the emerald; a conjecture which modern mineralogists have completely confirmed. The term emerald is applied to that particular variety which presents its own peculiar colour, or emerald green ; while that of beryl is given indiscriminately to all the other varieties; as the sea green, pale blue, golden yellow, and colourless. Pliny says that the beryl is found in India, and rarely elsewhere; but besides India, it is found in Peru and Brazil; at Nantes and Limoges, in France; in the Wicklow mountains, in Ireland; in the district of Cairngorm, in Scotland; and in various other places. — (Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xxxvii. cap. 5. ; Ency. Brit. new edit.)
" Those only which are of good colour and sufficient depth are manufactured ; they have a pretty, lively effect, is in good proportion and well polished. Large stones, froin one to three and four ounces, are not uncommon, but from their bulk are only in request as specimens for the cabinet ; smaller stones suitable for necklaces may be bought at low prices, within the reach of every description of purchasers : ring stones may be had at a few shillings each; and larger, for brooches or seals, from ll. to 51. and often lower."-(Mawe on Diamonds, &c. 2d edit.)
BETEL-NUT, OR ARECA (Sans. and Hind. Suapri ; Malay, Pinang; Javan. Jambi), the fruit of the Areca catechu, a slender and graceful palm, rising to the height of about 30 or 40 feet ; it produces fruit at the age of five or six years, and continues bearing till its 25th or 30th year. The fruit, which is the only part of the palm that is made use of, is eaten both in its unripe and in its mature state. When ripe, it is of the size of a small egg, and of an orange colour; the exterior part consists of a soft, spongy, fibrous matter, inclosing a nucleus resembling a nutmeg in shape, internal structure, and colour, but usually larger, and always harder. A single tree produces, according to its situation, age, culture, &c., from 200 to 800 nuts. They are objects of great importance in the East, forming the principal ingredient of a compound in universal use as a masticatory in all Central and Tropical Asia. The other ingredients are the leaf of the Betel pepper - (which see), in which the areca nut is wrapped ; a little Chunam—(which see); and generally, but not always, a little catechu or terra japonica(see CateCHU ). The whole compound is called betel, and is used to an extent of which it is difficult for a European to form a just idea. All individuals, without exception of age or sex, begin at an early period to accustom themselves to betel. They are unceasingly masticating it, and derive a gratification from its use that strangers can neither understand nor explain. It reddens the saliva, gives a bright hue to the lips and, in course of time, renders the teeth quite black. It is said to dispel nausea, excite appetite, and strengthen the stomach. Besides being used as an article of luxury, it is a kind of ceremonial which regulates the intercourse of the more polished classes of the East. When any person of consideration visits another, after the first salutations,
betel is presented: to omit it on the one part would be considered neglect, and its rejection would be judged an affront on the other. No one of inferior rank addresses a dignified individual without the previous precaution of chewing betel; two people seldom meet without exchanging it; and it is always offered on the ceremonious interviews of public missionaries. The areca nut is, in consequence, an article of very extensive trade. The countries which yield it most largely for exportation are Malabar, Ceylon, and Sumatra. Of the extent of this trade soine notion may be formed from the fact, that the imports of areca into Calcutta in 1841-42 amounted to 53,633 Ind. maunds, or 1 966 tons, and those into Canton, in 1837, by British ships only, amounted to 25,978 piculs, or 1,502 tons, notwithstanding Bengal and Southern China are countries in which areca is largely produced. — (See the article Betel in the new edition of the Ency. Britannica ; Bell's Review of the External Conmerce of Bengal; Crawfurd's Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 102., vol. iii. p. 414. ; Chinese Kalendar and Register.)
BETEL-LEAF (Hind. Pan, Malay, Sireh; Javan. Suro), the leaf alluded to in the foregoing article. It is the produce of a species of pepper vine (Piper Bttle), and somewhat resembles the ivy leaf. In their fresh state, betel leaves form an important article of Eastern traffic, being every where used in the preparation of betel. The Piper Betle is a scandent plant, and poles are placed in the ground, round which it twines itself. In consequence of the great consumption of its leaves, it is extensively cultivated throughout Tropical Asia. It grows in the greatest perfection in rich soils close to the equator; and is raised with more difficulty the further we recede from it. –(Ency. Britannica, new edition, article Betel; Crawfurd's Indian Archipelago, vol. i. p. 403.)
BEZOAR (Arab. Faduj ; Hind. Zeher-morah ; Pers. Padzehr Kanie), a concretion found in the stomach of an animal of the goat kind; it has a smooth glossy surface, and is of a dark green or olive colour : the word bezoar, however, has lately been extended to all the concretions found in animals ; --such as the hog bezoar, found in the stomach of the wild boar in India; the bovine bezoar, found in the gall-bladder of the ox, common in Nepaul; and the camel bezoar, found in the gall-bladder of the camel: this last is much prized as a yellow paint by the Hindoos. The finest bezoar is brought to India from Borneo and the sea-ports of the Persian Gulf; the Persian article is particularly sought after, and is said to be procured from animals of the goat kind, Capra Gazella. Many extraordinary virtues were formerly ascribed to this substance, but without any sufficient reason. -- ( Ainslie's Materia Indica.)
BILBAO, or (as it is commonly, though incorrectly, written in this country) BILBOA, a sea-port town of Spain, in the province of Biscay, on the river Ybai Cabal, about 9 miles from Portugalete. Population 15,000.
Port, – The hay of Bilbao lies between Punto Galea on its east, and Punto Luzuero on its western side, distant about 3 miles. It stretches S. E. to within of a mile of Portugalete, in lat. 43° 15 47" N., long. 20 43 W., near the mouth of the river on which Bilbao is built. The water in the hay varies from 5 to 10 and 14 fathoms. There is a bar at the mouth of the river, between Santurce and Portugalete, on which there is not above 4 feet water at ebb tide. High water at full and change at 3 h. P. 2. Spring tides rise about 13 feet; and large ships taking advantage of them sometimes ascend the river as far as Bilbao; but they usually load and unload by lighters, either a: Portugalete, or at Olaviaga, 4 miles below the town. Pilois are to be had at Santurce, without the bar. In winter, a heary sea sometimes sets into the bay; but if the pilot cannot go off, he places himself on one of the batteries to the N. W. of Santurce, and makes signals with a red fag, so as to direct the ship to the best anchorage ground. -(See Laurie's Churt of the Bay of Biscay, with the Sailing Directions that accompany it.)
Trade. -- Bilbao is favourably situated for commerce. The Biscayans are distinguished for the zeal and courage with which they have defended their peculiar privileges, and for their industry and activity, Bilbao and Santander are the principal ports through which the extensive province of Old Castile, and large portions of Leon and Navarre, most easily communicate with foreign countries. They have, in consequence, particularly the former, a pretty considerable foreign trade. Wool is one of the principal articles of export ; but since the introduction of Merino sheep into Germany, and their extraordinary increase in that country, this branch of Spanish commerce, though still of a good deal of importance, bas matorially declined. Since the abolition, in 1820, of all restrictions on the exportation of corn, four, &c., the shipinents of wheat from Bilbao have been, in some years, very considerable. The supplies are principally brought from the provinces of Palencia, Valladolid, and Zamora, which yield immense quantities of wheat. The distance is from 130 to 140 English miles; and owing to the badness of the roads, and the deficient means of transport, the rate of carriage advances enormously when there is any extraordinary foreign demand. If the Canal of Castile, intended to unite the Douro with Reynosa, Bilbao, and Santander, were completed, it would make a considerable revolution in this trade. The cumpos, or plains, on the south side of the Douro, are amongst the finest wheat countries in the world ; the crops being frequently so abundant, that the peasants decline reaping the fields at a distance from the villages! In 1831, 146,234 quarters of Spanish wheat, principally from Bilbao, were imported into Great Britain ; but from that period down to 1839 the exports of corn to this country were quite inconsiderable. In 1840 they amounted to 46,939 quarters. The iron manufactures of Biscay are in a state of considerable activity, and some part of the produce is exported. The principal'articles of importation are wove fabrics, cod-fish, cutlery, and jewellery ; sugar, coffee, cacao, and other colonial products, spices, indigo, &c. - See Foreign Quarterly Revicu, No. 9. art. Spain; and private information.)
Monics, Wrighis, and Measures, same as those of Cadiz; which see. We may mention, bowever, that the fanega, or measure for grain, is equiralent to 1:65 Winchester quarters.
BILL OF EXCHANGE. See EXCHANGE.
BILL OF HEALTH, a certificate or instrument signed by consuls or other proper authorities, delivered to the masters of ships at the time of their clearing out from all ports or places suspected of being particularly subject to infectious disorders, certifying