Revolution in Science
Harvard University Press, 1985 - 711 pàgines
Only a scholar as rich in learning as I. Bernard Cohen could do justice to a theme so subtle and yet so grand. Spanning five centuries and virtually all of scientific endeavor, Revolution in Science traces the nuances that differentiate both scientific revolutions and human perceptions of them, weaving threads of detail from physics, mathematics, behaviorism, Freud, atomic physics, and even plate tectonics and molecular biology, into the larger fabric of intellectual history.
How did "revolution," a term from the physical sciences, meaning a turning again and implying permanence and recurrence--the cyclical succession of the seasons, the "revolutions" of the planets in their orbits--become transformed into an expression for radical change in political and socioeconomic affairs, then become appropriated once again to the sciences?
How have political revolutions--French, American, Bolshevik--and such intellectual forces as Darwinism further modified the concept, from revolution in science as a dramatic break with the past to the idea that science progresses by the slow accumulation of knowledge? And what does each transformation in each historical period tell us about the deep conceptual changes in our image of the scientist and scientific activity?
Cohen's exploration seeks to uncover nothing less than the nature of all scientific revolutions, the stages by which they occur, their time scale, specific criteria for determining whether or not there has been a revolution, and the creative factors in producing a revolutionary new idea. His book is a probing analysis of the history of an idea and one of the most impressive surveys of the history of science ever undertaken.
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The Stages of Revolutions in Science
Evidence for the Occurrence of Revolutions in Science
Historical Perspective on Revolution
The First Recognition
A Second Scientific Revolution and Others?
Scientific Revolutionaries of the Seventeenth Century
A Revolution in the Physical
The Darwinian Revolution 383
Faraday Maxwell and Hertz
Some Other Scientific Developments
SaintSimon Comte and Cournot
The Influence of Marx and Engels
The Freudian Revolution
The Twentieth Century Age of Revolutions
The Scientists Speak
Bacon and Descartes
The Newtonian Revolution
A Revolution in the Life Sciences?
Changing Concepts of Revolution in the Eighteenth Century
Transformations during the Enlightenment
EighteenthCentury Conceptions of Scientific Revolution
Lavoisier and the Chemical Revolution
Kants Alleged Copernican Revolution
The Changing Language of Revolution in Germany
The Industrial Revolution
Scientific Progress in the Nineteenth Century
By Revolution or Evolution? 373
The Historians Speak
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Einstein on Revolution in Science
A Revolution in Earth Science
Conversion as a Feature of Scientific Revolutions
Matthew Wren and the English Revolution
Cromwell and Revolution
A Note on Citations and References