Imatges de pÓgina
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INDEX

A.

D.

Anacreontic. By Geo. Hill, Esq., 26 Death of Lieutenant BURTS,

84

A Midnight Chaunt for the Dying Dewey's Discourse: the Lexington, 158

,

41

Diary of Capt. MARRYAT,

161

A Leaf from Down in Maine,' 42

DecaTUR, Anecdote of,

261

Alarmists, or Lying Prophets, 97 Doctors, Spiritual and Medical, 471

A Winter Hymn,

102 Dirge for a Young Girl,

485

A Visit to the Lackawana Mines, 102 Death of an Actor on the Stage, 529
All Flesh is Grass: An Epigram, 106 Davis's Travels,

531
A New-Year Reverie. By Willis Daguerreotype Likenesses,

535

GAYLORD CLARK,

154

Alliances of Literature,

173

E.

A Poet to his Sister.' By F. w. Editors' Table, 76, 163, 255, 348, 445, 525
Thomas, Esq.,

233 Earle's Visit to Insane Asylums, 250

A True Poet. William Pitt Pal- Ephraim Pipkin. A New-England

,

238 Sketch,

422

Anecdote of' M. de Fontanes, 25. 229 Editor's Drawer,

446
A Bone-Picking with Old GÖETHE, 263 Early Morning Exercise,

499
A Lay Sermon. By One of the
Wicked,

274

F.
A Song of the Fairies. By H. W. Farewell, Old Year! By GRACE
Rockwell, Esq.,
279 GeAFTON,

25
A Lover's Journal: By 'Flaccus,' 298, 472 Fame: 'Dum Vivimus Vivamus,' 151
A Little Gossip with Our Readers, 318 Fowling. By ALFRED B. STREET,
Ainerican Literature, Rev. Mr. Bacon, 356 Esq.,

266
Alphonzo : a Sentimental Poem, 365 Friendship and Ingratitude: An Al-
All the Mother. By L'ABEILLE, 386 legory,

484
Abderahman of Spain. By WASH- France: its King, Court, and Go.
INGTON IRVING,
427 vernment,

524
A Tribute to FITZHUGH SMITH, 441

G.

Anthon's Greek Reader,

442

Gimcrackery. By 'HARRY Franco,' 182

A Gossip with Readers, etc.,

450

Grime's New System of Phrenology, 343
A Chapter on Names,

463

Guizot’s History of Civilization, 443
An Advertisement.

JOHN

Glorious Companionship of Books, 533

Waters,'.

A Gossip with our Contributors, 539

H.

A Word to Delinquents,

540

Henry of Guise. By G. P.R. JAMES, 72

Harpers' School Library,

B.

155

Heaven's Lesson. By Mrs. SIGOUR-

Bells and their Associations,

152

NEY,

280

Blake's Biographical Dictionary, 162 Hymn of Nature. From the Ger-

Better Moments. By H. T. Tuck-

man,

342

ERMAN, Esq.,

188 Hague's Historical Discourse, 347

Banks of Maumee,

240 HOLBROOK's North American Her-

Ball at Thram's Huddle. By MARY

1 petology,

532

CLAVERS,

325 Heads of the People,

533

Benefit of a Doubt,

I.

C.

International Copy-right Law, 529

Chivalry and the Crusades,

J.

Cabinet Pictures. By 'QUINCE,' 71

534

CHANNING's Discourse on Homeo-

Judge Law's Address,

pathy,

345

L.

CAREY on the Currency,

443 LITERARY Notices, 72,155, 250, 343, 441,522

Carlyleism,

524 Letters from the Old World,

73

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Letter from WASHINGTON IRVING, 78

T.

Lament of the Bereaved,

79 The Bermudas. By WASHINGTON

Limnings in the Thoroughfares. By

IRVING,

17

G. D. STRONG, Esq.,

139

Three Kings of Bermuda. By Geof-

Lines to a Wounded Sea-Gull,

220

22

Life's Journey. By Hon. R. M.

FREY CRAYON,

The Contrabandist. By GEORGE

CHARLTON,

237

SAND,

26

Letter. Bag of the Great Western, 253

44

Leaves from a Georgia Lawyer's

The ‘Almighty Dollar,

Port Folio,

The Great Descender. By 'Flaccus,' 61,119

332

The Poet's Tribute,

72

Life's Mysteries,

413
Time's Council,

76

Letters from Modern Rome,

488

The Summer Isles,

80

Lessons of Cleanliness,

521

The English Language,

89, 212

M.

The Knight of Malta. By Wash-

More Editorial Pot-luck,

INGTON IRVING,

103

163

The Grand Prior of Minorca. By

Memory: from a ms. Poem,

191

GEOFFREY CRAYON,

109

My Fairest and my First,

232

Melancholy Story, etc.

The Haunted Merchant. By 'Harry

By Geof-

Franco,

125, 221, 369

FREY CRAYON,

241

137

Madame Tussaud's Reminiscences,

The Parting,

52

The Christmas Green,

133

Mr. WINTHROP's Address,

357

The Swiss Light-House,

144

Memories of the Dead,

426
Moral Reflections, etc. By Joun

The Devil, His History,

WATERS,

THE DRAMA,

485

173, 357, 536

195

Master Humphrey's Clock,

The Last Look. By 'Flaccus,'

532

Theodoric, or the Siege of Rome, 204

N.

True Talent,

203

New-York Review,

77

The Engulfed Convent. By Wash-

234

North American Review,

INGTON IRVING,
81

238

New-Year Verses by a Bachelor,

Thomas à Becket,

107

249

Notes on the Netherlands,

The Land of Fame,

145, 190

254

New Philosophy of Mind,

The Green-Mountain Boys,

413, 451

257

Nearness of Spirits. From the Ger-

The Passaic: A Group of Poems,

The Empire of the West,

422

260

man,

261

National Academy of Design,

The English and the War-Time,

540

The Iron Footstep.

By 'JOHN

0.

Waters,

280

Old and New New-York,

82 The City by the Sea. By 'Ione,' 284

Outlines of Phaceology,

135 | The Nautilus: a Lesson in Nature, 297

Old and New Philadelphia,

169 | Time's Vista. From a ms. Poem, 303

Ollapodiana. By Willis GAYLORD, The Great Mississippi Bubble. By

CLARK,

338 Washington IRVING,

305, 450

Our Village. By the 'American in The Early Lost,

324

Paris,'

387, 501 The American Bald Eagle,

337

P.
The Pathfinder. By J. FENIMORE

344,449
Perou-rou, or the Bellows-Mender,

Cooper, Esq.,
45

Tribute to the Late Dr. FOLLEN, 355

Pelayo, etc., by WASHINGTON IRVING, 65

394

Phrenology and Animal Magnetism,

To Lucifer. By Alfred B. STREET,

98

396

Parting from a Household,

The Last of the Mandans,

134

421

Philadelphia Casket,

Triumph over the School-men,

174
Pleasures of Association,

497

The CRAYON Papers : Letter from
GEOFFREY CRAYON,

427, 513

Plagiarisms of Coleridge,

530

The Tomb of WASHINGTON,

445

R.

The ‘Postillion' at the Park Theatre, 449

Rights of Women. By Miss SARAH The Storm at Sea,

462

DOLE,

181 Trial by Jury,

478

Reminiscence of the War. By Geo. The Little Fairy,

487

BARRELL, Esq.,

361 The Marriage Vow,

500

Reddes Dulce Loqui,

461 The Dream-Omen. From the Ger-
Recollections of Elias Hicks,
534

512

man,

s.

The Birds of Spring,

513

Spearing. By ALFRED B. STREET, Taking of the Veil. By WASHING-

Esq.,

514

16 Ton IRVING,

Song. By Col. WILLIAM L. STONE, 17

519

The Charming Letoriéres. By Do.,

535

Sir Walter Scott's Autograph,

81 | The late Rev. John Owen COLTON,

Spenser's Poetical Works,

V.
Speculation : or Peter Snug's 'Move-

Voices of the Night. By Professor
ment,'.

268
LoxGFELLOW,

74

Spring: in Imitation of the German,

W.

Sixteenth Volume of the KNICKER-

BOCKER,

540 | Works of CHIEF JUSTICE MARSHALL, 157

-

162

331

THE KNICKERBOCKER.

Vol. XV.

JANUARY, 1840.

No. 1.

CHIVALRY AND THE CRUSADES.

A GENTLEMAN of excellent breeding, of admirable discourse, of great admittance; authentic in place and person, generally allowed for many war-like, court-like, and learned preparations.'

SAAKSPEARE.

We propose, in the present paper, to present to our readers some account of the institution of Chivalry, and of the times that produced it. The theme may to some appear trite. To us it is not so; and we trust, before we have done, to bring others to our mind. In turning to the records of chivalry, we feel, (and we have faith we are not alone,) as if recurring to the pleasant dreams of our youth. Nor do we envy those whose imaginations never kindled, and whose hearts never beat thick, at the recital of the

pomp and

pageantry, the brilliant daring and gallant exploits, of the old chivalrous times.

The knight so brave and yet so gentle; in the battle-shock a tower of iron ; in lady's bower, swayed, like his morion's plume, by the faintest breath of beauty; the tournament, with its ring of loveliness, and its champions proving in friendly conflict their strength and skill in arms, amid the exhilarating shouts of the multitude, and beneath the glances of bright eyes,' which

“Rain influence and award the prize;'

the knight's adventurous wanderings in quest of opportunity to right the wrong, to spoil the spoiler, to chastise the oppressor, and to throw over innocence and weakness the protecting shield; all this furnishes a picture well fitted to captivate the fancy of our early years. Still farther : the old chivalrous and feudal age, with its sharp contrasts, its strong lights and deep shades, its exaggerated strain of sentiment and feeling, and its unsettled, revolutionary state ; how striking a counterpart to the imaginative mind of youth! For has not youth its romantic visions ; its dreams of glory to be achieved, and beauty's smile to be won; its eager wishes and resolves to crusade against cruelly and oppression, and be a right arm of defence to the innocent and weak? Imagination, and Love, and Hope, are the feudal lords of the youthful spirit, and the whole troop of thoughts and passions are their loyalfetainers, prompt to dare, at their behest all deeds of high emprize. The chivalrous spirit, then, instead of having gone long since to its cemetery, yet lives and abides in every

1

VOL. XV.

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young mind, endowed with any portion of the diviner principle. It does, indeed, indicate an elementary state, where the passions are in conflict both with each other, and with the actual world without, and yet a state full of hope ; for it evinces that the soul's powers are in a healthful ferment and stir, and that its several elements, through collision among themselves, and conflict with the exterior world, are gradually expurging whatever is factitious and false, and tending toward a state of fit subordination and concurrent action. The history of chivalry, then, is not merely the history of a particular institution of a particular age. The philosopher also sees in it a type of the tumultuous yet interesting youth of the individual mind, in every age. Leaving it to our readers to verify this suggestion, we proceed at once to the task in hand.

Chivalry was the growth of the Middle or Dark Ages, that vast abyss, which was alike the grave of ancient, and the cradle of modern civilization. This tract of time, stretching from the beginning of the sixth to the close of the sixteenth century, may be well named the fabulous age of the modern world. Athwart its gloom, men are seen to move as trees walking,' and its incidents come like 'certain strange things to our ears.' It was a period characterized by strong individuality; by gigantic virtues and gigantic crimes; by picturesque institutions and fantastic customs; by frequent revolution and incessant change. The steady march of government, the supremacy and equal administration of law, the undisturbed procession of peaceful business and pleasures, which mark our time, were then unknown.

In these respects, indeed, the Middle Ages resemble the early age of every people, the times heralding every civilized state of society. A moment's digression, for which the light thereby cast on our subject will win our pardon, will show that the chivalry of the eleventh century of our era was not without some parallel at a vastly more early date. The magnificent day of Grecian civilization emerged from the dun twilight of the age of Orpheus and Hercules, of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and of the heroes of the Trojan war. Tradition, dim and uncertain, yet shows plainly enough that this was an age of convulsion and anarchy, which, intolerant of the wholesome restraints of law, suffered avarice and cruelty, ambition and lust, to stalk abroad, and ravage at their will.

But as in the order of Providence, the world's desperate necessity is ever the sure precursor of a Redeemer, so now the elder chivalry was born to help and to save. In the half-fabulous Hercules, Orpheus, and Minos, we find its three elementary principles impersonated. Physical force put forth for the chastisement of cruelty and oppression; the influence of art and religion, bent to softening and refining the rugged temper of the time, and a wise and equitable legislation, seeking to gather up into harmonious wholeness the severed and discordant principles of society. And in Agamemnon and Achilles, Ulysses and Ajax, Hector and Sarpedon, we behold the feudal chiefs of a primitive day, the Pagan prototypes of Christian knighthood, exhibiting the same daring and individual prowess, distinguished by the same sensitiveness of honor, and burning with the same thirst for adventure, and enthusiasm for military glory. If their spirit fell below that of Christian chivalry, it was because they lacked that pure womanly influence, and that inspiration from a better

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