Imatges de pÓgina

sembles the Moniteur. It is also published in the German language, and appears twice a week.

4. Gazette of the Senate.-In Russian, once a week; it publishes the Ukases of the Senate.

5. Journal of Commerce.-In Russian and German, three times a week.

6. The Northern Bee.-A literary and political journal, published three times a week. This is the journal edited by Messrs. Greitsch and Boulgarine, as already stated, and is a very interesting and well conducted paper.

7. The Patriot.-In Russian, political and literary, twice a month.

8. Archives of the North.-In Russian, political, historical, and statistical, twice a month.

9. The Slavonian.

rary and military.

Every fortnight, in Russian, lite

10. National Miscellany, or Remarkable Affairs of Russia. An historical, literary, and statistical journal, in Russian, monthly.

11. Register of Discoveries in Natural History, Physics, and Chemistry.

12. Journal of Manufactures and Commerce, published monthly, under the auspices of Mons. Cancrin, the Minister of Finance; containing an account of all discoveries and observations, laws and regulations, relative to the different branches of national industry.

13. Gazette of Commerce, which appears twice a week, in Russian and German, and contains many important returns and official documents, relative to the internal and external commerce of Russia, of which I have materially availed myself in that part of my work which treats of those subjects.

14. Journal of the Mining Corps. 15. Journal of the Minister of Public Instruction. 16. Journal des Voies et

Communications. These three journals often contain very interesting memoirs and official documents on the various branches of public administration in the country. The two first are published in Russian, the latter in Russian and French. They are published monthly.

The periodical publications at Moscow are—

1. The Moscow Gazette, in Russian. 2. The Moscow Courier, of which the celebrated poet Pouschkine is one of the editors. 3. The Moscow Telegraph. 4. The Courier of Europe. 5. The Journal of Agriculture. This is a valuable publication, and said to be of the greatest utility to the agricultural classes of society. It appears quarterly. 6. Journal of Physics, monthly. 7. Journal of Fashions. 8. The Racing Calendar. All the Moscow periodicals are written in the Russian language.*

* Since my return to England, I have been informed, that no sooner had I turned my back upon St. Petersburgh, than an attack upon me appeared in one of the above publications, from the pen of a medical writer. This is much in the old way; we of the genus irritabile medicorum cannot live with each other in peace-each in our own sphere of usefulness; and I am not surprised that the same spirit of rancour obtains near the North Pole, which is so prevalent farther South. I regret that I could not ascertain the ground of the attack; although I learned enough to be able to point my finger to the author of it. If the individual in question has abused me in my capacity of physician, I can heartily forgive him, for all his strictures must be harmless if as a public lecturer on the subject of mummies and embalming, I give him joy for being single-handed in his censure, amid the concurrent testimonies of flattering approbation of my researches which the press of every country, even of Russia,† has conveyed to me. I know, and many others know also, that the individual in question is neither the best nor the warmest admirer of science; and that in affording him an opportunity of seeing, at my public lecture, the most perfect specimens of Egyptian embalming yet known, and of learning, for the first time in his life, the process by which that operation must have been performed in ancient times, was casting, in fact, pearls before swine."

+ See Journal de St. Petersbourg, No. 141, for 1827.



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PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. - Medicines and Medical Supplies. - Principal Physicians and Surgeons in St. Petersburgh. Alleged deficiency of very distinguished men. - Domestic Physicians. - Police of the Medical Profession. -Easy remedy to extirpate quacks. Regulations respecting pharmaciens. - Esprit de Corps of the Medical Profession in St. Petersburgh. - Mode of remunerating Physicians. — Papillionage of the higher classes of Society. complaints against them. New plan for remunerating the Medical Profession. Imperial distinctions and rewards. The IMPERIAL MEDICO-CHIRURGICAL ACADEMY.-Distribution of Studies. -Medical and other Classes. - The Library. - The PEDESTRIÉ, or General Military Hospital. Clinical Establishments for Medical, Surgical, and Ophthalmological practice. - Deficiencies. - NAVAL HOSPITALS. - REGIMENTAL HOSPITALS. HOSPITALS OF THE GUARDS. The Great ARTILLERY HOSPITAL.. Russian Surgery. - Dr. Arendt. Unusual success in Surgical Operations. The Civil Hospitals. ABOUCHOFF. - Physic by the dozen. - LUNATIC ASYLUM. Insane people scarce in St. Petersburgh. — IVANOff. KALINKIN. BOGADELNA, and the Centenarians.- Imperial HosPITAL FOR THE POOR.- The Building.— Internal arrangement and distribution of patients. — Results. - Philanthropy of the Empressmother." ENFANS TROUVÉS."-MAISON D'ACCOUCHEMENT. Masked Ladies. Imperial Lying-in Institution. — Vaccination.— Dispensary for diseases of the Eyes. - Manufactory of Surgical Instruments.

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AT the sight of the title of the present chapter some of my readers will be inclined to say, "Oh the Doctor is now

more at home, and he will give us a full dose of talk and technical dissertation." To all such I would recommend passing over the next twenty pages. For although it is not my present object to enter into a complete professional statement of the highly important subjects of which I shall treat; still, unless the contemplation of those asylums, which the hand of philanthropy, or the wisdom of Government has reared in behalf of the " sick and lame," and the con sideration of what human art and talent endeavour to effect in a large and populous city towards alleviating the keenest of all worldly afflictions, the loss of health, can afford pleasure or satisfaction; the perusal of that number of pages will, I fear, prove even more irksome than that of both volumes of my work.

In treating of the existing state of the practice of medicine in St. Petersburgh, I must be considered as taking up the question en masse, without reference to private indi viduals, or to any particular establishment. During my stay in that city, short as the time was, my attention was necessarily directed to a subject which forms so essential a part of my avocations; and no day passed in which I did not make some inquiry, or obtain some degree of information respecting it. The acquaintance which I had the good fortune of forming with the principal physicians and surgeons engaged in public as well as private practice, the minute examination of every civil and military hospital, facilitated by the most obliging condescension, the opportunities of seeing a number of cases of disease in all its forms, and among every class of society, treated either at home, or at public institutions, and finally, a certain number of consultations to which I was called, have afforded me sufficient means of acquiring that competent degree of knowledge which entitles me to make the observations contained in the present chapter. Nor was the vox populi, or

public report, altogether disregarded, in forming an estimate of the practice of medicine; (although "all its reports go not with honest truth," as we know full well even in this largest of cities ;) but was, on the contrary, attended to in some degree, and made subservient to the drawing of what I hope are right conclusions.

Considered then en masse, the practice of medicine, or the manner of treating disease in St. Petersburgh, appeared to me to differ from that of Germany, France, Italy, and still more from that of this country. It is not so experimental as that of the German physicians; it is more expectant than that of the French; less bold and philosophical than that of the northern Italians; and not quite so effectual and successful as that of the English. It is founded on certain peculiar views and principles, which have in a great measure become obsolete every where else. It presupposes a previous positive knowledge of certain functions of the animal system, which in reality escape our attention. It draws, therefore, conclusions which are often dependent on erroneous premises. Thus, for instance, in a case of brain fever, which attacked a lady of rank, and which, as may be supposed, threatened her existence, the physician who was sent for, and who enjoys a high reputation, insisted upon waiting for the turn of the attack, (crisis,) before he would prescribe any thing beyond the most trifling medicine, because he was persuaded that the complaint was only a salutary effort of nature, with which it would be wrong to interfere. In a second case where a rheumatic affection stiffened and made painful every limb of a lady, several weeks after her confinement, it was asserted that the disorder arose from lait repandu; although the patient had never nursed, and had never had any lait at all. As in the former instance, the conclusion of the physican respecting the supposed character of the

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