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THE

L I F E

OF

SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL. D.

COMPREHENDING

AN ACCOUNT OF HIS STUDIES,

AND NUMEROUS WORKS,

IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER;

A SERIES OF HIS EPISTOLARY CORRESPONDENCE

AND CONVERSATIONS WITH MANY EMINENT PERSONS;

AND

VARIOUS ORIGINAL PIECES OF HIS COMPOSITION,

NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED.

THE WHOLE EXHIBITING A VIEW OF LITERATURE AND LITERARY
MEN IN GREAT-BRITAIN, FOR NEAR HALF A CENTURY

DURING WHICH HE FLOURISHED.

BY JAMES BOSWELL, Esq.

Quù fit ut OMNIS
Votiva pateat veluti descripta tabella
VITA SENIS —

HORAT.

THE NINTH EDITION, REVISED AND AUGMENTED.

IN FOUR VOLUMES.

VOLUME THE THIRD.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR T. CADELL; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON; LONGMAN, HURST, REES,

SON :
ORME, AND BROWN; BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY; HATCHARD AND
OGLE AND co. ;

G. AND

W.

B. WHITTAKER ; SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL;
J. COLLINGWOOD ; AND R. SAUNDERS.

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THE

LIFE

OF

SAMUEL JOHNSON, LL. D.

HAVING left Ashburne in the evening, we stopped to change horses at Derby, and availed ourselves of a moment to enjoy the conversation of my countryman, Dr. Butter, then physician there. He was in great indignation because Lord Mountstuart's bill for a Scotch militia had been lost. Dr. Johnson was as violent against it. “ I am glad, (said he,) that Parliament has had the spirit to throw it out. You wanted to take advantage of the timidity of our scoundrels; ” (meaning, I suppose, the ministry.) It may be observed, that he used the epithet scoundrel, very commonly, not quite in the sense in which it is generally understood, but as a strong term of disapprobation; as when he abruptly answered Mrs. Thrale, who had asked him how he did, “ Ready to become a scoundrel, Madam; with a little more spoiling you will, I think, make me a complete rascal:”- he meant, easy to become a capricious and self-indulgent valetudinarian; a character for which I have heard him express great disgust.

Johnson had with him upon this jaunt, “Il Palmerino d'Inghilterra," a romance praised by Cer

1 Anecdotes of Johnson, p. 176.

B

VOL. III.

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vantes ; but did not like it much. He said, he read it for the language, by way of preparation for his Italian expedition.---We lay this night at Loughborough.

On Thursday, March 28, we pursued our journey. I mentioned that old Mr. Sheridan complained of the ingratitude of Mr. Wedderburne and General Fraser, who had been much obliged to him when they were young Scotchmen entering upon life in England. JOHNSON. “

Why, Sir, a man is very apt to complain of the ingratitude of those who have risen far above him. A man when he gets into a higher sphere, into other habits of life, cannot keep up all his former connexions. Then, Sir, those who knew him formerly upon a level with themselves, may think that they ought still to be treated as on a level, which cannot be: and an acquaintance in a former situation may bring out things which it would be very disagreeable to have mentioned before higher company, though, perhaps, every body knows of them.”

He placed this subject in a new light to me, and showed, that a man who has risen in the world, must not be condemned too harshly, for being distant to former acquaintance, even though he may have been much obliged to them. It is, no doubt, to be wished, that a proper degree of attention should be shewn by great, men to their early friends. But if either from obtuse insensibility to difference of situation, or presumptuous forwardness, which will not submit even to an exteriour observance of it, the dignity of high place cannot be preserved, when they are admitted into the company of those raised above the state in which they once were, encroachment must be repelled, and the kinder feelings sacrificed. To one of the very fortunate persons whom I have mentioned, namely, Mr. Wedderburne, now Lord Loughborough, I must do the justice to relate, that I have been assured

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by another early acquaintance of his, old Mr. Macklin, who assisted in improving his pronunciation, that he found him very grateful. Macklin, I suppose, had not pressed upon his elevation with so much eagerness, as the gentleman who complained of him. Dr. Johnson's remark as to the jealousy entertained of our friends who rise far above us, is certainly very just. By this was withered the early friendship between Charles Townshend and Akerside; and many similar instances might be adduced. · He said, “ it is commonly a weak man, who marries for love.” We then talked of marrying women of fortune; and I mentioned a common remark, that a man may be, upon the whole, richer by marrying a wcman with a very small portion, because a woman of fortune will be proportionably expensive ; whereas a woman who brings none will be very moderate in expenses. JOHNSON. “ Depend upon it, Sir, this is not true. A woman of fortune being used to the handling of money, spends it judiciously; but a woman who gets the command of money for the first time upon her marriage, has such a gust in spending it, that she throws it away with great profusion.”

He praised the ladies of the present age, insisting that they were more faithful to their husbands, and more virtuous in every respect, than in former times, because their understandings were better cultivated. It was an undoubted proof of his good sense and good disposition, that he was never querulous, never prone to inveigh against the present times, as is so common when superficial minds are on the fret. On the contrary, he was willing to speak favourably of his own. age; and, indeed, maintained its superiority in every respect, except in its reverence for government; the relaxation of which he imputed, as its grand cause, to

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