Imatges de pàgina

dogs seize him by the neck and ears; the angry bull makes at them with fury, and with his horns throws his enemies yelping in the air; they fall stunned and lacerated, but quickly return to the charge, and often lay the huge bull bellowing on the ground. If he perishes ignobly, he is hissed as a coward. If he sustains the combat with courage, when he falls, he falls covered with glory, and the air resounds with his praises.

6. When the bull has the good fortune to gore a horse, and dismount the rider, he will often pursue him, and impelled by rage, will leap over the fence among the spectators. Then terrible is the alarm; and to avoid his fury, crowds rush on crowds, and pressing to places of safety, trample great numbers under their feet.

7. If the champion does not succeed in killing his antagonist, the poor animal, after being tormented to the satisfaction of the spectators, is slain by a person appointed for the purpose. Cruel as this diversion is, it is one of the most popular entertainments in Spain. The days are appointed, and the names of the combatants are announced previously in the public prints, in the manner the English advertise the horses which are to run for a purse or plate. On each day, six bulls sacrificed constitute the entertainment of the morning, and twelve that of the afternoon.

THE MANNER OF FEEDING SHEEP IN SPAIN. 1. Spain has been always celebrated for the temperature of its climate, and for rearing some of the best animals of particular species. Among these are its sheep, whose wool is of the finest kind, and forms a considerable part of the materials of the best French and English broadcloths.

2. But the manner of subsisting the sheep, is a still greater singularity. The sheep are owned by a few great proprietors, and a great company, called the Mesta, composed of the grandees, who have particular privileges. Some of the sheep are kept in stationary flocks; but some millions of them are driven every autumn from the mountainous regions of Old Castile, to winter on the more temperate plains of Andalusia and Estramadura.

3. The number of sheep there driven, is from three to five millions; and it is remarkable, that the owners have the right of pasturage for these sheep, on every common upon the road, to the distance of ninety varas, or about two hundred and forty feet from the highway. Spain feeds from twelve to fifteen millions of sheep, including traveling and stationary flocks, each of which produces about five pounds of wool on an average. But a considerable part of this wool, instead of giving employment to her own people, is exported to France and England.


PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 1. In Scotland, about forty years ago, lived a woman in Rossshire, who subsisted many years alinost wholly without food. When fifteen years of age, she had an epileptic fit,—and after an interval of four years of health, a second fit, of long duration, which occasioned a fever, that lasted for several weeks, and deprived her of the use of her eye-lids.

2. She continued in tolerable health for some years, and then had another fit, which was succeeded by a fever. Before her recovery, she stole out of the house, and bound some sheaves of corn in a field, which occasioned an indisposition, that confined her to the bed for five years. During this time she seldom spoke, and took scarcely food enough to sustain an infant, and this not without compulsion.

3. At last she refused every kind of food or drink,-her jaw was locked, so that her father could only open her mouth a little, to inject a little water or gruel, and this she appeared not to swallow. At one time they gave her a little water from a medicinal spring, which seemed to revive her, and she spoke intelligibly, calling for more water, which was given her.

4. She spoke no more intelligibly for a year, and continued without drink or food,—when making some signs, her sister forced her teeth apart, and she drank a pint of water. She then spoke, and on being asked why she did not make signs for what she wanted, she replied, “Why should I, when I have no desire?" It was now supposed she had regained the use of speech, but she soon became silent again.

5. She now continued speechless, and without food or drink, for four years : attempts were made to force some liquid into her mouth; but it ran out again, and nothing like swallowing could be perceived. Notwithstanding this loss of food, she was not greatly emaciated; she slept much, and in sleep was quiet; but when awake, made a constant whimpering, like an infant, and appeared to have her senses.

6. At length she began to recover, and took a little food and drink; when her parents, returning one day from their labors in the field, were surprised to find her sitting on her hams, at her mother's wheel, spinning. In this condition she took a little food, in this manner,-she broke a piece of oatmeal cake in her hand, in small crumbs, as persons would to feed chickens, and put these crumbs into an opening made by the loss of two teeth, which had been forced out, in attempting to open her mouth.

7. After her effort to spin, she became pale and emaciated in her whole body, and her physician advised to keep her confined. In this state she continued for some years, taking a little food every day, but not without extreme reluctance, and even cries. But to the astonishment of all who knew her, she slowly recovered.


ANNUAL FLOOD IN THE NILE. 1. In Egypt there is no rain in summer, and the fertility of its lands depends on the floods in the celebrated Nile. This great river, which is nearly half a mile in width, has its sources in the mountains of Abyssinia, called mountains of the Moon. The rise of its waters is owing to the abundant rains, which fall annually in spring within the tropics.

2. The Nile begins to rise in Egypt about the middle of June, or a few days later; the plague, if ever so general and destructive, then ceases suddenly, and joy and healih are diffused through Egypt. The water rises till September, then gradually subsides; and in October and November the ground is fit for sowing. The whole rise of water is from fourteen to eighteen cubits.

3. As the overflowing of this river is essential to the crops in Egypt, and as the river must rise to about sixteen cubits, to overflow the cultivated grounds, it is a law of Egypt, that no tax or tribute for the Grand Seignior can be laid upon the people, unless the water rises to that hight. If the flood falls much short of that altitude, a famine follows. If the water rises to eighteen cubits, a scarcity is the consequence, as the ground is not dry in season for sowing. But this seldom happens.

4. The great importance of the annual flood in ihe Nile, has rendered it necessary to ascertain precisely the rise of the water. Accordingly, on an isle opposite to Cairo, a basin has been constructed, communicating with the Nile. In this stands a pillar, called Mikias, which is a nilometer, on which is marked the exact rise of water every day. After the water has risen six cubits, a crier is employed to make proclamation daily of the rise of the water.

5. When the river has swelled to sixteen cubits, as marked on the nilometer, the people become liable to pay the public tax, as a good crop is insured. And then is performed the ceremony of cutting the mound of the great canal at Cairo, to let in the water. This is attended with much solemnity. The bashaw gives the first stroke, in presence of his officers, and a crowd of spectators; and the ceremony is accompanied with music, bonfires, illuminations, and every demonstration of joy,

CHAPTER L. PRESENT STATE OF JERUSALEM. 1. The celebrated city of Jerusalem stands about thirty miles east of the Mediterranean, on a rocky mountain, with steep ascents on all sides, except on the north. It does not occupy the same ground as the ancient city; for the bill of Sion, which used to be included, is now without the city; and mount Cal. vary, which was formerly without the city, became so much reverenced after the crucifixion of our Savior, as gradually to draw the inhabitants and pilgrims around it, and it is now near the center of the city.

2. Jerusalem was formerly much larger than at present. It is now about three miles in circumference, inclosed with walls of no great strength, and having six gates. The private buildings are poor, the streets narrow and crooked, and containing the ruins of ancient edifices. The whole is thinly inhabited, and it contains much inoccupied ground.

3. A Turkish officer resides the city, to collect a tribute, protect the pilgrims, and preserve peace. Great numbers of pilgrims resort annually to this city, to perform their devotions at the holy sepulcher. This is upon mount Calvary, where a church is erected for the accommodation of pilgrims. The Latins have the exclusive right to say mass in the holy sepul. cher, but other christians have the privilege of entering it for their private devotions.

4. The sepulcher was formerly under ground; but the rock is hewed away at the sides, so as to leave the sepulcher in the form of a little chapel above ground. It is a sort of grotto, "hewn out of solid rock, about eight feet square, and lined with white marble. The entrance is by an opening of three feet high and two feet wide. From regard to the sanctity of the place, every person who enters must be bare-footed. In this tomb, lamps are kept continually burning. On the outside, the chapel is surrounded by ten beautiful pillars of white marble, adjoining the wall, and sustaining a cornice.

5. Jerusalemn stands on a rugged, barren soil, remote from any sea-port or great road, and is almost destitute of water. The present inhabitants are estimated at about fourteen thousand,-Christians, Jews and Mohammedans. These subsist chiefly by the pilgrims, about fifteen hundred or two thousand of whom annually visit the holy city. This zeal to visit Jerusalem gave

rise to the crusades, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, when the princes of Europe, with millions of their subjects, traveled to that city, and numerous armies were employed to wrest it out of the hands of infidels; by which some European kingdoins were greatly impoverished. But pilgrimages from Europe have alınost ceased; and few are seen to visit this city, but Greeks, Armenians, and other Asiatics.

6. The chief traffick of Jerusalem consists in the sale of beads, crosses and sacred relics, to the pilgrims. The fabrication of these articles, procures subsistence for the greatest part of the inhabitants. Men, women and children are employed in carving and turning wood and coral, or embroidering silk, with pearls, and gold and silver thread. The convent of the holy land alone, lays out fifty thousand piasters in these wares. These commodities, rendered salable by a superstitious veneration for relics, are exported to Turkey, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.


TEMPLES IN JERUSALEM. 1. The temple designed by David, and finished by Solomon, was one of the most magnificent buildings ever erected. It was not a single edifice, like a modern church, but a number of courts connected. It stood on the top of mount Moriah, and made an exact square of eight hundred cubits, about fourteen hundred and sixty feet on each side, and fronting the four cardinal points.

2. To secure the walls of this immense structure, it was necessary to begin the foundation at the bottom of the mountain, so that the walls were above six hundred feet high. The stones were of the largest sizes, and so mortised into each other, that the joints could not be seen, and so wedged into the rocks, as to be immovable. The whole was surrounded with a battlement of five feet thickness, in which were windows, formed with gold wire. Immediately within this, was a terrace. walk of ninety feet width, into which strangers were permitted to enter; and here was a sort of exchange, or place for buying and selling

3. The temple, properly so called, was about a hundred and fifty feet in length, and a hundred in breadth. This consisted of three parts, the porch, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies. Over the porch was a tower, a hundred and twenty cubits high. The sanctuary, or nave of the temple, contained the altar of incense and the table of show-bread; the holy of holies, a square of twenty cubits, contained the ark of the covenant, in which were the two tables of stone, on which were engraved the ten commandments.

4. This vast edifice, which employed one hundred and eighty thousand men for seven years, in its construction, was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, four hundred and twenty-four years after

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