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Sentences whose members consist of two or more words, are called a compound series.
A Commencing Series is that which begins a sentence, but does not end it.
A Concluding Series is that which ends a sentence, whether it begins it or not.
Serieses, whether Simple or Compound, Commencing or or Concluding, are inflexed according to the number of members of which they consist; each member in progression, requiring the rising or falling inflection, according to the following
TABLE OF INFLECTIONS.
COMMENCING. No. of Members. 2.
1' 2 3
1'2' 3 4
1' 2' 3' 4' 5
1' 2' 3'45 6.
1' 23' 4' 5' 6' 7
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8
1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1' 2' 34' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9 10 1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10
1' 2' 3..
1'2' 3' 4' 5.
1' 2 3 4 6.
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6 7.
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6'7 8
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
COMMENCING. No. of Members, 2.
1' 2 3.
1' 2' 3 4.
1' 2' 3' 4' 5
1' 2' 3 4 5 6
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6 7
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6" 7' 8.
1' 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.
1'2' 3' 4' 5' 67' 8' 9' 10 ....1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9' 10'
1' 21 3.
1' 2 4.
1' 2' 3' 4' 5
1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6.
1'2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7 8
1' 2' 3' 4' 5' 6' 7' 8' 9
1' 2' 3' 4' 5'6' 7' 8' 9' 10......1'2' 3' 4' 5 6 7 8 9 10
SIMPLE COMMENCING SERIES. Of 2 Members, Rule 1, 2,*-Dependence and obediencé belong to youth.
3 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3.7-The young, the healthy, and the prosperous', should not presume on their advantages.
* That is, the falling inflection takes place on the first member, and the rising on the second.
+ In a Simple Commencing Series of three members, the first must be pronounced in a somewhat lower tone than the second. The noun when attended by the article or conjunction, is, as to inflection, considered but as a single word.
4 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3, 4-Humanity', justice, generosity', and public spiriť, are qualities most useful to others.
5 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.—The presence, knowledge, power', wisdom, and goodnes's of God must all be unbounded.
6 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6'.-Desiré, aversion', ragè, lovè, hopè, and fear, are drawn in miniature on the stage.
7 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7". Sophocles', Euripides', Pinder Thucydides, Demosthenes, Apelles', and Phidias', were the contemporaries of Socrates and Plato.
8 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.-Winė, beauty', music, pomp', study', diversion', business', wisdom', are poor expedients to heave off the insupportable load of an hour from the heart of man,—the load of an hour from the heir of eternity.
9 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6', 7', 8', 9.-Joy, grief*, anger, pity', scorn', hate', fear, jealousy, and love', stamp assumed distinctions on the player. 10 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3, 4, 5', 6', 7, 8, 9, 10'.
Next then, you authors, be not you severe;
SIMPLE CONCLUDING SERIES.
and affability: 3 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3.-Industry is the law of our being, it is the demand of naturé, of reason', and of God'.*
4 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4. - Fear not ye righteous, amidst the distresses of life, you have an Almighty friend continually at hand, to pity', support', relieve', and to defend you.
5 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3, 4, 5.-The characteristics of Chivalry were, valour', humanity', courtesy, justice', and honor.
6 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3 4, 5', 6. -Mankind are besieged by war, faminè, pestilencé, volcano', storm' and firè.
7 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5' 6° 7'.—They passed over many a frozen, many a fiery alp; rocks', caves', lakes', fens', bogs', dens', and shades of death.
8 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3' 4, 5', 6', 7', 8'.—The speaker having gained the attention and judgment of his audience, must proceed to complete his conquest over the passions, such as admiration', surprise', hope', joy, love', fear, grief", anger,
9 Members, Rule 1', 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7', 8',9'.—The fruit of the spirit is love', joy', peace', long-suffering'
, gentleness', goodness', meekness', faith' temperance'. 10 Members, Rule 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7' 8 9 10.-- Mr. Locke's definition of wit, with his short explication, comprehends most of the species of wit, as metaphor', enigmas', mottoes', parables', fables', dreams', visions', dramatic writings', burlesque', and all the other methods of allusion.
COMPOUND COMMENCING SERIES. RULE.—The falling inflection takes place on every member but the last. †
* In a simple commencing series of three members, the first must be pronounced in a little higher tone that the second. When pronouncing with a degree of solemnity, the first member in this series must have the falling infection.
+ When the members of a compound series are numerous, the second must be pronounced a little higher and more forcibly than the first, the third than the second, &c.
EXAMPLES. 2 Members.- Common calamities' and common blessings', fall heavily upon the envious.
3 Members.-A generous openness of heart', a calm deliberate courage, a prompt zeal for the public service', are at once constituents of true greatness and the best evidences of it.
4 Members.—The splendour of the firmament, the verdure of the earth', the varied colours of the flowers, which fill the air with their fragrance', and the music of those artless voices which mingle on every treé, all conspire to captivate our hearts, and to swell them with the most rapturous delight.
5 Members.—The verdant lawn', the shady grove the variegated landscape', the boundless ocean', and the starry firmament', are contemplated with pleasure by every beholder.
6 Members.-France and England may each of them have some reason to dread the increase of the naval and military power of the other ; but for either of them to envy, the internal happiness and prosperity of the other, the cultivation of its lands', the advancement of its manufactures', the increase of its commerce', the security and number of its ports and harbours', its proficiency in all the liberal arts and sciences', is surely beneath the dignity of two such great nations.
7 Members.-A contemplation of God's works', a voluntary act of justice to our own demerit', a general concern for the good of mankind', tears shed in silence for the misery of others, a private desire of resentment, broken and subdued', an unfeigned exercise of humility', or any other virtue, are such actions as are glorious in their sight, and denominate men great and reputable.
8 Members.--To acquire a thorough knowledge of our own hearts and characters', to restrain every irregular indication, to subdue every rebellious passion', to purify the motives of our conduct', to form ourselves to that temperance which no pleasure can seduce', to that meekness which no provocation can ruffle, to that patience which no affliction can overwhelm, and that integrity which no interest can shake'; this is the task which is assigned to us, a task which cannot be performed without the utmost diligence and care.
9 Members.—Absolom's beauty', Jonathan's love', Druid's valor', Solomon's wisdom, the patience of Job', the prudence of Augustus', the eloquence of Cicero', the innocence of wisdom', and the intelligence of all', though faintly amiable in the creature, are found in immense perfection in the Creator.
10 Members.—The beauty of a plain', the greatness of a mountain', the ornaments of a building, the expression of a picture', the composition of a discourse', the conduct of a third person', the proportion of different quantities and numbers', the various appearances which the great machine of the universe is perpetually exhibiting, the secret wheels and springs which produce' them, all the general subjects of science and taste', are what we and our companions regard as having no peculiar relation to either of us.
COMPOUND CONCLUDING SERIES. RULE.—The falling inflection takes place on every member except the last
EXAMPLE. 2 Members.-Belief in the existence of a God, is the great incentive to duty', and the great source of consolation'.
3 Members. —When myriads and myriads of ages have elapsed, the righteous shall still have a blessed eternity before them; still continue brightning in holiness', increasing in happiness', and rising in glory'.
4 Members.- Watch'
fast in the faith', quit ye like men', be strong'.
5 Members.—We should acknowledge God in all our ways'; mark the operations of his hand', cheerfully submit to his severest dispensations'; strictly observe his laws'; and rejoice to fulfil his gracious purpose'.
6 Members.— Without controversy, great is the mystery of godliness ; God was manifest in the flesh', justified in the spirit', seen of angels', preached unto the Gentiles', believed on in the world', received up into glory.
7 Members.--A true friend unbosoms freely, advises justly', assists readily', adventures boldly', takes all patiently, defends resolutely', and continues a friend unchangeably.
8 Members.—True gentleness teaches us to bear one another's burdenso; to rejoice with those that rejoice', to weep with those who weep'; to please every one his neighbour for his good"; to be kind and tender-hearted'; to be pitiful and courteous'; to support the weak'; and be patient towards all'
9 Members. They through faith subdued kingdoms', wrought righteousness', obtained promises', stopped the mouths of lions', quenched the violence of fire', escaped the edge of the sword', out of weakness were made strong, waxed
valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens'. 10 Members.—Leviculus was so well satisfied with his own accomplishments, that he determined to commence fortune-hunter; and when he was set at liberty, instead of beginning, as was expected, to walk the exchange with a face of importance, or of associating himself with those who were most eminent for their knowledge of the stocks, he at once threw off the solemnity of the counting'-house, equipped himself with a modish wig, and a splendid coat', listened to wits in the coffee'-houses, passed his evenings behind the scenes in the theatres, learned the names of beauties of quality, hummed the last stanza of fashionable songs', talked with familiarity of high play', boasted of his achievements upon drawers and coachmen', told with negligence and jocularity of bilking a tailor', and now and then let fly a shrewd jest at a sober citizen'.
EXAMPLES CONTAINING BOTH THE COMMENCING AND CONCLUDING
SERIESES. 1. He who is self-existenť, omnipresent', omniscient, and omnipotent', is likewise infinitely holy', just', and good'.
2. Families', and states', and empires', have their rise', and glory', and decline'.
3. He who resigns the world, has no temptation to malice', envy, hatred, or anger'; but is in constant possession of a serene mind; he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care, solicitude', remorse', and confusion'.
4. The simple, whom the unrighteous have beguiled', the innocent whom they have betrayed', the poor whom they have oppressed', and the friendless whom they have undone', rise up in terrible array before' them, upbraid them for their guilt', and torment them before their time'.
5. To deserve, to acquire', and to enjoy the respect and admiration of mankind, are the great objects of ambition and emulation'.
6. Those characters of early language, descriptive sound', vehement tones and gestures, figurative style, and inverted arrangement', all hang together,
have a mutual influence' on each other, and have all gradually given place to arbitrary sounds, calm' pronunciation, simple style', plain arrangement.
7. All passions, without exception, love', terror', amazement', indignation, anger', and grief', throw the mind into confusion', aggravate' their objects, and prompt a hyperbolical' style.
8. The historian, the orator', the philosopher', address themselves, for the most part, primarily to the understanding; their direct aim is to inform', to persuade,' or to instruct'. PAIRS OF NOUNS ARE INFLECTED THUS—
Pairs. 1' & 2, 3 & 4' 2
1'& 2, 3 & 4' 3 ..1'& 2, 3 &4', 5' & 6' 3
.1'& 2', 3'& 4, 5' & 6' 4.. 1' & 2,3&4', 5' & 6', 7' & 8' 4. .1'& 2, 3'&4', 5'& 6', 7' & 8' 5. 1'& 2,3'& 4, 5'& 6', 7' & 8, 9 & 10 5.1' & 2, 3'&4', 5'& 6,7' & 8',9' & 10
EXAMPLES. 1. Vicissitudes of good' and evil', of trials and consolations', the life of man.
2. The high' and the low, the mighty' and the mean, the king' and the cottager', lie
blended together without any order. 3. While the earth remaineth, seed-timé and harvest', cold and heat', winter' and summer, and day and night', shall not cease.
4. The wise' and the foolish', the virtuous' and the vile', the learned' and the ignorant', the temperate and the profligate', must often be blended together.
5. In all stations and conditions, the important relations take place of masters' and servants,' husbands' and wives, parents and children', brothers' and friends', citizens' and subjects'.
SERIES OF SERIESES. RULE 1.-When several members of a sentence, consisting of distinct portions of similar or opposite words in a series, follow in succession, they must be pronounced singly, according to the number of members in each portion, and together, according to the number of portions in the whole sentence, that the whole may form one related compound series.
EXAMPLES. 1. The soul consists of many faculties, as the understanding' and the will', with all the senses both inward' and outward'; or to speak more philosophically, the soul can exert herself in many different ways of action ; she can understand', will', imaginè, see and hear, love and discourse, and apply herself to many other like exercises' of different kinds and natures'.
2. The condition', speech', and behaviour of the dying parents'; with the age', innocence, and distress of the children'; are set forth in such tender circumstances, that it is impossible for a reader of common humanity not to be affected with them.
3. Satan's pride', envy', and 'revenge'; obstinacy', despair', and impenitence', are all of them very artfully interwoven.
4. The man who lives under an habitual sense of the divine presence, keeps up a perpetual cheerfulness of temper, and enjoys every moment the satisfaction of thinking himself in company with his dearest and best of friends.