Imatges de pÓgina
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Observations on the Half Vowels, &c. The importance of uttering forcibly the half-vowels, aspirates and mutes (as exemplified in the preceding rules and examples) would be observed particularly in hearing a good speaker pronounce the following opening to Collins's “Ode on the Passions;” which requires the finest and most distinct articulation to give it effect :

When music, heavenly maid, was young,
While yet in early Greece she sung :
The Passions of’t to hear her shell,
Throng'd around her magic cell,
Exulting, trembling, raging, fainting,
Possess'd beyond the muses painting :-

-Till once, 'tis said, when all were fir'd,
Fill'd with fury, rap't, inspired ;
From the supporting myrtles round,
They snatch'd her instruments of sound,
And, as they oft had heard apart
Sweet lessons of her forceful art,
Each, (for madness rul'd the hour,)
Would

prove his own expressive power. From the preceding representation, we find that the same sound is often marked by different letters; on the other hand, we shall find that the same letter is often a mark for different sounds. This will be more clearly shewn, by taking a view of the alphabet in its common progressive order.

Sounds of the Letter.
A.

E
This Letter has four different Represents
sounds, which are represented in

4th vowel, herd. our scale.

7th vowel, bend.
1st vowel,
hall.

8th vowel, there.
5th vowel, path.

9th vowel,

here.
6th vowel,
8th vowel, flame.

F

Has the sound of
B.

2nd aspirate, staff. This Letter has only one sound,

7th half vowel, of,
1st mute,
rob,

G
C.

Is pronounced
Represents in writing,

3rd mute,

leg.
3rd aspirate,
nice.

2nd mute, and,
4th aspirate, spacious.

9th half vowel, george.
6th mute,
D

H
Has the sound of

Has no other sound but
2nd mute,
nod,

5th aspirate,

hat.

a

man.

care.

rove.

run.

warm,

I

8 Is pronounced

Represents the sound of, 4th vowel, bird.

3rd aspirate,

bliss. 9th vowel, machine.

4th aspirate.

russia. 4th & 9th vowel, mind.

8th half vowel, hose.

9th half vowel, vision. J Represents

T 2nd mute,

and

Has the sound of 9th half vowel, just.

5th mute,

shot.

3rd aspirate, satiety, K

4th aspirate,

patience. Retains always the sound of 6th mute, shake.

U

Has the sound of
L

3rd vowel,

full. Always the sound of

4th vowel, сир. 1st half vowel, pull.

9th vowel, busy. M

9th & 3rd vowel, pure. Always the sound of

9th & 4th vowel, nature.
3rd half vowel, swim.

V
N

Only the sound of
Has the sound of,

7th half vowel, 4th half vowel,

W
5th half vowel, clink.

Represents always
O

3rd vowel, Represents

X
1st half vowel, form.
2nd half vowel, shore.

Represents the

6th Mute and 3rd vowel, prove.

tax.

3rd aspirate 4th vowel, money.

8th half vowel, Xerxes. P

3rd mute an

exert. Always the

8th half vowel
3rd mute, top.

Y
Q

Has the sound of
Always the

4th & 9th vowel, sky. 6th mute, pique.

9th vowel,

lynx. R

Z Always the

Only the sound of 2nd half vowel, bar.

8th half vowel, furze. From this simple scheme of the English Alphabet, appears the imperfections of our mode of spelling; among other irregularities, we often find represented,

Two Sounds by one letter. The 4th and 9th vowel by,

The k and s by, find, fly,

X, The 9th and 3rd vowel by,

The g and z by, The d and zh by,

exalt. j org,

joy, gem.

i or y

ver.

muse.

X.

1.9,

wave.

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One Sound by Two Letters.
The 5th half vowel by,

The first aspirate by,
ng,
wing.

th,

path. The 6th half vowel by,

The fourth aspirate by,
th,
breath.

sh,

hush. There might be added to the last example, a variety of instances where two vowels are used as the mark of one sound such as ow in flow, ea in bear, &c., but these have been already considered in the account of the marks of the simple sounds. All that further remains on this head, is to exhibit a scale of those syllables, where two or more vowels are united in pronunciation.

Two Vowels united.
join.

3 8,
1.3,
round.

3. 9,

weep. 2 . 9, following

9 1,

yon.
3. 1,
walk.

9. 2,
3 , 2

9 3,

youth. 3 4,

9. 4,

yorn.
3 5,
wasp.

9 5,

yard, 3. 6,

9.7,

yellow. 3. 7,

well.

Three Vowels united.
3
wild.

3 4. 9, obsequious.
3 1 3,
wound, verb.

9. 3. 4, tempestuous.

9 3.6, mutual. From this view of the combination of vocal sounds in one syllable, usually called Dipthongs and Tripthongs, it appears that the w and y are in no situation found to be consonants. Where is the difference between the sound of y in youth and eu in feud; or between wa in wall, and ua in equal. The w and y are always sounded vocal.

yoke.

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wore.
won.

O

.

wax,

4. 9,

.

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SCHOOL ELOCUTION.

PART II.

THE VOCAL MODULATION OF SPEECH, &c.

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Modulation in speaking, signifies that variation of tone, or those rising and falling of voice, which nature prompts us to use more or less in the pronunciation of almost every sentence we utter, but which are more especially observable in expressing the stronger emotions and passions of the mind.

To Modulation belong Accent, Emphasis, and Pause.

These besides being absolutely necessary to the true comprehension of the passage or composition spoken, conduce also to give to modulation that variety which renders it agreeable to the

and should be well understood before the pupil proceeds to learn the nature of Inflexion, and the different kinds of tone or key, appropriate to the different passions.

ACCENT. Accent in a grammatical sense, means that sort of force, with which the voice marks the different syllables that compose words; and which are necessary not only to the correct pronunciation of them, but in most instances to a right understanding of their meaning.

In Rhetoric, it is used to mark more strongly the opposition of parts of words to other words similar in formation, thereby giving a more pointed elucidation to the sense of the passage in which they are used ; as also to signify a weaker species of emphasis, as will be presently shewn. The two Rhetorical Accents, are denominated Acute () and Grave ().

RULES ON ACCENT. When two words which have a sameness in part of their formation, are opposed to each other in sense, they require a transposition of Accent.

1. Did they act properly, or improperly?
2. Did he speak distinctly, or in distinctly?

3. Was it done correctly, or in'correctly? The accents here, and indeed wherever they are used, as well as marking the force, mark also the inflexions of the voice; the acute denoting a higher, and the grave a lower degree of tone, as will be seen hereafter.

In Interrogative sentences as above, the first accented word is marked with the acute, and the last with the grave accent; In answering such kind of sentences, the accent is transposed.

EXAMPLES.
1. They acted properly, not im'properly.
2. He spoke distinc'tly, not in'distinctly.

3. It was done correctly, not in'correctỉy. In affirmative sentences, the accents are used alternatively, according to the nature of such sentences, and the sort of words of which they consist.

1. What is done, cannot be undone.
2. There is a material difference between giving and for giving.
3. Thought and language act, and re'-act upon each other.
4. Religion raises men above themselves, ir religion sinks them

beneath the brutes.
5. Whatever conve'nience may be thought to be in falsehood and dissi-

mulation, it is soon over, but the in'convenience of it is perpetual. 6. The sense of an author being the first object of reading, it

will be necessary to enquire into those divisi'ons and sub'divisions

of a sentence, which are employed to fix its meaning. 7. This corruptible must put on in'corruption, and this mor’tal must

put on immortality. 8. În the suitableness or un suitableness, in the proportion or dis'

proportion, which the affection seems to bear to the cause or object which excites it, consists the proprie'ty, or im'propriety of

the consequent action. Note 1. This transposition of the accent, extends itself to all words which have a sameness of termination, though they may not be directly opposite in sense.

1. In this species of composition, plau'sibility is much more essential

than probability. 2. Lucius Cataline was expert in all the arts of sim’ulation and

diss'imulation, covetous of what belonged to others, lavish of

a

his own.

Note 2. When the accent is on the last syllable of a word which has no emphasis, it must be pronounced louder, and a degree lower than the rest.

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