Imatges de pÓgina




The male line in him having thus failed, Maude, their surviving sister, and heiress to the family possessions, was espoused to Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk. From this alliance sprang two sons, Hugh and Roger, or Rudulfus. The younger of whom, Roger, in right of his mother, was installed lord-marshal of the kingdom, and granted a charter* to Tinterne Abbey,confirming those granted by the Clares and Marshalls, and adding large possessions to the brotherhood. Maude, on the death of her husband, Hugh Bigod, married John de Warren, Earl of Surrey; and departing this life, anno 1248, was buried in the Abbey of Tinterne; when her four sons—two by each marriage—carried her body into the choir. To prosecute the descent farther, would far exceed our limits but readers who may feel curious to trace the genealogy of the founders, will find ample details in the Baronage, the Monasticon, and old chronicles.

Of Earl Roger it is told, that, being “openly reproached by the king as a traitor, he replied with a stern countenance that he lied; and that he, Bigod, never was, nor would be a traitor ;” adding, “ if you do nothing but what the law warranteth, you can do me no harm.” “ Yes," quoth the king, “I can thrash your corn and sell it, and so humble you.” “ If you do so," replied Bigod, “I will send you back the heads of your thrashers.”

The Hospitium, or guest-chamber, was generally a large room with columns, like the body of a church, and called palatium—the original meaning of which was a place of short residence. If a visitor came before dinner to the refectory, notice was given to the refectioner; if he was too late to dine with the convent, he staid in the locutorium, or parlour, until the refectory was swept, and then was introduced. The hosteler provided all things fit for Mass for the visitors ; and if he was prevented, any one asked by him sang the mass and hours to them, for they had divine service as well as the convent. The visitors had meat and drink at solicitation, and the hosteler was to fetch the viands according to the rank of the person; all which, however, was accompanied with the appendage of a “soiled table cloth, very indifferent wine, grease in the salt, and a clownish servant.” The hospitalert could not introduce them to the collation before the end of the first verse. When this was over, he lighted his lantern with which the visitors waited before the Chapter door. He then introduced them into the parlour, after which they had refection, and Complin was sung to them. When the visitors wished to depart before daybreak, or at that time, the hosteler took the keys of the parlour from the Prior's bed; but on Sundays,

Rogerus Brgod, Comes Norfolciæ, dedit

+ The hospitaler was allowed to drink with any ecclesiæ de Tynterna dominium de Eccle ac ecclesiam orderly person, for the sake of sociality, at the direction S. Edwardi de Halbergate è omnibus eorum perti- and request of that person, without asking leave.nenciis.

Licet hostilario, etc.



before procession, no one could receive the benediction, or ceremony of dismission.

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Persons of rank were received with processions and high honours. One of the great bells was struck three times, to give the monks notice of assembling in the church to robe themselves. Visitors were allowed to make a stay of two days and two nights, and on the third day, after dinner, they were to depart. If by accident a guest could not then go, the hosteler signified his request to the Abbot, or Prior, for a longer stay. If in health, he was to be present at Matins, and follow the convent in everything, unless he had leave to the contrary. Women were to be received who came with an honourable suite.* Particular attention was paid to the parents of monks, for whom necessaries and food were to be provided whenever they came to see their children—especially on the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, wheresoever they took refection, in the town or house ; and they were to be honourably received on the Vigil. †

The Refectory, as described by monastic writers, was a large hall wainscoted on the north and south sides, and in the west and nether parts was a long bench of stone, in mason-work, from the cellar-door to the pantry, or cove

* St. Bernard induced all his brothers, five so truly evangelical, Bernard remitted his severity, in number, to foiiow his example of retirement. His gave her directions suitable to the taste of the age, only sister still remained in the world ; but coming and probably still better advice; but all that Gulielto visit the monastery in the dress, and with the mus, the writer here quoted, has thought fit to record, attendance of a lady of quality, she found herself treated is, that Bernard's sister became a nun, and resembled with so much neglect, that, bursting into tears, she her brother in piety.—Life of St. Bernard. said, “True it is, I am a sinner, yet, nevertheless, it BRIT. MONACH. : art. Guest-Hall. was for such that Jesus died." Moved by expressions




door. It had a dresser in it: above the wainscot was a large picture of CHRIST, the Virgin Mary, and St. John; but in most places—and here perhaps—was the Cross or Crucifixion, to which, on entering the Fratry with washed hands, the monks made obeisance with their faces to the east. Within the door on the left was an Almerywhere stood the grace-cup (the classical ayalou das Lovos), out of which the monks, after grace every day, drank round the table—and another large one on the right, with smaller within, where stood the mazers, of which each monk had his peculiar one, with a ewer and basin, which served the Subprior to wash his hands in at the table, of which he sat as chief.* At the west end was a loft above the cellar, ascended by stairs with an iron railing, where the convent and monks dined together, the Sub-prior sitting at the upper end of the table. At the south end of the high table, within a glass window-frame, was an iron desk, ascended by stone steps, with an iron rail, where lay a Bible, out of which one of the novices read a part in Latin during dinner. The readers at the table were to give ear to the Prior in case of error; and if they did not understand his correction, they were to begin the verse again, even repeatedly, until they comprehended the Prior's meaning. When the reader had finished, the master of the novices rang a silver bell hanging over his head, to call one of them to come to the high table to say grace; a single stroke of this bell (skilla), signified the conclusion of the lecture or the meal.t

ospitality, which the monastic rule enjoined upon all its professors, was faithfully practised by the Cistercians, The Refectory, as well as the Hospitium, or Guest Hall, of this Abbey, appears to have been an elegant and capa

cious chamber, with a vaulted stone roof supported on Gothic pillars, the massive bases of which still remain. But as the buildings were long thrown open as a stone quarry, for the use of the public, the squared and sculptured materials with which they were built and adorned, were employed for ages in constructing those shapeless hovels which now cluster, as if

* “From due oblation, at the vaulted door,

The entering monks stood, each one with his

At the two tables of the lowest floor,
Their looks directing to the spiry state
Of chair much sculptured, where the Prior

To this, where transversely, a board was spread,
Inferior lordlings of the convent ate;
As passed the Prior, all depressed the head ;
Loud rang a tinkling bell, and wonted grace was


7" The Prior gave the signal word ; aloud

The reader 'gan the love of God reveal ;
At the first stated pause, the holy crowd
Turned to the board in instantaneous wheel,
And solemn silence marked their instant meal;
The Prior to the reader bow'd, again
They turned ; the Sacrist

rang a tinkling peal,
Last grace was said ; and, carolling a strain
Of David, two and two withdrew the hooded
Brit. MONACH.-Monastic Æconomy, 401.

in mockery, around the sacred pile, and show to what base uses in this changing world, even the masterpieces of art may be applied.

The Dole.-An opening in the wall of the refectory westward, shows the place where the monk appointed to that duty, administered to the poor their daily portion of bread and beer. To that door the hungry and the weary never applied in vain

Pilgrim, whosoe'er thou art,
Worn with travel, faint with fear,
Halt, or blind, or sick of heart,
Bread and welcome wait thee here.

At the east end of the Refectory was “a neat table, with a screen of wainscot over it, for the master of the novices, the elects, and novices, to dine and sup at: two windows opened into the refectory from the great kitchen, one large for principal days, the other smaller for ordinary days; and through these the dishes were served. Over against the door in the cloister was a conduit or labatory, for the monks to wash their hands and faces, of a round form, covered with lead, and all marble, excepting the outer wall, without which they might walk about the Tower. After the monks had waited a while on the Abbot, they sat down at two other tables, placed at the sides of the refectory, and had their service brought in by the novices, who, when the monks had dined, sat down to their own dinner. Fires in the refectory were ordered from Allhallows Day to Good-Friday, and the wood was found by the cellarer. Pinafores or super-tunics, to protect the clothes at dinner, are mentioned by Lynwood, and occur in foreign consuetudinals. Giraldus Cambrensis, on dining with the Prior of Canterbury,“noted sixteen dishes, besides intromels,” or entremets ;

a superfluous use of signs, much sending of dishes from the Prior to the attending monks, and from them to the lower tables;” with “much ridiculous gesticulation in returning thanks, with much whispering, loose, idle, and licentious discourse;" herbs brought in but not tasted; numerous kinds of fish, roasted, boiled, stuffed, fried, eggs, dishes exquisitely cooked with spices; salted meats to provoke appetite; wines of various kinds ; pimento made of wine, honey, and spices; with claret, mead, and other beverages. Respecting these, it was not unusual, says Barnard, to see brought a vessel half full to try the quality and flavour of the wine; and that, after proof thereof, the monks decided in favour of the strongest. Superior dinners were always given on the feasts of the Apostles ; but it was not lawful, it seems, to eat the flesh of any animal nourished on the earth, because this had been cursed by God; but the curse not extending to air and water, birds were permitted, as created of the same element as fish. Hence the prohibition of quadrupeds ; but as it was found

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