Imatges de pàgina

Harl. n. 2270. A knight there borrows money of a merchant, upon condition of forfeiting all his flesh for non-payment. When the penalty is exacted before the judge, the knight's mistress, disguised, in forma diri & vestimentis pretiosis induta, comes into court, and, by permission of the judge, endeavours to mollify the merchant. She first offers him his money, and then the double of it, &c. to all which his answer is—“ Conventionem meam volo habere. — Puella, cum hoc audisset, ait coram omnibus, Domine mi judex, da rectum judicium super his quæ vobis dixero.-Vos scitis quod miles nunquam se obligabat ad aliud per literam nisi quod mercator habeat potestatem carnes ab ossibus scindere, sine sanguinis effusione, de quo nihil erat prolocutum. Statim mittat manum in eum; si vero sanguinem effuderit, Rex contra eum actionem habet. Mercator, cum hoc audisset, ait; date mihi pecuniam & omnem actionem ei remitto. Ait puella, Amen dico tibi, nullum denarium habebis-pone ergo manum in eum, ita ut sanguinem non effundas. Mercator vero videns se confusum abscessit; & sic vita militis salvata est, & nullum denarium dedit.

The other incident, of the caskets, is in ch. xcix, of the same collection. A king of Apulia sends his daughter to be married to the son of an emperor of Rome. After some adventures, (which are nothing to the present purpose) she is brought before the emperor; who says to her, “ Puella, propter amorem filii mei multa adversa sustinuisti. Tamen si digna fueris ut uxor ejus sis cito probabo. Et fecit fieri tria vasa. PRIMUM fuit de auro purissimo & lapidibus pretiosis interius ex omni parte, & plenum ossibus mortuorum : & exterius erat subscriptio; Qui me elegerit, in me inveniet quod meruit. SECUNDUM vas erat de argento puro & gemis pretiosis, plenum terra; & exterius erat subscriptio: Qui me elegerit, in me inveniet quod natura appetit. TERTIUM vas de plumbo plenum lapidibus pretiosis interius & gemmis nobilissimis; & exterius erat subscriptio talis: Qui me elegerit, in me inveniet quod deus disposuit. \ Ista tria ostendit puellæ, & dixit, si unum ex istis elegeris in quo commodum, & proficuum est, filium meum habebis. Si vero elegeris quod nec tibi nec aliis est commodum, ipsum non habebis." The young lady, after mature consideration of the vessels and their inscriptions, chuses the leaden, which being opened, and found to be full of gold and precious stones, the emperor says: “ Bona puella, bene elegisti-ideo filium meum habebis.”

From this abstract of these two stories, I think it appears sufficiently plain that they are the remote originals of the two inci. dents in this play. That of the caskets, Shakspeare might take from the English Gesta Romanorum, as Dr. Farmer has observed; and that of the bond might come to him from the Pecorone; but upon the whole I am rather inclined to suspect, that he has followed some hitherto unknown novellist, who had saved him the trouble of working up the two stories into one. Tyrwhitt.

This comedy, I believe, was written in the beginning of the year 1598. Meres's book was not published till the end of that year. Malone.





Duke of Venice.
Prince of Morocco,

suitors to Portia.
Prince of Arragon,
Antonio, the merchant of Venice.
Bassanio, his friend.
Salarino, friends to Antonio and Bassanio.
Lorenzo, in love with Jessica.
Shylock, a Jew.
Tubal, a Jew, his friend.
Launcelot Gobbo, a clown, servant to Shylock.
Old Gobbo, father to Launcelot.
Salerio,3 a messenger from Venice.
Leonardo, servant to Bassanio,

servants to Portia. Stephano,


Portia, a rich heiress.
Nerissa, her waiting-maid.
Jessica, daughter to Shylock.

Magnificoes of Venice, Officers of the Court of Justice,

Jailer, Servants and other Attendants.

SCENE, Partly at Venice, and partly at Belmont, the Seat of

Portia, on the Continent.


1 In the old editions in quarto, for J. Roberts, 1600, and in the old folio, 1623, there is no enumeration of the persons. It was first made by Mr. Rowe. Johnson.

It is not easy to determine the orthography of this name. In the old editions the owner of it is called Salanio, Salino and So. lanio. Steevens.

3 This character I have restored to the Personæ Dramatis. The name appears in the first folio: the description is taken from the quarto. Steevens.



Venice. A Street.


Ant. In sooth, I know not why I am so sad;
It wearies me; you say, it wearies you;
But how I caught it, found it, or came by it,
What stuff 'tis made of, whereof it is born,
I am to learn;
And such a want-wit sadness makes of me,
That I have much ado to know myself.

Salar. Your mind is tossing on the ocean;
There, where your argosies with portly sail,
Like signiors and rich burghers of the flood,
Or, as it were the pageants of the sca,
Do overpeer the petty traffickers,
That curt'sy to them, do them reverence,
As they fly by them with their woven wings.

argosies -] A name given in our author's time to ships of great burthen, probably galleons, such as the Spaniards now use in their West India trade. Johnson.

In Ricaut's Maxims of Turkish Polity, ch. xiv, it is said, “ Those vast carracks called argosies, which are so much famed for the vastness of their burthen and bulk, were corruptly so denomi. rated from Ragosies," i. e. ships of Ragusa, a city and territory on the gulf of Venice, tributary to the Porte. If my memory does not fail me, the Ragusans lent their last great ship to the King of Spain for the Armada, and it was lost on the coast of Irë. land. Shakspeare, as Mr. Heath observes, has given the name of Ragozine to the pirate in Measure for Measure. Steevens.

- burghers of the flood, 7 Both ancient and modern editors have hitherto been content to read~" burghers on the flood,” though a parallel passage in As you Like it

- native burghers of this desolate city,” might have led to the present correction. Steevens.




Anc Anc Το' Tha But, Iss

Salan. Believe me, sir, had I such venture forth,
The better part of my affections would
Be with my hopes abroad. I should be still
Plucking the grass,6 to know where sits the wind;
Peering in maps, for ports, and piers, and roads;
And every object, that might make me fear
Misfortune to my ventures, out of doubt,
Would make me sad.

My wind, cooling my broth,
Would blow me to an ague, when I thought
What harm a wind too great might do at sea.
I should not see the sandy hour-glass run,
But I should think of shallows and of flats;
And see my wealthy Andrew: dock'd in sand,'
Vailing her high-top lower than her ribs,
To kiss her burial. Should I go to church,
And see the holy edifice of stone,
And not bethink me straight of dangerous rocks?
Which touching but my gentle vessel's side,
Would scatter all her spices on the stream;
Enrobe the roaring waters with my silks;

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Plucking the grass, &c.] By holding up the grass, or any light body that will bend by a gentle blast, the direction of the wind is found.

“ This way I used in shooting. When I was in the mydde way betwixt the markes, which was an open place, there I toke a fe. there, or a lyttle light grasse, and so learned how the winde stood.” Ascham. Fohnson.

7 Peering - ) Thus the old quarto printed by Hayes, that by Roberts, and the first folio. The quarto of 1637, à book of no authority, reads--prying. Malone.

- Andrew -] The name of the ship. Johnson.

dock'd in sand,] The old copies have-docks. Correct. ed by Mr. Rowe. Malone.

1 Vailing her high top lower than her ribs,] In Bullokar's English Expositor, 1616, to vail, is thus explained: “It means to put off the hat, to strike sail, to give sign of submission.So, in Stephen Gosson's book, called Playes confuted in several Actions :

They might have vailed and bended to the king's idol.” It signifies also- to lower, to let down. Thus, in the ancient metrical romance of The Sowdon of Babyloyne, p. 60:

Thay avaled the brigge and lete them yn.”
Again, (as Mr. Douce observes to me) in Hardynge's Chronicle:

“ And by th’ even their sayles avaled were set.” Steevens.


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And, in a word, but even now worth this,
And now worth nothing? Shall I have the thought
To think on this; and shall I lack the thought,
That such a thing, bechanc'd, would make me sad?
But, tell not me; I know, Antonio
Is sad to think upon

his merchandize.
Ant. Believe me, 'no: I thank my fortune for it,
My ventures are not in one bottom trusted,
Nor to one place; nor is my whole estate
Upon the fortune of this present year:
Therefore, my merchandize makes me not sad.

Salan. Why then you are in love.

Fye, fye!
Salan. Not in love neither? Then let 's say, you are

sad, Because you are not merry: and 'twere as easy For you, to laugh, and leap, and say, you are merry, Because you are not sad. Now, by two-headed Janus, Nature hath fram’d strange fellows in her time: Some that will evermore peep through their eyes, 3 And laugh, like parrots, at a bag-piper; And other of such vinegar aspect, That they 'll not show their teeth in way of smile, Though Nestor swear the jest be laughable.

Enter BassANIO, LORENZO, and GRATIANO. Salan. Here comes Bassanio, your most noble kins

man, Gratiano, and Lorenzo: Fare you well;



- Now, by two-headed Fanus,] Here Shakspeare shews his knowledge in the antique. By two-heaved Janus is meant those antique bifrontine heads, which generally represent a young and smiling face, together with an old and wrinkled one, being of Pan and Bacchus; of Saturn and Apoilo, &c. These are not uncom. mon in collections of Antiques: and in the books of the antiquaries, as Montfaucon, Spanheim, &c. Warburton.

Here, says Dr. Warburton, Shakspeare shows his knowledge of the antique: and so does Taylor the water poet, who describes Fortune, Like a Janus with a doubie face." Farmer.

- peep through their e es,] This gives a very picturesque image of the countenance in laughing, when the eyes appear half shut. Wirburton.

- their teeth in way of smile,] Because such are apt enough to show their teeth in anger. Warburton.

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