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The distant provinces of this extensive em. pire had scarcely shaken off their allegiance, and assumed the appearance of independent monarchs, than the viceroy of Ahmedabad and Cambay assumed the unlimited sovereignty of his domain. Mohman Chan, who is the present nabob of Cambay, was the last that bore the same title in Ahmedabad, having been driven from it about thirty years ago by the Mahratta troops, under the command of Ragonath Row. Upon his defeat in that city, he fled to Cam- . bay, where he has since been obliged to sit down contented, with paying the Mahrattas a tribute out of the revenues collected in the Cambay district.

The city of Ahmedabad remained in the quiet possession of the Mahrattas until about fifa teen months ago, when it was taken from thein by storm, by the British forces under the command of General Goddard, and was soon after made over by treaty to Futty Sing Row Guica. war, an ally lately connected with the British interest. But notwithstanding that it is nomi. nally made over to him, the British standard is displayed on the citadel of Ahmedabad, whose garrison is likewise occupied by the Company's troops. This circumstance has given the new ally no small influence in the country, and has enabled him to collect his large share of the revenues of that province without the smallest opposition from the Mharattas, or any other country power who have been taught. how to respect the British flag.

I will not trouble my readers (most of whom cannot be interested by the detail) with an account of the peculiar modes of division which was adopted by the Hon, Company and their new ally, Futty Sing, respecting their conquests, which I believe were all made by the British forces, unassisted by any other troops: I will only mention, that the extensive and fertile

province of Guzerat was divided between them. Futty Sing was to possess all the country north of the river Myhi, which was to be his boundary southward; while the British were to be masters of the whole country between the Myhi and the Tappee, together with all the southern districts, including their former possessions at Broach and Surat.

My readers must excuse this long digression

from a description of the present state of this once famous capital of Guzerat, as I found it difficult to describe its present decay without adverting to its former state of splendour and magnificence ; which also led me to touch a little upon the general history of Hindostan, during the monarchy of the rajahs, the Patan princes, and the establishment of the Mogul empire.

Notwithstanding the Indian nations have always laboured under the generally oppressive governments of the most arbitrary despois, yet at some peculiar times, when the empire enjoyed a degree of tranquillity, the arts, sciences, literature, agriculture, and industry, were encouraged, and flourished under the fostering patronage and auspices of the descendants of Timur, so long as they swayed the imperial scéptre.

The Emperor Jehangire gave the viceroyship of Guzerat to his son, the Sulian Currum, upon whom he afterwards conferred the bold and daring title of Shah Jehan, or, the “ King of the World;" which he retained after his succession to the throne of the whole empire.

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During the reign of this excellent monarca, the province arrived at a most flourishing state. His two sons, Aurungzebe and Morad, were afterwards appointed to the government of Ahmedabad, which city they very greatly im. proved, and beautified.

Notwithstanding the whole line of mogul emperors, from Akbar down to Aurungzebe, were extremely ambitious of foreign con. quests, and of humbling of the pride of the most distant princes, yet in their own do. minions they were particularly watchful over. their internal prosperity. They not only en. couraged agriculture, but all the useful arts, and attended in the minutest degree to an impartial administration of justice, even

to the most remote of their extensive provinces.

It was in those days, and under their, aus, picious reigns, that all those magnificent structa ures, which now adorn the great cities of Hindostan, were planned and erected.

Palaces, bridges, aqueducts, mosques, and; mausoleums, were suddenly seen to rise, and display the taste and the elegance of mogul, splendour. The emperor Shah Jeran, who, was the founder of the palace and gardens which I have described, was celebrated for the extraordinary patronage with which he always encouraged every magnificent projects He built a tomb in the famed city of Agra, sacred to the remains and the memory of his favourite sultana, which cost his treasury the immense sum of seven hundred and fifty thou. sand pounds. This edifice is mentioned by all the European, as well as the eastern travellers, for its astonishing sublimity and magnificence.

During those ages, learning in all its various branches, and every species of refined art, were tenderly fostered by the Imperial court, where poets, philosophers, and historians, met with the same welcome reception, and where their works were universally read and admired.

If at any period of the world, despotic governments have possessed superior charms and allurements, it was surely under the reigns of the Mogul sovereigns, from that of Akbar to the close of that of Aurungzebe, in the present century. Yet even when arbitrary go.vern:nents are considered, and seen in their most flourishing and happy state, they are. se.

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