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attached to his capital. The exertions of this truly meritorious monarch had the happy effect of inducing his Patan successors to emulate his noble actions, which were tainly worthy of his royal munificence.
It was chiefly owing to the great exertions and the patronage of this mighty emperor, that the arts and the sciences have since flourished, for a long succession of ages in many parts of Asia, but more particularly in the Persian empire, where they arrived at a very advanced state of perfection. I do not at present allude to the state of its ancient kingdom in the earliest ages, but of its situation since the establishment of Mahometism, when it gave birth to many distinguished men in arts, science, and literature; it sent forth to the eastern world some of the most celebrated historians for erudition and learning, which they have before, or since produced; the most beautiful and the most sublime of poets that ever tuned the lyre, or invoked the heavenly muses, and the most eminent men in every branch of the fine arts, learning or literature; and all this hitherto unknown excellence was arrived at long before the most celebrated
kingdoms, of the western world had emerged from the darkness, the barbarism, and the ignorance, of Gothic bondage.
It was not till towards the close of the thirteenth century, that the Mogul
nations began to be troublesome in the northern kingdoms of Hindostan, where they very soon commenced hostilities, and made their first conquest in the Indian empire. But it was Not till the year 1397, that the famous. Ti. mur, or Tamerlane, crossed the Indus, and ravaged the whole of the adjacent country. Those who would be inclined to form a just idea of this celebrated warrior, must not admit for truth that which Rowe has given to him in his excellent tragedy. His real chas racter is widely different from that which the poet has drawn for him. Should the page of history record the truth alone, he will be represented as depopulating the most fertile and luxuriant countries, burning the most noble cities of the east, and as massacring and putting to the sword their wretched inhabitants, and for no other purpose than to gratify his unbounded rage of ambition, and cruel thirst of power, page that would be found to record the injustice of his despotic and merciless power, , would also paint him as wading through whole seas of blood in order to grasp the whole empire of Hindostan.
As an instance of the diabolical principles by which he was actuated, I will trouble my readers with only one instance, out of many others, which are more particularly mentioned by Dow. - When the despotic, the ambitious, and the bloodthirsty Timur lay with a vast army before the citadel, and the walls of Delhi, he was vigorously attacked by the besieged. He had then in his camp upwards of an hundred thousand prisoners, whom he had made captives in his progress after he had crossed the Indus. Being informed that these helpless people bad expressed a joy when he he was attacked, and being apprehensive that at some time or other they might join against him, this inhuman wretch gave immediate or. ders, that all those who were above the age of fifteen, should be put to the sword. In consequence of these dreadful orders, there were more than one hundred thousand captives massacred, in one day, and before the cool and
unimpassioned gaze of those infernal machines who acted under his command.
The city of Delhi was no sooner under his power, than this horrid monster caused a slaughter to be made of the wretched inha. bitants, yet more cruel (if possible) than that which I have just mentioned. Such atrocious and hellish actions, very deservedly, obtained him the appellation of the “ Hillak Chan," or the “ destroying prince.” . But notwithstanding this is the real character of that renowned chieftain and monarch, Rowe has immortalized a very opposite one, which he attributes to him when he calls him.
“ The scourge of lawless pride, and dire ambition,
We will allow a poet to fulfil his almost divine authority, and paint in the strongest characters an ardent imagination can furnish, yet surely his effusions would be infinitely more valuable if he built their exquisite structures upon the solid foundation of living Truth!
Historians do not date the final conquest of Hindostan until the year 1525, when the Sultan Baber, who was one of the descendants of the renowned Timur, entered the kingdom of Delhi, conquered all that opposed his progress, and at length assumed the sovereignty of the empire. His son, who was named Humaison, succeeded him. He was a very mild prince, and notwithstanding he continued those conquests which he had begun, many of the Patan governments preserved their independence for several years after.
The kingdom of Guzerat was not wholly subdued until the reign of Sultan Akbar, (who was one of the sons of Humaison) who con. quered the city of Ahmedabad in the year 1572, during the reign of Mamoon, emperor of Guzerat. and who was the last Patan sovereign of that province, which was afterwards annexed to the Mogul empire, and was for many years governed by one of the royal family, and yet more recently by omrahs or nabobs.