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15. A man is not therefore aged because his head is gray ; him surely the gods consider as aged, who, though young, is well read in Scripture.
16. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, so is an unread Brahman ; these three (merely) bear the
17. These (following) rules must a Brahmachārī observe, whilst dwelling with his preceptor, keeping all his passions under controul, for the sake of increasing his habitual devotion.
18. When commanded by his preceptor, and even when he has received no command, let him always be diligent in reading and in friendly offices toward his teacher.
19. A teacher, a father, a mother, and an elder brother, are not to be treated with disrespect, especially by a Brahman, even though he be much irritated.
20. That trouble which a mother and father undergo in rearing their children is a debt which cannot be repaid even in hundreds
21. Let a man constantly do what may please these (his parents), and on all occasions what may please his preceptor; when these three are satisfied, his whole course of devotion is accomplished.
22. Obedience to these three is called the highest devotion, and without their approbation he must perform no other duty.
23. Of (the youth) who habitually greets and constantly reveres the aged, four things obtain increase-life, knowledge, fame, strength.
24. As a man who digs deep with a spade comes to a spring of water, so he who is diligent in serving (his preceptor) attains the knowledge which lies in his teacher's mind.
25. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child gentleness of speech : a believer in Scripture may receive a good lesson even from a man of the lowest class.
26. Therefore the highest virtue, learning, purity, gentleness of speech, and various liberal arts should be collected by him from all quarters.
27. In the restraint of the organs which run wild among ravishing objects of sense, a wise man should apply diligent care, like a charioteer in managing (restive) steeds.
28. Desire is never satisfied with the enjoyment of desired objects, as the fire (is not appeased) by clarified butter, it only blazes more vehemently.
29. By addiction to his sensual organs a man undoubtedly incurs guilt; but having kept them in subjection, he thence attains heavenly bliss.
30. Neither the Vedas, nor almsgiving, nor sacrifices, nor strict observances, nor pious austerities, ever lead that man to heavenly felicity who is inwardly depraved.
31. Having kept all his organs of sense under controul, and obtained command over his heart also, he will accomplish every object, even though he reduce not his body by religious austerities.
32. But when one among all his organs gives way, by that single defect his knowledge of divine truth passes away, as water leaks through (a single crack in) a leathern vessel.
33. He whose discourse and heart are pure and ever perfectly guarded, attains all the fruit acquired by a complete course of studying the Veda.
34. Let a Brahman constantly shrink from worldly honour as he would poison, and rather always earnestly desire disrespect as he would nectar.
35. For though scorned he may sleep with pleasure; with pleasure may he awake; with pleasure may he pass through this life ; but the scorner utterly perishes.
36. The Brahman who thus without deviation passes the time of his studentship, ascends (after death) to the most exalted regions, and is not again subject to birth in this lower world.
Duties of the Brahman in the second order or quarter of his life, as
a Grihastha, or Householder. 37. Let a Brahman, having dwelt with a preceptor for the first quarter of his life, pass the second quarter of life in his own house, as a married man.
38. With no injury to animated beings, or with as little injury
as possible, and without toil to his own body, let him accumulate riches.
39. The chief temporal good is by some declared to be virtue and wealth ; (by some) pleasure and wealth ; and (by some) virtue alone; (by others) wealth alone; but the chief good here below is an assemblage of all three: this is a sure decision.
40. If he seek happiness, let him be moderate (in the acquisition of riches), pursuing perfect contentment: for happiness has its root in content, and discontent is the root of misery.
41. Let him daily, without sloth, perform his peculiar duty prescribed by the Veda ; for performing that duty to the best of his ability he obtains supreme bliss.
42. Let him not from carnal desire be too strongly attached to all objects of sense: let him wholly abandon all pursuits that are incompatible with the study of Scripture.
43. Let him pass through this world, bringing his apparel, his discourse, and his intellectual acquirements into conformity with his age, his occupations, his means, his divine knowledge, and his station in life.
44. Though sinking into penury) in consequence of his righteous dealings, let him never apply his mind to unrighteousness, observing the speedy overthrow of iniquitous and sinful men.
45. Iniquity practised in this world, like the earth, does not bear fruit at the moment: but advancing little by little it eradicates the author of it.
46. Yes; iniquity, once committed, fails not of producing fruit to him who wrought it; if not in his person, yet in his sons; or if not in his sons, yet in his grandsons.
47. Of death and of vice, vice is pronounced the more dreadful ; since after death a vicious man sinks to the lowest depths of hell, while a man, free from vice, reaches heaven.
48. Let him, therefore, shun atheism, disbelief of Scripture, contempt of the deities, malice, hypocrisy, pride, anger, and cruelty.
* This passage will call to the mind of the classical scholar the 5th and 6th chapters of the 1st book of Aristotle's Ethics.
49. Let him not wound the feelings of others, even though irritated ; let him not injure another in thought or deed ; let him not even utter a word by which his fellow-creature may suffer uneasiness.
50. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing ; let him speak no disagreeable truth, nor let him speak agreeable falsehood: this is a perpetual law.
51. Whatever act depends (for its accomplishment) on another, that act let him carefully shun; but whatever depends on himself, to that let him diligently attend.
52. Every thing which depends (for its attainment) on the favour of another causes unhappiness, but every thing which depends on one's own individual exertions causes happiness : let him know this to be in a few words the definition of pleasure and pain.
53. Let him always honour his food, and eat it without contempt; when he sees it, let him rejoice, and be content, and ever return thanks for it (praying that he may always obtain it).
54. Excessive eating is prejudicial to health, to life, and to the prospect of attaining heaven; it is destructive to merit, and odious amongst men; therefore, he should by all means avoid it.
55. To a guest who has arrived at his house let him offer a seat and water and food, such as may be in his power, treating him with hospitality, according to prescribed rule.
56. Let him never eat any thing himself which he has not first set before his guest: reverence of a guest is conducive to wealth, to fame, to life, and to a heavenly reward.
57. When asked, he should give something, though it be a mere trifle, ungrudgingly, with a cheerful heart, and to the best of his means, having met with a worthy object of charity.
58. With whatever spirit a man bestows any gift, with the very same spirit, being honoured in return, he shall receive a similar recompense.
59. Let not a man pride himself on his religious observances ; having made a donation let him never proclaim it: by pride, the merit of devotion is lost, and the merit of almsgiving by ostentatiously proclaiming it.
60. Let him not having committed sin perform a penance under the pretext of religion, disguising his crime under mere bodily austerity, and deceiving (only) women and the lowest class
61. He who being of one character describes himself to the good as of another is the most sinful wretch in the world, the worst of thieves, a stealer of men's minds.
62. A wise man should constantly discharge all the moral duties,* though he perform not constantly the ceremonies of religion; since he falls low, if, performing ceremonial acts only, he discharges not his moral duties.
63. Giving pain to no creature, let him, for the sake of obtaining a companion to the next world, accumulate virtue by degrees, as the white ants (collect the soil into) a hillock.
64. For neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor son, nor kinsman, will remain as his companion in his passage to the next world ; his virtue alone will adhere to him.
65. Single is every living being born, single he passes away, single he eats the fruit of his good deeds, and single the fruit of his evil deeds.
66. When he leaves his dead body, like a log or a lump of clay, on the ground, his kindred retire with averted faces, but his virtue accompanies his soul.
67. Continually, therefore, and by degrees, let him accumulate virtue, for the sake of securing an inseparable associate ; since with virtue as his companion he will traverse a gloom, hard indeed to be traversed.
68. The man who is eminent in piety, and whose offences have been expiated by devotion, such a man does his virtue instantly convey after death to another world with a radiant form and a body of celestial substance.
Duties of the Grihastha's Wife. 69. A faithful wife, wishing to attain in heaven the mansion of her husband, must do nothing unkind to that husband, be he living or dead.
70. A husband must constantly be served as a god by a vir
* See p. 24. note 24.