« AnteriorContinua »
from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Vriddhi substitute. Thus, from chi, to gather,” may come the base of the 1st and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyishye, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (chetāhe, &c., cheshye, &c.). Similarly from hu and kri may come havi and kāri (hāvitāhe, kāritāne), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final à and inserted i. Thus, from dā, “ to give,” may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is dā (dātāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.
In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive, the inflection being that of the atm.
The Third Preterite of Passives. 114. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Vriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass. achāyi (achūyishi, &c., form 1. p. 81.) although the base in the atm. of the primitive is ache (acheshi, &-c., form 2.). So also, from hu and kri may come ahāvi and akāri (ahāvishi, akārishi, form 1.), although the bases in the ātm. of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that y be interposed between final ā and inserted i. Thus, from dā may come adāyi (adāyishi, fc.), although the base in the atm. of the primitive is adi (adishi, 8c.).
* This explanation of the passive, although at variance with that of Wilkins and Bopp, rests on the authority of Pāṇini (6. 4. 62.), and the Siddhānta kaumudī.
† The root an, however, in the passive, may be efftate, aria, as well as द्रष्टाहे, द्रक्ष्ये ; and हन् may be घानिताहे, घानिये, as well as हताहे, हनिष्ये; and यह may be माहिताहे, माहिषे, as well as महीताहे, यहीये.
But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyishi or acheshi), except in the 3d pers. sing. where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered”; ahāvi, “ it was sacrificed”; akāri, “it was done "; adāyi, “it was given.”
If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 3d pret. ātm. of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. sing., where i (F) being substituted for the terminations ishta of the 1st form and sta of the 2d form, invariably requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial vowel.* Hence, from tan, the form of the 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atunishi, atanishthāh, atāni ; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthāh, akshepi ; from vid, avedishi, avedishthāh, avedi. This 3d pers. sing. of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently found, even in the simplest writings.
The Benedictive and Conditional of Passives. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, provided that, before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final ā. Thus, from chi may come the bases chāyi and achāyi (chāyishiya, achāyishye); from hu, hāvi and ahāvi; from kri, kāri and akāri ; from dā, dāyi and adāyi. But cheshiya, acheshye, hoshīya, ahoshye, fc., the forms belonging to the ātm. of the primitive, are equally admissible in the passive.
Passive Infinitive Mood. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with shak, “to be able.” In the Hitopadesha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles ārabdha and nirūpita.
Passive Verbs from Causal Bases. 115. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the affix ay is rejected, but the other changes of the root are retained. Thus, from the causal base pātay (root pat, "to fall”) is formed the passive causal base pāty (pātye, “ I am caused to fall"); so also, from sthāpay (sthā, “to stand”), sthāpy (sthāpye, “I am made to stand "); from pāthay (path, “to read"), pāthy (pāthye, “I am taught to read ") from 5144 (377“ to know”), 57 (stat "I am caused to know.”)
* This rests on the authority of Pāṇini, the Siddhānta kaumudī, and the Bhatti kāvya (15. 64, 65.).
INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES,
OR VERBS OF THE FIRST NINE CONJUGATIONS.
S. D. P.
Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres, par. bodhāmi, “I know”; 2d sing.
vet vet vid
vit vid vid vid
vit vid vid juho juho
juho juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhw juhu juhu juhu juhw
vid vid vid vid juhw juhu juhu juhw chinw chinu chinu chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanu tanu tanw рип рипі рипі рип
avet avet avid
Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. vedmi, “ I know”; 2d sing. vetsi, 3d sing. vetti, 1st dual vidwah, &c., 1st pret. avedam, avet, avet, avidwa, fc. So also, chinomi, “I gather," chinoshi, &c.; and punāmi, “ I purify”; 1st pret. apunām (apunā with am).
vid juhu chinu bhind tanu puni
vid juhu chinu bhind tanu рипі
vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid
tanw рипі рипі рипі рипі рипі рипі puri pun
vid vid vid vid juhw juhw juhw ljuhw chinw chinw chinw chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanw tanw tanw pun pun рип
Term. of the } yām
vet ved vit vit ved vit vid ved vit vit ved vid
vid ved vid vid juhu juhav juhu juhw chinw chinav chinu chinw bhind bhinad bhind bhind tanw tanav tanu tanw punā punā punī pun
* An anomalous form of the 2d pret. of the root vid, “ to know,” is sometimes used for the present. Thus, sing. veda, vettha, veda ; dual vidwa,