Imatges de pÓgina
PDF
EPUB

from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Vriddhi substitute. Thus, from chi, to gather,” may come the base of the 1st and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyishye, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (chetāhe, &c., cheshye, &c.). Similarly from hu and kri may come havi and kāri (hāvitāhe, kāritāne), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final à and inserted i. Thus, from , “ to give,” may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is (dātāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.

In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive, the inflection being that of the atm.

*

The Third Preterite of Passives. 114. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Vriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass. achāyi (achūyishi, &c., form 1. p. 81.) although the base in the atm. of the primitive is ache (acheshi, &-c., form 2.). So also, from hu and kri may come ahāvi and akāri (ahāvishi, akārishi, form 1.), although the bases in the ātm. of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that y be interposed between final ā and inserted i. Thus, from may come adāyi (adāyishi, fc.), although the base in the atm. of the primitive is adi (adishi, 8c.).

* This explanation of the passive, although at variance with that of Wilkins and Bopp, rests on the authority of Pāṇini (6. 4. 62.), and the Siddhānta kaumudī.

† The root an, however, in the passive, may be efftate, aria, as well as द्रष्टाहे, द्रक्ष्ये ; and हन् may be घानिताहे, घानिये, as well as हताहे, हनिष्ये; and यह may be माहिताहे, माहिषे, as well as महीताहे, यहीये.

But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyishi or acheshi), except in the 3d pers. sing. where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered; ahāvi, “ it was sacrificed”; akāri, “it was done "; adāyi, “it was given.”

If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 3d pret. ātm. of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. sing., where i (F) being substituted for the terminations ishta of the 1st form and sta of the 2d form, invariably requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial vowel.* Hence, from tan, the form of the 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atunishi, atanishthāh, atāni ; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthāh, akshepi ; from vid, avedishi, avedishthāh, avedi. This 3d pers. sing. of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently found, even in the simplest writings.

The Benedictive and Conditional of Passives. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, provided that, before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final ā. Thus, from chi may come the bases chāyi and achāyi (chāyishiya, achāyishye); from hu, hāvi and ahāvi; from kri, kāri and akāri ; from , dāyi and adāyi. But cheshiya, acheshye, hoshīya, ahoshye, fc., the forms belonging to the ātm. of the primitive, are equally admissible in the passive.

Passive Infinitive Mood. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with shak, “to be able.” In the Hitopadesha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles ārabdha and nirūpita.

Passive Verbs from Causal Bases. 115. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the affix ay is rejected, but the other changes of the root are retained. Thus, from the causal base pātay (root pat, "to fall”) is formed the passive causal base pāty (pātye, I am caused to fall"); so also, from sthāpay (sthā, “to stand”), sthāpy (sthāpye, “I am made to stand "); from pāthay (path, “to read"), pāthy (pāthye, I am taught to read ") from 5144 (377“ to know”), 57 (stat "I am caused to know.”)

* This rests on the authority of Pāṇini, the Siddhānta kaumudī, and the Bhatti kāvya (15. 64, 65.).

INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES,

OR VERBS OF THE FIRST NINE CONJUGATIONS.
Before passing to the exhibition in full of the inflection of particular verbs under each conjugation, a synopsis is here
given of the inflection, Ist, of the primitive; 2dly, of the causal; 3dly, of the passive forms of the nine roots,
Tu budh,to know," of the 1st conjugation ; 7 nrit, “ to dance," of the 4th; fay dish, “to point out,” of the 6th; faç vid,
"to know,” of the 2d; z hu, “to sacrifice," of the 3d ; fechi, " to gather," of the 5th; fare bhid, to break,” of the 7th ;
Na tan, “ to stretch," of the 8th; and g , “to purify," of the 9th. In this page is exhibited the inflection in the
conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called regular; the base, which is always the same throughout
all the persons, being to the left of the terminations. In the two pages which follow this, is exhibited the inflection in
the conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called irregular; the base, which varies in different
persons, being above the terminations. After this, all distinction of conjugation is done away, and in the pages which
succeed, the inflection of the nine roots in the non-conjugational tenses of the primitive, and in the causal and passive,
is exhibited, one below the other, in regular order.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

PRESENT.

ROOT.

BASE,

PAR.

S. D. P.

āmi

asi ati

ase
ate

e
athāh
ata

eyam eya
eh ethāh
et eta

āni
a
atu

at

aswa
atām

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres, par. bodhāmi, I know”; 2d sing.
bodhasi, “thou knowest "; 3d sing. bodhati," he knows "; Ist dual, bodhāvah, &c. Atmanepada, bodhe, bodhase, &c. So
also nrityāmi, “I dance," nrilyasi, &c. lst pret. abodham, abodhah, abodhal, abodhāva, &c. So also anrityam, &c.

[blocks in formation]

ved *

vit

vit

vit

vet vet vid

vit vid vid vid

vit vid vid juho juho

juho juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhw juhu juhu juhu juhw
chino chino chino chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinw || chinw chinu chinu chinu chinw
bhinad bhinat bhinat bhind bhint bhint bhind bhint bhind || bhind bhint bhint bhind bhind
tano tano tano tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanw tanw tanu tanu tanu tanw
punä puna punā punī puni рипі рипі рипі рип pun рипі рипі рипі pun

vid vid vid vid juhw juhu juhu juhw chinw chinu chinu chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanu tanu tanw рип рипі рипі рип

mi

ti

vah

thah

tah

mah

tha

e

te

vahe

āthe

āte

mahe dhwe

ate

si
in 3.5.8.

shi

anti
in 3.
ati

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

2. Vid
3. Hu
5. Chi
7. Bhid
8. Tan
9.

Termina-
tions of the
PRESENT

aved

2. Vid
3. Hu
5. Chi
7. Bhid
8. Tan
9.

avet avet avid
avit avit avid avit avid avid avit

avit avid
avid avid avid

avid

avid
ajuhav ajuho ajuho ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhav ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu
achinav achino achino achinu achinu uchinu achinu achinu achinw achinw achinu achinu achinu achinw achinw achinu achinu achinw
abhinad abhinat abhinat abhind abhint abhint abhind abhint abhind abhind abhint abhint abhind abhind abhind abhind abhind abhind
atanav atano atano atanu atanu atanu atanu atanu atanw atanu atanu atanu atanu atanw atanw atanu atanu atanw
арипа арипа арипа арипі | арипі |арипі арипі арипі |арип apun apunī apunī apunī apun арип арипі |арипі |арип

Termina-
tions of the
1st. PRET.

h

t
omit. omit.
in 2.7. in 2. 7.

an
in 3.
uh

Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. vedmi, I know”; 2d sing. vetsi, 3d sing. vetti, 1st dual vidwah, &c., 1st pret. avedam, avet, avet, avidwa, fc. So also, chinomi, “I gather," chinoshi, &c.; and punāmi, “ I purify”; 1st pret. apunām (apunā with am).

POTENTIAL.

vid juhu chinu bhind tanu puni

vid juhu chinu bhind tanu рипі

vid

vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid vid
juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhw juhw juhu juhw
chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw
bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind || Bhind Bhind bhind bhind bhind
tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanw tunw tanw

tanw

tanw рипі рипі рипі рипі рипі рипі puri pun

pun pun

рип

vid vid vid vid juhw juhw juhw ljuhw chinw chinw chinw chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanw tanw tanw pun pun рип

рип

Term. of the } yām

[blocks in formation]

vid

2. Vid
3. Hu
5. Chi
7. Bhid
8. Tan
9.

vid
juhu
chinu
bhind
tanu
рипі

POTENTIAL

2. Vid
3. Hu
5. Chi
7. Bhid
8. Tan
9.

ved

vet ved vit vit ved vit vid ved vit vit ved vid
juhav juhu juho juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu
chinav chinu chino chinav chinu chinu chinav chinu (hinw | chinav chinu chinu chinav chinw
bhinad bhind bhinat bhinad bhint bhint bhinad bhint bhind | bhinad bhint bhint bhinad bhind
tanav tanu tano tanav tanu tanu tanav tanu tunw tanav tanu tanu tanav tanw
punā рипі punā punā punī punī punā punī рип pun punī puni punā punā

vid ved vid vid juhu juhav juhu juhw chinw chinav chinu chinw bhind bhinad bhind bhind tanw tanav tanu tanw punā punā punī pun

[blocks in formation]

* An anomalous form of the 2d pret. of the root vid, “ to know,” is sometimes used for the present. Thus, sing. veda, vettha, veda ; dual vidwa,
vidathuh, vidatuh ; plur. vidma, vida, viduh. Cf. (as noticed by Bopp, Comp. Gr. Prof. Eastwick's translation) the Greek oida or Foida from the root
Fid, also used with a present signification. Cf. also vidmah with rồuev, vittha with ľore, and viddhi with (ode.

« AnteriorContinua »