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from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Vriddhi substitute. Thus, from chi, to gather," may come the base of the 1st and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyiṣhye, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (chetahe, &c., cheshye, &c.). Similarly from hu and kri may come hāvi and kāri (hāvitāhe, kāritāhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final ā and inserted i. Thus, from dā, “to give," may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is dā (dātāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.
In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive, the inflection being that of the atm.
The Third Preterite of Passives.
114. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Vriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass. achāyi (achāyishi, &c., form 1. p. 81.) although the base in the atm. of the primitive is ache (acheshi, &c., form 2.). So also, from hu and kṛi may come ahāvi and akāri (ahāviṣhi, akāriṣhi, form 1.), although the bases in the atm. of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long a, provided that y be interposed between final ā and inserted i. Thus, from dā may come adāyi (adāyiṣhi, &c.), although the base in the atm. of the primitive is adi (adiṣhi, &c.).
* This explanation of the passive, although at variance with that of Wilkins and Bopp, rests on the authority of Pāņini (6. 4. 62.), and the Siddhanta kaumudī.
† The root दृश्, however, in the passive, may be दर्शिताहे, दर्शिष्ये, as well as द्रष्टाहे, द्रक्ष्ये ; and हन् may be घानिताहे, घानिष्ये, as well as हन्ताहे, हनिष्ये; and मह् may be माहिताहे, माहिये, as well as महीताहे, ग्रहीष्ये.
But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyiṣhi or acheṣhi), except in the 3d pers. sing. where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered"; ahāvi, "it was sacrificed”; akāri, “it was done"; adāyi, "it was given."
If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 3d pret. atm. of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. sing., where i (₹) being substituted for the terminations ishța of the 1st form and sta of the 2d form, invariably requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial vowel.* Hence, from tan, the form of the 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atanishi, ataniṣhṭhāh, atāni; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthah, akshepi; from vid, avedishi, avedishṭhāh, avedi. This 3d pers. sing. of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently found, even in the simplest writings.
The Benedictive and Conditional of Passives.
In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, provided that, before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final a. Thus, from chi may come the bases chayi and achāyi (chāyiṣhiya, achāyiṣhye); from hu, hāvi and ahāvi; from kri, kāri and akāri; from dā, dāyi and adayi. But cheṣhiya, acheṣhye, hoṣhiya, ahoṣhye, &c., the forms belonging to the atm. of the primitive, are equally admissible in the passive.
Passive Infinitive Mood.
There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with shak, "to be able." In the Hitopadesha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles ārabdha and nirūpita.
Passive Verbs from Causal Bases.
115. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the affix ay is rejected, but the other changes of the root are retained. Thus, from the causal base pātay (root pat, "to fall") is formed the passive causal base pāty (pātye, “I am caused to fall"); so also, from sthāpay (sthā, "to stand"), sthāpy (sthāpye, "I am made to stand "); from pathay (path, "to read"), pāṭhy (pāṭhye, "I am taught to read") from ("to know"), ("I am caused to know.”)
*This rests on the authority of Pāṇini, the Siddhānta kaumudī, and the Bhaṭṭi kavya (15. 64, 65.).
INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES,
Before passing to the exhibition in full of the inflection of particular verbs under each conjugation, a synopsis is here
OBS. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. par. bodhāmi, "I know ";
āma āmahai ata
3. Hu 5. Chi 7. Bhid
8. Tan 9. Pū
vid vit vit vid vid vid vit vit vid vid juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhujuhw juhu juhu juhu juhw chino chino chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinw chinw chinu chinu chinu chinw bhinad bhinat bhinat bhind bhint bhint bhind bhint bhind bhind bhint bhint bhind bhind tano tano tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanw tanw tanu tanu tanu tanw punā punā puni puni puni puni puni pun pun puni puni puni pun
apunā |upunā apunā apuni apuni apuni apuni apuni apun
aved avet avet avid avit avit avid avit avid avid avit ajuhav ajuhoajuho ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhav ajuhw ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhw achinav achino achino achinu achinu achinu achinu achinu achinw achinw achinu achinu achinu achinw abhinad abhinat abhinat abhind abhint abhint abhind abhint abhind abhind abhint abhint abhind abhind atanav atano atano atanu atanu atanu atanu atanu atanw atanu atanu atanu atanu atanw apun |apuni |apuni |apuni |apun
avid avid avid ajuhw ajuhu ajuhu ajuhw achinw achinu achinu achinw abhind abhind abhind abhind atanw atanu atanu atanw apun
avit avid avid
apuni |apuni apun
OBS. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. vedmi, "I know"; 2d sing. vetsi, 3d sing. vetti, 1st dual vidwah, &c., 1st pret. avedam, avet, avet, avidwa, &c. So also, chinomi, "I gather," chinoshi, &c.; and punāmi, “I purify "; 1st pret. apunām (apunā with am).
vid vid vid vid vid vid juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu puni punī punī punī punī punī
vid vid vid vid vid juhw juhw juhw juhw juhw juhw juhw juhw chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw puri pun pun pun pun pun pun pun pun
* An anomalous form of the 2d pret. of the root vid, "to know," is sometimes used for the present. Thus, sing. veda, vettha, veda; dual vidwa, vidathuh, vidatuh; plur. vidma, vida, viduh. Cf. (as noticed by Bopp, Comp. Gr. Prof. Eastwick's translation) the Greek olda or Foida from the root Fiò, also used with a present signification. Cf. also vidmah with idμev, vittha with lore, and viddhi with too.