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from the bases of the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of i

may

take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Vriddhi substitute. Thus, from chi, to gather,” may come the base of the 1st and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyishye, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (chetāhe, &c., cheshye, &c.). Similarly from hu and kri may come hāvi and kāri (hāvitāhe, kāritāhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be interposed between the final ā and inserted i. Thus, from ," to give," may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is (dātāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may equally stand for the 1st fut. pass.

In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive, the inflection being that of the atm.

The Third Preterite of Passives. 114. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of i may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Vriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass. achāyi (achāyishi, &c., form 1. p. 81.) although the base in the atm. of the primitive is ache (acheshi, fe., form 2.). So also, from hu and kşi may come ahāvi and akāri (ahāvishi, akārishi, form 1.), although the bases in the atm. of the primitive are aho and akri (ahoshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that y be interposed between final ū and inserted i. Thus, from may come adāyi (adāyishi, fc.), although the base in the ātm. of the primitive is adi (adişhi, fc.).

* This explanation of the passive, although at variance with that of Wilkins and Bopp, rests on the authority of Pāṇini (6. 4. 62.), and the Siddhānta kaumudī.

† The root yt, however, in the passive, may be erstatt, efstu, as well as द्रष्टाहे, द्रक्ष्ये ; and हन may be घानिताहे, घानिष्ये, as well as हताहे, हनिष्ये; and यह may be माहिताहे, याहिपे, as well as महीताहे, महीये.

But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyishi or acheshi), except in the 3d pers. sing. where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered”; ahāvi,“ it was sacrificed”; akāri, “it was done"; adāyi, “it was given.”

If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 3d pret. ātm. of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. sing., where i (3) being substituted for the terminations ishta of the 1st form and sta of the 2d form, invariably requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial vowel.* Hence, from tan, the form of the 1st, 2d, and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atunishi, atanishthāh, atāni; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthāh, akshepi ; from vid, avedishi, avedishthāh, avedi. This 3d pers. sing. of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently found, even in the simplest writings.

The Benedictive and Conditional of Passives. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in vowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, provided that, before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be interposed after final ā. Thus, from chi may come the bases chāyi and achāyi (chāyishiya, achāyishye); from hu, hāvi and ahāvi; from kri, kāri and akāri; from , dāyi and adāyi. But cheshiya, acheshye, hoshīya, ahoshye, fc., the forms belonging to the ātm. of the primitive, are equally admissible in the passive.

Passive Infinitive Mood. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with shak,“ to be able.” In the Hitopadesha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles ārabdha and nirūpita.

Passive Verbs from Causal Bases. 115. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the affix ay is rejected, but the other changes of the root are retained. Thus, from the causal base pātay (root pat, “ to fall") is formed the passive causal base pāty (pātye, I am caused to fall"); so also, from sthāpay (sthā, “to stand ”), sthāpy (sthāpye, “I am made to stand "); from pāthay (path, “to read"), pāthy (pāthye, I am taught to read ") from 949 (377 “ to know”), sra (Brat “ I am caused to know.”)

* This rests on the authority of Pāṇini, the Siddhānta kaumudī, and the Bhatti kāvya (15. 64, 65.).

INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES,

OR VERBS OF THE FIRST NINE CONJUGATIONS.
Before passing to the exhibition in full of the inflection of particular verbs under each conjugation, a synopsis is here
given of the inflection, Ist, of the primitive; 2dly, of the causal; 3dly, of the passive forms of the nine roots,
बुध budh,to know,” of the 1st conjugation ; qa nrit, “ to dance," of the 4th; fed dish, “to point out,” of the 6th; faç vid,
"to know," of the 2d; z hu, “to sacrifice," of the 3d; fer chi, “ to gather,” of the 5th; forç bhid, to break,” of the 7th;
ITF tan, " to stretch," of the 8th; and g , to purify," of the 9th. In this page is exhibited the inflection in the
conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called regular ; the base, which is always the same throughout
all the persons, being to the left of the terminations. In the two pages which follow this, is exhibited the inflection in
the conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called irregular; the base, which varies in different
persons, being above the terminations. After this, all distinction of conjugation is done away, and in the pages which
succeed, the inflection of the nine roots in the non-conjugational tenses of the primitive, and in the causal and passive,
is exhibited, one below the other, in regular order.

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Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. par. bodhāmi, I know "; 2d sing.
bodhasi, thou knowest "; 3d sing. bodhati," he knows"; Ist dual, bodhāvah, &c. Atinanepada, bodhe, bodhase, &c. So
also nrityāmi, "I dance," nrilyasi, &c. lst pret. abodham, abodhah, abodhal, abodhāva, &c. So also anrityam, &c.

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vet

vit

2. Vid 3. Hu 5. Chi 7. Bhid 8. Tan 9.

ved *

vet vid vit vid vit vid vid vit

vit vid vid juho juho juho juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu chino chino chino chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinw | chinw chinu chinu chinu chinw bhinad bhinat bhinat bhind bhint 1bhint bhind bhint bhind | bhind bhint bhint bhind bhind tano tano tano tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanw tanw tanu tanu tanu tanw punā punā punā punā puni puni pun,

рипі pun

рип punī punī рипі рип

vid vid vid vid juhw juhu juhu juhw chinw chinu chinu chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanu tanu tanw pun punī puni рип

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2. Vid 3. Hu 5. Chi 7. Bhid 8. Tan 9.

aved avet avet avid avit avit

avid avit avid avid avit avit avid avid avid avid avid avid ajuhav ajuho ajuho ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhav ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu juhu ajuhu ajuhu ajuhu achinav achino achino achinu achinu uchinu achinu achinu achinw achinw achinu achinu achinu achinw achinw achinu achinu achinw abhinad abhinat abhinat abhind abhint abhint abhind abhint abhind abhind abhint abhint abhind abhind abhind abhind abhind abhind atanav atano atano atanu atanu atanu atanu atanu atanw atanu. atanu atanu atanu utanw atanw atanu atanu atanw apunā apunā apunā apunā apunī apunī apunī apunī apun арип арипі |арипі |арипі арип арип арипі арипі арип

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Obs. The base is to be united with the terminations thus, 1st pers. sing. pres. vedmi, “ I know”; 2d sing. vetsi, 3d sing. vetti, 1st dual vidwah, &c., 1st pret. avedam, avet, avet, avidwa, fc. So also, chinomi, “ I gather,” chinoshi, fc.; and punāmi, I purify”; 1st pret. apunām (apunā with am).

POTENTIAL.

2. Vid 3. Hu 5. Chi 7. Bhid 8. Tan 9.

vid juhu chinu bhind tanu рипі

vid juhu chinu bhind tanu рипі

vid juhu chinu bhind tanu рипі

vid vid

vid vid vid vid vid

vid vid vid vid juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhu juhw juhu juhw juhu juhw chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinu chinw chinw chinw chinw chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind || bhind bhind bhind bhind bhind tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanu tanw tanw tanw tanw tanw рипі Грипі рипі рипі рипі рипі | ри pun

pun

pun

vid vid

vid

vid juhu juhu juhu juhw chinw chinw chinw chinw bhind bhind bhind bhind tanw tanw tanw tanw рип pun

рип

рит

pun

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2. Vid 3. Hu 5. Chi 7. Bhid 8. Tan 9.

ved vid vet ved vit vit ved vit vid ved vit vit ved vid vid ved vid vid juhav juhu juho juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu juhu juhav juhu

\juhw chinav chinu chino chinav chinu chinu chinav chinu (hinw chinav chinu chinu chinav chinw chinw chinav chinu chinw bhinad bhind bhinat bhinad bhint bhint bhinad bhint bhind || bhinad bhint bhint bhinad bhind bhind bhinad bhind bhind tanav tanu tano tanav tanu tanu tanav tanu tanw tanav tanu tanu tanav tanw tanw tanav tanu tanw punā рипі punā punā puni puni punā punī | рип

pun рипі рипі Грипа рипа punā punā punī pun

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* An anomalous form of the 2d pret. of the root vid, “to know,” is sometimes used for the present. Thus, sing. veda, vettha, veda ; dual vidwa, vidathuh, vidatuh ; plur. vidma, vida, viduh. Cf. (as noticed by Bopp, Comp. Gr. Prof. Eastwick's translation) the Greek oida or Foiða from the root Fid, also used with a present signification. Cf. also vidmah with iðuev, vittha with 'ote, and viddhi with Yo O..

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