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Rules.for the Reduplication of an Imitial Pouel. If a root begin with a vowel this wowel is not reduplicated, only coalescing with the augment a according to the rule, p. 64. ; but the reduplicated form of the final consonant, with the vowel i, is inserted between the augment and vowel thus coalescing, and the final consonant. Thus the root oksh makes ichiksh p. 75. b. (achisham, ४c) ; ar, arjih; āp, apin ; id(दैद्), aidid; al), agjih ; ridh, ardidh.
The Bemedictioe and C0mditiomal 0f Cau8als. 110. The base of these tenses does not differ from that of the non-conjugational tenses ; dy is retained, and after it the inserted i invariably aSSumed ; excepting in the benedictive paras., where both ay and i are rejected. Thus, from budh, the bases bodh, bodhdji, abodhag/i (bodhāyāsam, &c. ; bodhdyishi/d, Ac. ; abodhdg/iंliyam, &c.),
Every root in the language may take a passive form. It is o form, however, little used, except in the 3d person sing. and plural of the present and imperative ; for although a passive construction is exceedingly common in Sanscrit syntax, yet almost all the tenses of the passive verb are expressed by participles.
Our reasons for denominating the passive a distinct derivative from the root rather than a voice of the primitive, and for considering that the 4th conjugation of primitives results from the occasional assumption of a parasmaipada form* by this passive verb, have been already given" (see pp. 58. 62.),
I11. Passive verbs are conjugated with the regular ātmanepada
bases, Gopiyy from pā/ (pā, “ to drink”); atishthip from stkāp (sthā, “ to staud") ; odhydjigap from odhyāp (i, “ to go,” with adhi) ; djighrip from ghrāp. * The 4th conjugation can hardly be said to possess an ātmanepada ; or if sox then its atmanepada is identical with the passive. And it seems probable that those ātmanepada verbs, Such as pad, “ to go,” and badh, “ to know," which are placed omder the 4th conjugation, are in reality passive verbs; at any rate, the forms given for their 8d preterites (opādi, abodhi) can only bolong to passives. * That the passive does occasionally take the terminations of the parasmaipada is corroborated by Bopp, who gives several instances ; as, chhidjet for ch"idye’6Other instances,
Nal. xiv. 6. ; mokshgfasi for mokshyase, “ thou shalt be liberatedi.
inflections ; that is, in the conjugational tenses they conform to the scheme for the ātm. at p. 03., and in the non-conjugational tenses to the general Schemes at p. 73., p. 8I., and p. 84. In the third preterite they take the first two forms (p. 81.) according as the root may admit the inserted i or not ; but reguire that, in the 3d pers. sing. of both forms, the termination be invariably i (ड्) in place of ishta and sta.
The base of this tense in the passive verb is identical with that of all primitive verbs. The bases, therefore, as formed at p. 74., will serve egually well for the 2d preterite of the passive, provided only that they be restricted to the ātmanepada inflection.
The First and Second Fature 0f Passioes.
113. In these and the remaining tenses no variation can occur
from the bases of the Same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the insertion of a may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first changed to its Wriddhi subStitute. Thus, from chā, to gather," may come the base of the Ist and 2d fut. pass. chāyi (chāyitāhe, &c., chāyis//e, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che (cherāhe, &c., cheskye, &c.). Similarly from hu and Kri may come hāci and Karā (hācitāhe, kāritāhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and 76ar. In like manner i may be inserted when the root ends in long ā, provided that, instead of a change to Wriddhi (which is impossible), / be interposed between the final a and inserted i. Thus, from da, “ to give," may come the base of the fut. pass. dāyi (dāyitāhe, &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is dā (datāhe, &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetāhe or chāyitāhe may egually stand for the lst fut. pass.* In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive," the inflection being that of the ātm.
'The Third Preterite of Passices.
I14. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the r00t ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion ofi may take place, although forbidden in the primitive, provided the final of the root be changed to Wriddhi. Thus, from chi may come the base of the 8d pret. pass, achdyi (achājishi, &c.,form I. p. 81.) although the base in the ātm. of the primitive is ache (acheshi, &c., form 2.). So also, from hu and kri may come dhāti and akāri (ahātishi, akārishi, form I.), although the bases in the ātm. of the primitive are dho and akri (alloshi, akrishi, form 2.). Again, i may be inserted when the r00t ends in long d, prowided that / be interposed between final a and inserted i. Thus, from da may come addiyi (adāyighi, &c.), although the base in the ātm. of the primitive is adi (adishi, &c.)
But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achāyishi or acheshi), except in the 8d pers.sing. where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the base, as formed by Wriddhi and the inserted i, must always stand alone ; thus, achāyi, “it was gathered''; ahāri, “ it was sacrificed''; akāri, **it was done"; adāyi, “ it was.given." If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 8d pret. pass. will always be identical with that of the 8d pret. ātm.of the primitive, except in the 8d pers. sing., where ? (ड्) being substituted for the terminations ishta of the Ist form and sta of the 2d form, invariably reguires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other medial wowel.* Hence, from tam, the form of the Ist, 2d, and 8d sing. 8d pret. will be atanishi, atamishthāh, atāni ; from kship, akshipsi, akshipthāh, akshepi ; from trid, apedighi, acedighthāh, atedi. This 8d pers, Sing. of the 8d pret. passive is not unfreguently found, even in the simplest writings.
The Bemedictitle and Comditiomal of Passines. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending in wowels as in the last; that is, the insertion of i is allowed, prowided that, before it, Wriddhi take place in a final wowel capable of such a change, and / be interposed after final G. Thus, from chi may come the bases chāyi and achāyi (chāyishāga, adhāyishg/e) ; from hu, hātri and ahaui; from kri, kāri and akāri ; from da, dāyi and adtiyi. But cheshiya, acheghge, hoshiya, ahoshye, &c., the forms belonging to
the atm. of the primitive, are egually admissible in the passive.
Passice Infinitioe Mood. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanscrit distinct in form from the active. But although the affix tum has generally an active, it is capable of a passive sense, when.joined with certain verbs, ospecially with shak, “ to be able:" In the Hitopa
desha it is also used passively, in connection with the participles arabdha and mirāpita.
* This rests on the authority of Panini, the Siddhānta kaumudi, and the Bhatti kāvya (15. 64, 65.).
INFLECTION OF THE BASE OF REGULAR AND IRREGUIAR PRIMITIWES, 0R WERBS 0F THE FIRST NINB CON.JU0%ATI0NS,
तन् tan, “ to stretch," of the 8th; and पू pā, “ to purify," of the 9th. In this page is exhibited the inflection in the conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called regular ; the base, which is always the same throughout all the persons, being to the left of the terminations. In the two pages which follow this, is exhibited the inflection in the conjugational tenses of those primitives which we have called irregular ; the base, which varies in different persons, being aboue the terminations. After this, all distinction of conjugation is done away, and in the pages which। Succeed, the inflection of the nine roots in the non-conjugational tenses of the primitive, and in the causal and passive, is exhibited, one below the other, in regular order.
| PRESTENT. Ist PRETERITE. POTENTIAL. IM PERATIV E.
। R00T. BASB. PAR. ATMT. BASE. PAR. ATIM_ 1BASTE. PAR.. ATM. 1BASTE_ PA.R._ AT1M.
। S. TO. P. S. D. P. S. D. P. S. D. P. S, D. P. S. ID, P. S. D. P. S. D. P.
। āmā e 017/] 69 eydm eyd āni di।
। dsi dse dh athāh eh ethāh। 6।, 0,S100,
| dti dte = | dt dtoः et etd (Itu dtām
| l. Budh|bodh ( auah arahe I. dbodh | aud auahi। I. b0dh | eud etrahi। 1. bodh | aud atyahoti।
| 4. Nrit |mrity) athal ethe 4. dnrity ( atam ethām 4. mrity )etam eyāthām 4. mrit/ \atam ethām
। 6. Dish |dish | dtah ete 6. odish ( atām etām 6. dish। | etām eg/ātām 6. dish ( atām etām