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OB8. The initial Sibilant, in the terminations of both these tenses, almost always takes the cerebral form sh.
Formation of the Base 0f the Bemedictiue or Precatice. 104, In forming the base of this tense the parasmaipada newer admits inserted i, but those roots which take inserted i in the futures (See p. 79.) take it also in the ātmanepada of this tense ; as from bhā, “ to be,'' the two bases bha and bhaci। (भूयासं Ghāyasam, &c., भविषीय bharishiya, &c.).
BENEDICTIWF.-OONIDITIONAL.-INFINITIW B. 85
a, If a root end in a, this wowel is changed to e in the par.; as, from dā,de (देयासं deyāsam, &c.), but not in the itm. (दासीय dasiya, &c.). _ b. Ifin i or u, these wowels are lengthened in the par. ; as, from chi, chā ; from hu, h7 (chiyāsam, &c., hiiyāsam, Ac.), and changed to Guna in the ātm. (cheshija, hoshiya). Similarly हे and वे (हूयासं, ञ्जयार्स). c. Ifin चतृ ?’i, this vowel ischanged to Uिri in the par.,but retained in the ātm.; thus, from वृ, the bases क्रि and कृ (क्रियासं, कृषीय) After a double consonant ri becomes or in the par. As also before inserted i (staryāsam, starishāya from stri). d, Ifin चमूं ?ं, this wowel is changed to ir, in both woices ; as, from तॄ the base तीर् (tiryāsam, tirshiya) ; but before inserted i in the ātm. to ar (tarishāya or tarāshāja). e. If in a consonant, there is no change in the par., and no change in the ātm., unless the root take the inserted i, when Guna is reguired ; as, from budh the bases budh and bodhi (budhyāsam, Godhishiyu) ; from duish, the base dicish (duishyāsam, duikshi/a). But in the par. cortain roots undergo changes analogous to those in the 2d pret. (r. 99. d.Jr) and in the passive (r. I12. d..f). Thus, from grall, grikytisam, Goc. ; from pach, ucha/tisum, & c. ; from suup, supyāsam ; from gdj, ā7a/tisdm, &’c. It is to be remarked of this tense, that the changes of the base before the y of the par. terminations are analogous to thosebefore the ?/ which is the Sign of neuter and passive verbs (r. 89. l12.). Observe, more0ver, that the terminations resemble those of the potential ofirregular primitives (p. 66.) ; the only difference being, that in most cases a sibilant, and in some, two sibilants, are either prefixed or inserted. Formatiom of the Base of the Comditional. 105. This tense, in its formation, lies half way between the first preterite and the second future. It resembles the Ist pret. in prefixing the augment a to the base, and in the latter part of its terminations : it resembles the second future in inserting i in exactly those roots in which the future inserts i, and in the first part of its terminations. Thus, from budh comes the base abodhi (अबोधिष्यं abodhishyam, &c.) ; from kship, the base akshep (अक्षेप्स्यं ukshepsyum, &’c.).
IN FINITIWE MOOD.
Formatiom 0f the base. 106. The base of the’ infinitive is identical with the base of the first future, and where one inserts i, the other does also. Thus from Dud/, ८odhā (बोधितुं bodhitam); from Kship kshep (क्षेमुं ksheptum), Moreover, all the rules for the change of the final consonant of a root before the f of the future terminations apply e५ually before the t of the infinitive. Hence, by substituting an for the final a of the 3d pers. sing. of the Ist future, the infinitive is at once obtained. See p. 50. Thus, ८yakta, tyaktum; prashta, prashtum (प्रष्टुं); sodia, sodhum (सोढुं) &c. &c.
CAUSALS, OR WERBS OF THE 10rm CON.JUGATION.
I07. Every root in the language may, in theory, take what is called a causal form ; and, moreover, practically, this is a most useful form of the root, that may be used to give either a causal or active sense to a primitive verb. Thus the primitive verb ८odhati, “ he knows,' becomes in the Causal बोधयति Dodhayati, “ he causes to know,' or “ informs"; and the primitive kshub/kyati, “ he is shaken,'' becomes kshobhayati, “ he shakes." This form, also, may sometimes give the sense of allowing or permitting, as /lārayati, “ he allows to take ''; ?māshayati, “ he Suffers to perish."
The Terminatioms 0f Causals.
a. These, in the conjugational tenses, are precisely those of regular primitive verbs, p. 63. Of the non-conjugational tenses, the second preterite necessarily conforms to the general scheme in its terminations, inasmuch as the tense itSelf reSults from the annexation of the 2d preterite of some one of the auxiliaries । as, Ghil or Kri, to a particular form of the causal base. In the two futures, the bemedictive and conditional, the terminations are precisely those of the general Scheme. In the third preterite they are those of the third form (p. 8l.),
Formatiom 0f the Base of Causals.
८. The first Step in the formation of the base is the addition of ay to the root ; and this affix is retained throughout all the tenses, conjugational and non-conjugational, excepting only the third preterite, and excepting the benedictive par.
JWon-conjagational Temses. The changes of the root reguisite to form the base of the conjugational tenses are continued in all of these, the ay only being rejected in the 3d pret. and in the benedictive parasmai.
Second Prederite 0f Caasals. I08. The second preterite is formed (according to r. 99. g) by adding am to the base of the conjugational tenses, and affixing to this the Second preterite of SOme one of the auxiliaries as, bhā
# It may be guestionod whether bh7 is ever found added to causals.
T/e First and Second Fature 0f Causals.
In these tenses the inserted i is invariably assumed between the base, as formed in the conjugational tenses, and the usual terminations. Thus, from Dad/, bodhayi (Godhdyitāsmi, &c. ; bod/ayishyāmi, &c),
The Third Preterite of Causals.
109. In the formation of the base of this tense, the affix a।/ is rejected ; but any other change that may take place in the conjugational tenses, Such as the insertion of p or ?/, is preserved. The base is a reduplicated form of this change, and to this reduplication the augment a is prefixed. Thus, taking the bases bodhay and.jāpog/ (caus. bases of budh, “ to know,” and.ji, “ to conguer"), and rejecting dy, we have bodh and.jip ; and from these are formed the bases of the 8d pret., ababudh and gjijap (स्रब्रुबुधं abibudham, &c.) अजीजपं djijapum, & c., cf the Greek pluperfect). The rule for this reduplication is as follows:-The initial consonant of the root, with its wowel, are reduplicated, and the reduplicated consonant follows the rules given at r. 99. ; but the reduplication of the wowel is peculiar.
Rules.fbr the Reduplicatiom of the Wouel of the Imitial Comsomamt.
Causal bases, after rejecting dj), will end either in di/, āp, ār, or a cons0nant preceded by a, ā, e, o, or ar. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these vowels except o, is i. But u is reduplicated for o, and sometimes als0 for in, In general, this reduplicated wowel is made long, and to compensate for this, the long wowel of the causal base Shortened, or, ifit be Guna, changed t0 its cognate Short wowel. Thus, the causal base māy (from mi, rejecting dg/) makes the base of the 8d pret. amonag/ (aminajam, &c.) ; the causal base bhdu (from bhii) makes abibhat; ; the causal base kār (from kri), achikar ; gum (from gam), djigam ; pāch (from pach), apāpach ; pā! (from pā), apipal ; oed (from trid), ariuids oart (from urit), auiurit. But bodh। (from budh), abibudh; and sā" (from su), asishat). Sometimes the reduplicated vowel is only long by p0sition before two consonants, the radical wowel being still made short ; as, shrāt) (from shru) makes ashushrat; ; drāt) (from dru), adudrao ; Bhrāj, abibhraj. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the wowel of the cau8al base, which must be long either by nature or p0sition, remains unchanged. Thus, the causal base.jip (from.ji) may make gjijio ; chint, achāchint; kalp, achikalp. In Such cases a may be reduplicated for a or ā ; as, laksh
makes alalaksh s ?/āch, dg/dg/dich s oart (from orit) abuoart, & c.f
f The following bases of the 8d preterite are formed anomalously from causal