Imatges de pàgina
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FIRST AND SECOND FUTURE. 79

2d future to be kshepsyāmā ; the 3d pret. to be akshaipsam ; the ātm. of the benedictive, kshipsāya ; the conditional, akshepsyam ; the infinitive, ksheptum ; the passive past participle, kshipta ; the indeclinable part. ksheptioā; the future part. %sheptatya ; the noun of agency, ksheptri ; the 2d pers. sing. of the 2d pret. optionally chiksheptha ; the desiderative, chikshipsami. On the other hand, taking the root yāch, “ to ask," and finding the lst future to be 3/āchitā, he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the Same parts of the verb will be yāchis//āmi, ayāchisham, ?/āchishāya, dyāchi8//am, 3/tichitum, /tichita, /āchiticā, /āchitatya, /āchitri, /ayāchitha, /dyāchishāmi respectively. It is evident that roots ending in vowels do not reguire i, and it may be taken as a general rule that they do not insert it : ’ there are only a few exceptions, as follows :

I0]. Boots ending in 70pels, inserting i in the Primitice.

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e. All roots in a reject i ; as, da (data, disyati): all common roots in i and o ; as, je (jeta, jeskyati),

। f All common roots in a ; as, shra (shrota, shroskyati): all in ri reject i in the lst future ; as, ड् /ri (/kartā, harislyati),

102. Boots ending in Consomants, rejecting i in the Primitice.

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OBs. By reason of r.80. (with note) the initial sibilant almost always takes the cerebral form sh.

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This complex and “ multiform” tense, the most troublesome and intricate in the whole Sanscrit werb, is not S0 much one tense, as an aggregation of Seweral tenses, all more or less allied to each other, all bearing a manifest resemblance to the first;

preterite, but mone of them exactly assignable to that tense, and none of them S0 distinct in its character or S0 universal in its application as to admit of segregation

from the general group, under any Separate title ofits own.

Fortunately for the study of Sanscrit, the third preterite very rarely occurs in the earlier and better Specimens of Hindu composition ; and the student who contents himself with the Rāmāyana, Mahābhārata, Hitopadesha, and Laws of Manu, and av0ids the grammatical Poem of Bhatti, and the extrawagant writings of more modern authors, will lose nothing by an almost total ignorance of this tense, or, at least, may satisfy himself with a very cursory Survey of its character and functions.

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All the varieties of this tense are reducible to three distinct forms, adapted to the three Schemes of terminations given in the table above. The first form is that which belongs to those roots which insert i before the terminations of the non-conjugational tenses : the second belongs to th0se which reject i : and the third, which most nearly approximates to the Ist pret., belongs, in the first place, to certain r00ts, wh0Se bases in the first pret.present some important variation from the root ; in the second, to certain r00ts ending in श् sh, म्ि &h, or ह्। h, which have i, 1८, Or ri। for their radical wowel ; and, in the third, to causals, or verbs of the I0th conjugation.

In all the modifications of this tense, the first step in the formation of the base is the prefixing of the augment a, a further indication of its community of character with the first preterite. But besides this there are changes of the base peculiar to each form.

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e. The greater number of r00ts rejecting i follow this form.

Observe that the initial s may often be rejected from those terminations in which it is compounded with t, th. This takes place when the base ends in any Consonant except a nasal or a Semi-wowel, or in any short wowel; and dhuram (द्वं) takes the place of dhulam when the base ends in any other wowel than (Z.

.f If a root end in either a consonant or a vowel, Wriddhi takes place in the par. ; as, from kri, akair (अकार्षे akārsham, &c.), from gngj, agagj (स्रयीं agaukshdm, &e.} dual ajauksliua, agauktam, &c.) ; from ?’udh (arautsam, &c., dual arautsua,

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Form 8.* Formatiom of the Base. h. Roots of any conjugation, making use of this form, in general attach the terminations directly to the root : thus, from gam, agam (agamam, &c.) ; from bhid, abhid (अभिदं abhidam, &c.). And no confusion can arise from this apparent identity with the Ist pret., as in all cases where these terminations are used for the 8d pret., the Ist pret. presents Some difference in the form of its base ; as in agnchchham, abhinadam. So again, the sixth conjugation, which alone can ever shew a perfect identity of root and base, newer makes use of this form for its 8d pret., unless by some special rule the base of its Ist pret. is made to differ from the root. Thus, lip, “ to smear' (cf. dAe{pa), which is alipam in the 8d pret., is alimpam in the first. i. Certain roots ending in long wowels, as da, ** to give,'f make use of the terminations of this form, but reject the initial wowel throughout (adām, adah, adat ; dual, adāpa ; 8d pl. aduh s atm. adishi, &c., form 2.t). So bha, “ to be,” except in the Istsing. and 8d plur. (अभूर्वं abhiiuam, abhill, &c. ; 8d plur. abhāuam ; in the ātm. abhaoishi, &c. form 2.).j. The roots cach, “ to speak,"and pat, “ to fall,” follow this form ; but, in contradistinction to the Ist pret., make their bases atioch, apapt (atrocham, apaptam, of. drrrrov). As, “ to throw,' makes isth s shās, ashish s nash, amesh. k. Certain roots ending in शत् sh, म् िsh, ह् h, inclosing a medial i, u, or ri, form their 3d pret. according to this third Scheme; but whenewer confusion is likely to arise

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