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Guna, the reduplicated i becomes iy before e (iyesha), and uv before o (uvokha). If a root ending in a double consonant begin with a, or, ending in a single consonant, begin with ri, the reduplicated syllable is an: thus, , 3d sing. of ; ānardha, of ṛidh. The root is in the sing. iyāya, iyayitha, &c., dual iyiva, &c.
Anomalous Modes of forming the Second Preterite.
There are many anomalous ways of forming the base of the 2d pret.
a. Roots ending in ā (as, dā, "to give"; sthā, "to stand"; yā, "to go," &c.) drop the a before all the terminations, except tha, and substitute au for that of the 1st and 3d sing. par. Hence, the bases dad, tasth, yay ( ì tasthau, yayau; dual, dadiva, tasthiva, yayiva). Similarly roots in ai, as gai (jagau). b. Roots ending in the vowel ri, in accordance with r. 98, change ṛi to ār in the 1st and 3d sing., and to ar in the 2d sing., and before the other terminations retain the vowel ri changeable to r; but roots in which ri is preceded by a double consonant, and most roots in long rī, instead of retaining this vowel, change it to ar in the dual and plur. par., and consequently throughout the atm. Thus, from smri, sing. sasmāra, sasmaritha, sasmāra, dual sasmariva, &c.; ātm. sasmare, &c.
c. Roots beginning with any consonant, and ending with a single consonant, and inclosing a short a, lengthen the a in the 1st and 3d sing. : as, from pach, "to cook," papāch; from tyaj, "to quit," tatyāj (tatyāja, tatyajitha, tatyāja, tatyajiva, &c.). Moreover, before itha and in the dual and plur. par., and all the persons of the atm., if the initial as well as the final consonant of the root be single, the a is changed to e, and, to compensate for this, the reduplication suppressed. Thus, from pach come the two bases papāch and pech (papacha, pechitha or papaktha, papacha, pechiva; ātm. peche, &c.); from labh, ātm. "to obtain" (cf. λaußavo, èλaßov), the base lebh throughout (lebhe, lebhishe, lebhe, lebhivahe, &c.).*
d. Roots of this last kind, that require a substituted consonant in the reduplication, are excepted from the rule (but not bhaj and phal). So, also, certain roots beginning with v are excepted. These require that the reduplicated syllable be u, or the corresponding vowel of the semi-vowel, and change va of the root to u before every termination, except those of the sing. par., the two u's then blending into one long one. Thus, from vach," to speak," come the two bases uvāch and ūch (uvācha, ūchatuh, ūchuh). A similar rule is applied in yaj, “to sacrifice” (iyāja, ījatuh, ijuh).
* The roots trap, and grath, and shrath, and ♬, “to pass” (tatāru, teratuh, teruh, as if the root were tar), and bhram, swan, rāj, rādh, bhrāj (bhreje, bhrejāte, bhrejire), bhrūsh, and vam may follow this rule, although not answering the above conditions.
e. Gam, "to go"; han, "to kill" (which forms its 2d pret. as if the root were ghan); jan, "to be born"; and khan, "to dig"; drop the medial a before all the terminations except those of the sing. par. Hence, from gam come the two bases jagām, jagm (jagāma, jagmatuh, jagmuh).
f. मह्, “ to siege,” and प्रच्छ्, “to ask,” make their bases जमाह् and जगृह, पप्रच्छ् and पपृच्छ् (जयाह, जगृहतुः, जगृहु:); स्वप्, “to sleep,” makes सुष्वाप् and सुषुप्; ,"to call," forms its base like roots in u (juhāva, juhuvatuh, juhuvuh); fa, "to conquer," forms its base as if from gi (jigāya, jigyatuh, &c.).
g. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by nature or position,* and all roots of more than one syllable, form their bases by adding am to the root, and affixing the 2d pret. of some one of the auxiliaries, as, “to be”; bhū, “to become"; ų kṛi, “to do.” Thus, from ईश् comes the base ईशां (ईशामास, or ईशाम्बभूव, or ईशाचकार ).
100. The First and Second Future.
The first future (as noticed by Bopp) results from the union of the nom. case of the noun of agency (formed with the affix ą tri, r. 41.) with the present tense of the verb, as, “to be.” Thus, taking dātri, “a giver" (declined p. 37.), and combining its nom. case with asmi and he, we have dātāsmi and dātāhe, “ I am a giver," identical with the 1st pers. sing. par. and ātm. of the 1st fut., “I will give." So also dātāsi and dātāse, "thou art a giver," or "thou wilt give." In the 1st and 2d persons dual and plur. the sing. of the noun is joined with the dual and plur. of the auxiliary. In the 3d person the auxiliary is omitted, and the 3d pers. sing. dual and plur. of the 1st future in both voices is then identical with the nom. case sing. dual and plur. of the noun of agency. Thus, dātā, a giver," or "he will give "; dātārau, “two givers," or "they two will give," &c.†
The second future, in its terminations, stands in close relationship with the present tense, the only difference being that sy prefixed.
* Except ap, "to obtain,” and roots having an initial a before two consonants.
† The future signification inherent in the noun of agency dātā, seems implied in Latin by the relation of dator to daturus.
The invariable rule for the formation of the base of both future tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root*: thus, from ji, “to conquer," the base je (jetūsmi, jeṣhyāmi); from shru, "to hear," the base shro (f, unfa). And the general rule, moreover, is, that if the root end in a consonant, the vowel i be inserted between the base and terminations. Thus, from budh comes the base bodhi ( वोधितास्मि bodhitāsmi, &c. ; बोधिष्यामि bodhiṣhyāmi, &c.). This insertion of i, the manifest object of which is to prevent the coalition of consonants, is unfortunately, however, forbidden in about one hundred roots, some of which are of very common occurrence; and the combination of the radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations, will require an acquaintance with the rules already laid down at p. 67. When these rules are acquired, there will be no difficulty in the formation of these tenses. The only question is, how are we to distinguish between those roots which insert i, and those which do not?
The laws about to be laid down will determine this point, and it is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed towards them, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not confined to the two futures, but extends to many other parts of the verb; insomuch, that if the first future reject i, it is, as a necessary consequence, rejected in the third preterite, the atm. of the benedictive, the conditional, the infinitive mood, the passive past participle, the indeclinable past participle, the future participle formed with the affix tavya, and the noun of agency formed with the affix tri; and is, moreover, optionally rejected in the 2d pers. sing. of the 2d pret., and decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by s instead of ish. So that the learner, if he know the first future, will pass on with great ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and should always look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, "to throw," and finding the 1st fut. to be ksheptāsmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore he knows the
* Unless such substitution be forbidden according to r. 88. a.
2d future to be kshepsyāmi; the 3d pret. to be akshaipsam; the atm. of the benedictive, kshipsiya; the conditional, akshepsyam; the infinitive, ksheptum; the passive past participle, kshipta; the indeclinable part. ksheptwā; the future part. ksheptavya; the noun of agency, ksheptri; the 2d pers. sing. of the 2d pret. optionally chiksheptha; the desiderative, chikshipsāmi. On the other hand, taking the root yāch, “to ask," and finding the 1st future to be yāchitā, he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be yāchiṣhyāmi, ayāchiṣham, yāchiṣhīya, ayāchiṣhyam, yāchitum, yāchita, yāchitwā, yāchitavya, yāchitṛi, yayāchitha, yayāchishūmi, respectively.
It is evident that roots ending in vowels do not require i, and it may be taken as a general rule that they do not insert it: there are only a few exceptions, as follows:
101. Roots ending in Vowels, inserting i in the Primitive. OBS. In the following lists the 3d pers. sing. of the 1st and 2d future is given after each root.
a. Roots ending in ū; as, bhū, “to be" (bhavitā, bhaviṣhyati). b. Roots ending in ṛī; as, trī, “to pass" (taritā, tariṣhyati): and in these, inserted i is optionally lengthened (tarītā, tarīṣhyati). c. Roots ending in ri short insert i in the 2d future, although rejecting it in the first; (kariṣhyāmi), ☎ (hariṣhyāmi).
Roots ending in Consonants, inserting i in the Primitive.
d. All roots, without exception, ending in kh, g, gh, t, th, d, n, t, th, b, y, r, l, v, insert i; in k there is one exception; in ch, four; in chh, one; in j, ten common exceptions; in d, eight; in dh, eleven; in n, two; in p, twelve; in bh, three; in m, five; in sh, seven; in sh, nine; in s, one; inh, twelve. ч
Roots ending in Vowels, rejecting i in the Primitive.
e. All roots in ā reject i; as, dā (dāta, dāsyati): all common roots in i and; as, je (jeta, jeshyati).
f. All common roots in u; as, shru (shrotā, shroṣhyati): all in ri rejecti in the 1st future; as,hri (hartā, hariṣhyati).
102. Roots ending in Consonants, rejecting i in the Primitive.
(shaktā, shakshyati, r. 91.).
Of roots ending in K, pach (paktā, pakshyati), so vach; sich (sektā, sekshyati), much (moktā, mokshyati). In CHH, (prashṭā, r. 91., prakshyati).
J, tyaj (tyaktā, tyakshyati), so bhaj; yaj (yaṣhṭā, r. 91., yakshyati); (f), so also bhanj, sanj; yuj (yoktā, yokshyati), so bhuj; ya srij* (azı, aœfa); π (mārṣhṭā‚† mārkshyati). In D, ad (attā, सृज् (स्रष्टा, स्रक्ष्यति); मृज् atsyati), so pad, sad; bhid (bhetta, bhetsyati), so chhid, khid; tud (tottā, totsyati), so nud. In DH, bandh (banddhā, r. 91. a., bhantsyati, r. 91. b.), vyadh (vyaddhā, vyatsyati), sādh (sāddhā, sātsyati), so rādh; sidh (seddhā, setsyati), budh,† 4th conj. (boddhā, bhotsyate, r. 91. b.); yudh (yoddhā, yotsyate); so rudh, krudh, kshudh, shudh. In N, man (mantā, mansyatė), han (hantā, but haniṣhyati). In P, tap (tapta, tapsyati), so rap, shap, swap; āp (āptā, āpsyati), kship (ksheptā, kshepsyati), so lip; lup (loptā, lopsyati); ■■ srip (sarptā or sraptū,* sarpsyati or srapsyati), so trip, drip; klrip (kalptā,† kalpsyati). In BH, labh (labdhā, r. 91, a., lapsyate, cf. λýþetai, r. 91. b.), so rabh; lubh (lobdhā,† but lobhiṣhyati). In M, gam (gantā, but gamiṣhyati), nam (nantā, nansyati), so yam; ram (rantā, ransyate), so kram.† In श् SH, dansh (jel, ¿æfa), vish (det, r. 91. c., àæfa, r. 91. e.), so dish; I drish (ger,* fa), so sprish, mrish; krush ( क्रोष्टा, क्रोट्यति). In ч SH, taksh (taṣhṭā,† taksyati), iṣh (eṣhṭā,† but eşhishyati), dwiṣh (set, àœfa), so shlish, pish; dush (¿ter, ¿ìœfn); so push, shush, tush; krish (krashta* or karṣhtā, krakshyati or karkshyati). In S, vas (vastā, vatsyati). In H, dah (dagdhā, r. 91. h., dhakshyati, r. 91. i.); vah (e, г. 91. h., a being changed to o,
in), sah (, but sahishyate), nah (naddhā, natsyati, as if from nadh), gāh ( ̄‚† mad), lih (del, df), dih (degdhā, dhekshyati, r. 91. i.), snih (snegdhā,† snekshyati), ruh (det, dœfa), muh (Fi† or मोग्धा, मोक्ष्यति), duh (dogdhā, dhokshyati), druht (द्रोढा or द्रोग्धा, श्रोट्यति), gurt (गोढा, घोक्ष्यति ).
* In certain roots containing the vowel ri, the vowel passes into ra and rā, instead of the Guna ar or Vṛiddhi ār. Thus, the 1st future of srij is y, for Ħet; and the 3d pret. अस्राक्षं for असा.
† All these roots may optionally take i in the futures.