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FORMATION OP THE BASE OP THE NON-CONJUGATIONAI, TENSES•
98. The first step in the formation of the base of this tense is the reduplication of the initial consonant of the root with its vowel, or of the initial vowel : thus, from Uudh, “ to know,' bubud/ ; and if the root end in a consonant, the radical vowel takes Guna before the terminations of the sing. par., but before all the other terminations reverts to its original form ; hence, the two bases 0abodh, bubudh (Gubodha, bubodhitha, Uubodha, dual Gubudhica, 0ubudhathuh, &c., ātm. bubudhe, &c.) : if in a vowel, this vowel takes Wriddhi in the lst* and 3d sing. par., and Guna in the 2d, and before all the other terminations, both par. and ātm., reverts to its original form : thus, from mā, “ to lead,' the bases minai, mine, nini (aināya, r. S., ninayillia r. I0. or minetha, nināya, ninyica" ninyatha/), &e., ātm. minye, &e); so also from Kri, the bases chakār, chakar, chakri, (chakāra, chakartha, dual chakrica); and from d/ā, the bases dudhau, dudho, but in dual, plur. &c. dadhu्' (dudhāra, r. 8., dudharitha r. l0. Or dad/0//a, dadhāpa, dud/iatrictt, &c., ātm. dudhure, &c.). Bhā, “ to be," is anomalous, making its base babhāp before all the terminations.
Observe, that all the terminations of this tense begin with vowels. It is indicated, hOwever, in the Scheme, that an initial i is SOmetimes rejected in the 2d pers. sing. This i may be optionally rejected in those roots only in which (as we shall afterwards see)
tion of r. 2I., and according to the same rule, kri, “ to buy,” 9th conj., makes its bases krānā, krini, kri a (क्रीणाति, क्रीणीत:, क्रीणन्ति). * All Grammarians assert that there is an optional change to Guna in the Ist pers., but this is never found. f IBy a Special rule, the ? of the base is here changed to the Semi-vowel instead of following r. 4. But r00ts ending in i or ?, of which the initial consonant is double, change i or ? to i/ before these same vowel terminations, that is,before all excepting the sing. par. ; hence, from श्रि come the three bases shishrai, shishre, and shishri/. ! 4// roots ending in a८ or i change ad or ? to au before these vowel torminations ;
excepting, of course, the r00ts श्रु, तु, दुः, खुः, in the persons marked with *.
SECOND PRETERIT R. 76
it is necessarily rejected in the futures.* In the other persons the i marked with * is retained in every root in the language, except eight, viZ. कृ, “ to do `; भृ, “ to bear "; श्रु, “ to hear "; स्तु, “ to praise," मृ, “ to go," &c., all ending in vowels. Hence it happens that consonants can never Come into coalition, except in the 2d pers. sing. of this tense. Its formation, therefore, is not attended with any difficulties of consonantal combination. There are certain rules, however, to be acguired, relative to the reduplication of an initial COnsomant with its vOwel, and an initial vowel. With। regard to the vowel belonging to the initial consonant, a is reduplicated for a, ā, ri, or ?? ; । for i, ?, or e ; a for a, ā, or o : as, from dā, dadaa८ ; from tri, datāra ; from sep, si8/teca ; from pā, pap7co.
from u and ukh : but in the sing. of the last two cases, the radical i or m/ taking
# * Thus, pach, “ to cook,' forbids i in the future ; therefore the 2d sing. is oither
popakthd or pechitha. So also m?, ** to load,' minnyithd or mimethor, as above. f So in the Greek, T60aTrat from 0aTrra) ; Trejot?\jka from ptAca. # Grammarians assert that the short d is optionally retained in the first porson.
Guna, the reduplicated i becomes iy before e (iyesha), and uu before o (uookha). If a r00t ending in a d0uble consonant hegin with a, or, ending in a Single consonant, begin with ri, the reduplicated syllable is am : thus, स्रानर्चे, 8d sing. of अर्चे ; ānardha, ofridh. The root इ i is in the sing. iyāya, iyayitha, &c., dual छृ/ica, &c. Am0malous Modes of forming the Second Preterite. There are many anomalous ways of forming the base of the 2d pret. a. Roots ending in a (as, da, “ to give'; sthā, “ to stand'; /ti, “ to go,' &c.) drop the a before all the terminations, except tha, and Substitute au for that of the Ist and 8d sing. par. Hence, the bases dad, tasth, /dg/ (ददी dadau, तस्यौ tasthau, ययो 9ayaus dual, dadica, tasthira, gayira). Similarly roots in ai, as gai (jugau)b. R00ts ending in the vowel ri, in accordance with r. 98, change ri to dir in the 1st and 8d Sing., and to ar in the 2d Sing., and before the other terminations retain the vowel ri changeable to ?” ; but roots in which ?”i is preceded by a double conSonant, and m0st r0ots in long ri, instead of retaining this vowel, change it to dr in the dual and plur. par., and conseguently throughout the ātm. Thus, from smri, sing- susmāra, sasmaritha, sasmdra, dual susmarica, &c. ; ātm. sasmare, & c. c. Roots beginning with any consonant, and ending with a Single consonant, and inclosing a Short d, lengthen the d in the lst and 8d Sing. : as, from pach, “ to cook,'' pupāch s from t/tij, “ to guit,' tatyāj (tatyāju, tatydjitha, tatyāja, tati/gjipa, &c.). Moreower, before itlla and in the dual and plur. par., and all the pers0ns of the atm., if the initial as well as the final consonant of the root be Single, the a is changed to e, and, to compensate for this, the reduplication Suppressed. Thus, from pach come the two bases puptich and pech (papāchd, pechithd or papaktha,pdpāclud, pechioo८; ātm. peche, &c.); from labh, ātm. “ to obtain '' (cf. ?\aa3avo, dAd/3ov), the base lebh throughout (lebhe, lebhishe, lebhe, lebhiuahe, &c.).* d, Roots of this last kind, that reguire a substituted consonant in the reduplication, are excepted from the rule (but not bhdj and phal). So, also, certain roots beginning with g are excepted. These reguire that the reduplicated syllable be a, or the correSponding vowel of the Semi-vowel, and change od of the root to u before every termination, except those of the Sing. par., the two u's then blending into one long one. Thus, from oacll, “ to speak,'' come the two bases upāch and icl (uoacha,
Uhrāsh, and pam may follow this rule, although not answering the above conditions.
The first future (as noticed by Bopp) results from the union of the nom. case of the noun of agency (formed with the affix तृ tri, r. 4l.) with the present tense of the verb, as, “ to be.' Thus, taking datri, “a giver '' (declined P. 37.), and combining its nom. case with asmi and he, we have datāsmi and datahe, “ I am a giver," identical with the lst perS. Sing. par. and ātm. of the lst fut., “ I will give." So also datāsi and datāse, “ thou art a giver," or “ thou wilt give.' In the Ist and 2d persons dual and plur. the sing. of the noun is joined with the dual and plur. of the auxiliary. In the 3d person the auxiliary is omitted, and the 3d pers. sing. dual and plur. of the Ist future in both voices is then identical with the nom. case sing. dual and plur. of the noun of agency. Thus, data, “ a giver," or “ he will give "; datāraa, “ two givers," or “ they two will give," &c.f
The second future, in its terminations, Stands in close relationship with the present tense, the only difference being that sy is prefixed.
* Except āp, “ to obtain,'' and roots having an initial a before two consonants. f The future signification inherent in the noun of agency data, Seems implied in
Latin by the relation of dator to daturus.
The invariable rule for the formation Of the base of both future tenses is, that the Guna be Substituted for the vOwel of the root*: thus, from.ji, “ to conguer," the base.je (jetāsmi.jes/yāmi); from shra, “ to hear," the base shro (श्रोतास्मि, श्रोष्यामि). And the general rule, moreover, is, that if the root end in a comsomant, the vowel a be inserted between the base and terminations. Thus, from Dudh comes the base bodhā (वोधितास्मि ८odhātasmā, &c. ; बोधिष्यामि 00dhishyāmi, &c.). This insertion of i, the manifest object of which is to prevent the coalition of consonants, is unfortunately, however, forbidden in about One hundred roots, Some of which are of very common occurrence ; and the combination of the radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations, will reguire an acguaintance with the rules already laid down at p. 67. When these rules are acguired, there will be no difficulty in the formation of these tenses. The only guestion is, how are we to distinguish between those roots which insert i, and those which do not P
The laws about to be laid down will determine this point, and it is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed towards them, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not confined to the two futures, but extends tO many other parts of the verb ; insomuch, that if the first future reject i, it is, as a mecessary conseguence, rejected in the third preterite, the ātm. of the benedictive, the conditional, the infinitive mood, the passive past participle, the indeclinable past participle, the future participle formed with the affix tatya, and the noun of agency formed with the affix tri ; and is, moreover, optionally rejected in the 2d pers. sing. of the 2d pret., and decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by s instead of is/. So that the learner, if he know the first future, will pass on with great ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and should always look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, “ to throw," and finding the Ist fut. to be /ksheptāsmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore he knows the
* Unless such substitution be forbidden according to r. 88. a.