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Thus, from bhri, to bear," are formed the two bases bibhar and bibhri (3d sing. du. pl. bibharti, bibhritah, bibhrati, r. 7.); from hu, "to sacrifice," the two bases juho and juhu (juhoti, juhutah, juhwati, r. 7.); from bhi, "to fear," bibhe and bibhī (bibheti, bibhītah, bibhyati). The 3d conj. is the only one which invariably drops the nasal in the 3d pl. of the pres. and imp. par., and takes uh for an in the 3d pl. of the 1st pret. Before this uh Guna is required.
a., "to give," in the par. drops the à before all except the P terminations, making its base dad, changeable to dat (dadāti, dattah, dadati), and de before the hi of the imperat. Similarly, T, "to place," makes its base dadh before v, m, y, or a vowel, and dhe before hi; but dhat before t, th, or s (dadhāti, dhattah, dadhati).
94. If a root be of the 5th conjugation, the base is formed by adding nu to the root, which is converted to the Guna no before the terminations. Thus, from chi, "to gather," are formed the two bases chino and chinu* (chinoti, chinutah, chinwanti, r. 7.) In roots ending in vowels, the u of nu may be dropped before v and m. The roots ap, "to obtain ";,"to be able ";,"to satisfy "; and, "to increase "; ending in consonants, add nuv instead of nu before the vowel terminations (shaknoti, shaknutah, shaknuvanti).shru, “to hear shru, "to hear" (sometimes placed under the 1st conj.), substitutes shri for the root (quifa, r. 21., qua: quafa). Roots ending in vowels reject the termination hi of the imperative: as, shrinu, "do thou hear "; but apnuhi, "do thou obtain."
95. If a root be of the 7th conjugation, the base is formed by inserting na between the vowel and final consonant of the root, before
* This change of nu to no is supplied in the corresponding Greek affix vv, by lengthening the v, as in ζεύγνυμι, ζεύγνυμεν ; δείκνυμι, δείκνυμεν. Bopp.
† All the roots in this conjugation end in consonants.
the terminations, and n before all the other terminations. Thus, from bhid, "to divide," are formed the two bases bhinad and bhind, changeable to bhint (bhinatti, bhinttah, bhindanti); from rudh, "to restrain," runadh and rundh, changeable to rund (runaddhi, runddhah, r. 91. a., rundhanti); from hins, "to injure," hinas and hins; from bhuj, “to eat," bhunaj, changeable to bhunak, and bhunj, changeable to bhunk (r. 91.). Similarly yuj, "to join."
Bhanj, "to break," rejects its nasal before na is inserted. Hence the bases bhanaj and bhanj (bhanakti, bhun-ktah, bhanjanti).
96. The base in this conjugation is formed by the addition of u to the root, converted to the Guna o before the terminations. There are only ten roots in this conjugation, nine of which are not in common use. Moreover, these nine all end in n, and therefore the addition of o and u will have the same effect as the addition of no and nu in the 5th conjugation. Thus, tano and tanu, from tan," to extend " (1st sing. pl. tanomi, tanumah, cf. távvju, τάνυμες). But the tenth root in this class is a kri, “to do," by far the most common and useful root in the language. This root not only converts the conjugational affix u to the Guna before the terminations, but also changes the radical vowel ri to the Guna ar before these same terminations, and before the other terminations to ur (karoti, kurutah, kurvanti), and rejects the conjugational u before v, m, y (1st plur. kurmah).
97. If a root be of the 9th conjugation, the base is formed by
* Similarly, n is inserted in certain Greek and Latin roots; as, μal, μavlavo; λaß, Xaμßavw; Oly, Oiyyavw; scid, scindo; fid, findo; tag, tango; liq, linquo, &c.
The final t of the base may be dropped, bhintah; so, also, rundhah for
adding na to the root before the
terminations, and ni before all
the others, excepting those beginning with vowels, where only n is added. Thus, from pū, "to purify," are formed the three bases punā, punī, and pun (punāti, punītah, punanti). This root, with some others ending in long vowels (as, dhū, "to shake "; lū, “to cut"; "to spread "), shortens its vowel in forming the base. स्तृ "to take," makes its bases, Tent, Ten (r. 21.*); and, "to know";, anî, aug (jānāti, jānītah, jānanti).
Roots ending in consonants substitute āna for nihi, the proper termination of the 2d pers. of the imperat. As, As, गृहाण, "take thou"; and, "eat thou," from
, "to eat."
SECT. III.-PRIMITIVE VERBS OF ALL CONJUGATIONS IN THE NON-CONJUGATIONAL TENSES.
* The roots श्रु, स्तु, द्रु, खु, कृ, भृ, सृ, वृ reject the initial i from
syase syethe syadhwe
syatah syanti syate syete syante
Observe, that by reason of r. 30. (with note), the most frequent form of the terminations of the second future is shyāmi, &c.
* The letter although compounded with the nasal does not prevent the opera
FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE NON-CONJUGATIONAL TENSES.
98. The first step in the formation of the base of this tense is the reduplication of the initial consonant of the root with its vowel, or of the initial vowel: thus, from budh, "to know," bubudh ; and if the root end in a consonant, the radical vowel takes Guna before the terminations of the sing. par., but before all the other terminations reverts to its original form; hence, the two bases bubodh, bubudh (bubodha, bubodhitha, bubodha, dual bubudhiva, bubudhathuh, &c., atm. bubudhe, &c.): if in a vowel, this vowel takes Vriddhi in the 1st and 3d sing. par., and Guna in the 2d, and before all the other terminations, both par. and atm., reverts to its original form: thus, from nī, “to lead,” the bases ninai, nine, ninī (nināya, r. 8., ninayitha r. 10. or ninetha, nināya, ninyiva,† ninyathuh, &c., atm. ninye, &c.); so also from kri, the bases chakār, chakar, chakri, (chakāra, chakartha, dual chakriva); and from dhu, the bases dudhau, dudho, but in dual, plur. &c. dudhuv1 (dudhāva, r. 8., dudhavitha r. 10. or dudhotha, dudhāva, dudhuviva, &c., ātm. dudhure, &c.). Bhū, “to be," is anomalous, making its base babhūv before all the terminations.
Observe, that all the terminations of this tense begin with vowels. It is indicated, however, in the scheme, that an initial i is sometimes rejected in the 2d pers. sing. This may be optionally rejected in those roots only in which (as we shall afterwards see)
tion of r. 21., and according to the same rule, krī, "to buy," 9th conj., makes its bases krīnā, krin, kerin ( क्रीणाति, क्रीणीतः, क्रीणन्ति ).
* All Grammarians assert that there is an optional change to Guna in the 1st pers., but this is never found.
† By a special rule, the 7 of the base is here changed to the semi-vowel instead of following r. 4. But roots ending in i or i, of which the initial consonant is double, change i or i to iy before these same vowel terminations, that is, before all excepting the sing. par. hence, from fa come the three bases shishrai, shishre, and shishriy. All roots ending in u or ū change u or ū to uv before these vowel terminations; excepting, of course, the roots,,,, in the persons marked with *.
it is necessarily rejected in the futures.*
In the other persons
the i marked with * is retained in every root in the language, except eight, viz., "to do"; ч, “to bear ";,"to hear ";,"to praise," "to go, "to go," &c., all ending in vowels. Hence it happens that consonants can never come into coalition, except in the 2d pers. sing. of this tense. Its formation, therefore, is not attended with any difficulties of consonantal combination. There are certain rules, however, to be acquired, relative to the reduplication of an initial consonant with its vowel, and an initial vowel. With regard to the vowel belonging to the initial consonant, a is reduplicated for a, ā, ṛi, or ṛī; i for i, i, or e; u for u, ū, or o: as, from dā, dadau; from tri, tatāra; from sev, siṣheva; from pū, pupāva.
99. Rules for the Reduplication of an Initial Consonant.
a. If a root begin with an aspirated consonant, its corresponding unaspirated form is reduplicated; as, from bhid, bibheda (fan).†
b. If with k or kh, the reduplicated letter is ch: as, from kri, chakāra (); from khan, chakhāna (◄ET).
c. If with g, gh, or h, the reduplicated letter is j: as, from gam, jagāma; from ghrā, jaghrau (); from hṛi, jahāra (ĦEN).
d. If with a double consonant, the first only is reduplicated: as, from tyaj, tatyāja (); from kship, chikshepa (fada).
e. If with a double consonant, whose first is a sibilant and the second a hard consonant, the second only is reduplicated as, from sprish, pasparsha (); from skand, chaskanda ().
Reduplication of an Initial Vowel.
f. If a root ending in a single consonant begin with a, i, or u, these vowels are repeated, and the two similar vowels blend into one long one. Thus, asa from a and as, "to be"; āpa from a and āp, r. 4.; the dual iṣhatuh from i and iṣh; ūkhatuh from u and ukh: but in the sing. of the last two cases, the radical i or u taking
* Thus, pach, "to cook," forbids i in the future; therefore the 2d sing. is either papaktha or pechitha. So also ni, “to lead,” ninayitha or ninetha, as above.
† So in the Greek, τέθαπται from θαπτω ; πεφιληκα from φιλεω.
Grammarians assert that the short a is optionally retained in the first person.