« AnteriorContinua »
92. If the root be of the 2d conjugation, the base is formed by substituting the Guna vowel for the vowel of the root, before those terminations only that are marked with P : before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root is retained.* Thus, from rid, “ to know," is formed the base of the singular present, ped (cedmi, &c.), the base of the dual and plur. cia/ (cidicah, &e) : from dinish, “ to hate," the bases dicesh and dicis/्' ः from i, “ to go," the bases e and i (Ist sing. emi, of cia' ; Ist pl. imah, cf tite); from जागृ, “ to awake,".jāgar and jigri (3d sing. du. pl.jigarti, jigrita/),.jigratit r. 7.),
a. Those roots of this and the 3d and 7th conj. whose bases end in consonants reject the terminations of the 2d and 3d pers. sing. Ist pret. (excepting ad, “ to eat,” which inserts a before / and ). But the final of the base is changed analogously to crudes of the Sth class in the nom. case (see p. 27. r. 45). Thus, sing. acedam, are’, aget. 4dicesham, adicet (अद्वेट्) &c. They also take dhā for hi in the imperative.$
* Bopp has noticed a corresponding lengthening of the vowel of the root before certain terminations in Greek. Cf. 6foout, 6t6o५ev, eijat, /uev.
f The other forms of the base of durish are Seen in r. 91. e..f:
मू Roots of more than one syllable, and.jaksh, “ to eat,” and shās, “ to rule," and all roots of the 8d conjugation, necessarily reject the nasal of the Bd plur-s of the pres, and imp. paras., and take uh for an in the 8d plur. Ist pret. Some other roots in the 2d conj. optionally take ad for dm s as, cid, durish, p67, /6
b. Roots like ad, “ to eat" ; pā, “ to protect " ; /ti, “ to go," having no Guna substitute, do not change at all (admi, &c. ; ptimi, &c. ; /tinai, &c.). But daridra, par. “ to be poor,' makes its base daridri before the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, uh, atu (8d pers.'sing. dual, plur. daridriti, daridritah, daridrati), see note mfarked t, p. 69.
c. The root stu, “ to praise,” and some others in u, take Wriddhi before the cons0nantal P terminations,* changing at to uu before the wowel terminations. Hence, the three bases, stau, stu, stut (stauti, stutah, stutamti). Similarly, si, ātm. ** to bring forth," makes suu before the wowel terminations (snte, sutyāte, sutate) ; ब्रू Gra, “ to speak,' makes brutं before the consonantal P terminations,and brun before the vowel terminations. Hence, in the par., the three bases, brato, bria, brut) (braciti, brotah, brutyamti) ; and in the atm. the two bases brii, brut) (briate, brutyāte, brucate).
d. Rud, ** to weep,” besides the usual Guna change, adds i to the root before all the consonantal terminations except /. Hence the three bases rodi, ra८di, rud (roditi, ruditah, rudamti). Similarly, but without Guna, the roots sucap, “ to sleop," shulus and am, “ to breathe,'.juksh, “ to eat.'' Ham, ** to kill,'' makes its base ha before t or th ; ghn before anti, am, dntu s and.ju before hi (hamti, hatah, Ghmamti ; 2d pers. imp..7ahi).
e. शास् , “to rule,'' makes its base शिम् before t, th (which then become t, th) and J), and changes its final to t in the 2d and 8d Sing. Ist pret. (ashāt).
Jः स्रस्as, “ to be,” rejects its initial a, except in the Ist pret., and except before the P terminations of the other tenses.
दुह् , “ to milk,” and लिह् , ** to lick,'' form their bases as seen at r. 9I. h, ā.
93. If a root be of the 3d conjugation, the base is formed by the reduplication of the initial consOnant and vowel of the root, a being the reduplicated vowel for ā, i for । or ri, and a for ः; and in the reduplication of the consonant, an unaspirated letter being substituted for an aspirated, and j for h. Besides the reduplication of the root, the radical syllable is Subjected to the Guna change, but only before the e terminations, as in the 2d Conj.
* By ** the cons0nantal * terminations' is meant th0se terminations marked with P which begin with cons0nants.
a. दा, “ to give,' in the par. drops the a before all except the P terminations, making its base dad, changeable to dat (dudati, dattah, dadati), and de before the hā of the imperat. Similarly, धा, “ to place,' makes its base dadh before o, m, /, or a wowel, and dhe before hā ; but dhat before t, th, or s (dudhāti, dhattah, dadhati).
94. If a root be of the 5th conjugation, the base is formed by adding na to the root, which is converted to the Guna mo before the e terminations. Thus, from chi, “ to gather," are formed the two bases chino and chinu* (chinoti, chinata/), chinfoanti r. 7.) In roots ending in vowels, the ad of nad may be dropped before o and m. The roots āp, “ to obtain "; शक् , “ to be able '; तृप् , “ to satisfy "; and ऋध् , “ to increase "; ending in consonants, add nut; instead of na८ before the vowel terminations (shakmoti, shaknuta/), shaknucanti), श्रु shru, “ to hear " (sometimes placed under the Ist conj), substitutes शृ skr for the root (शृणोति, r. 21., शृणुत: शृण्वन्ति)
Roots ending in vowels reject the termination hi of the imperative : as, skrina, “ do thou hear "; but āpnahi, “ do thou obtain."
96. If a root be of the 7th conjugation, the base is formed by inserting na between the vowel and final consonant of the root, before
* This change of mu to mo is supplied in the corresponding Greek affix vu, by lengthening the U, as in tetryyuut, tethyvuuev ; )eikvuat, )etkvunew. Bopp.
f All the roots in this conjugation end in consonants.
96. The base in this conjugation is formed by the addition of a८ to the root, Converted to the Guna o before the or terminations. There are only ten roots in this conjugation, nine of which are not in Common use. Moreover, these nine all end in ?a, and therefore the addition of o and a८ will have the Same effect as the addition of no and na in the 5th conjugation. Thus, damo and danad, from dan,•“ to extend '' (Ist sing. pl. tanomi, tamumah, cf rdvupu, T4vupteg). But the tenth root in this class is कृ kri, “ to do,' by far the most common and useful root in the language. This root not only converts the conjugational affix ४ to the Guna o before the o terminations, but also changes the radical vowel ri। to the Guna ar before these Same terminations, and before the other terminations to ar (karoti, karata/), Karcanti), and rejects the conjugational a before c, m, / (lst plur. kurmah),
IWimt/ Conjugatiom. 97. If a root be of the 9th conjugation, the base is formed by
* Similarly, n is inserted in certain Greek and Latin roots; as, Jud0, aav0avo ; ?\०,3, ?\aju/3avo ; 0ry, 0ayyava) ; scid, scindo s fid,.find0 ; tag, tang0 ; /i/], linju0, &c.
f The final t of the base may be dropped, bhintal ; S0, also, rumdhah for rumddhah.