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fifty common roots belonging to the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, Sth, and 9th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all.
The student, however, who wishes for a continuous survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and proceed at once to Sect. III.
Sect. II.–CERTAIN IRREGULAR PRIMITIVES, OR VERBS
OF THE 20, 30, 5th, 7th, 8th, AND 9th CONJUGATIONS.
yām yāh yāt
Potential. yāva yāma iya
līvahi līmahi yātam yāta
īyāthām idhwam yātām yuh
Jāvahai amahai B tam ta
swa or şhwa athām dhwam tām antu or atu | tām
OBS. The terminations read downwards; thus, mi is the 1st pers. sing., si the 2d sing., ti the 3d. The mark P placed after certain terminations indicates that certain peculiar changes, to be afterwards explained, take place in the root before these terminations.
* This irregular scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme given by native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare
FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE CONJUGATIONAL TENSES.
These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit conjugation ; for they not only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also require a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular scheme, and more especially in this, that the terminations begin generally with consonants instead of vowels.
In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 81. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial sort of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, requires an acquaintance with the following rules.
Combination of final ch and j, with t, th, and s.
91. Final ch and j, before t, th, and s, are changed to k, the k blending with s into a ksh (r. 30. note): thus, vach with ti, vakti ; with thah, vakthah ; with si, vakshi : moch with syāmi, mokshyāmi; much with ta, mukta : tyaj with ta, tyakta ; with syāmi, tyakshyāmi. But a final palatal is, in a few cases, changed to a sh before t, th; and t, th then become ç, : thus, mārj with ti, Arfê; TT with thah, मृष्टः; सृज with ta, सृष्ट; प्रच्छ with tā, प्रष्टा.
Combination of final dh and bh, with t, th, and s. a. Final y dh and 4 bh, before t and th, are changed, the one to d, the other to b, and both t and th then become dh. Thus,
this with the regular scheme at p. 63, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of verbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular scheme, would amount to about eight thousand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. 63. This is another proof that native Grammarians are altogether wanting in clear logical arrangement of their subject.
rundh with tah or thah becomes equally runddhah (Foto); labh with tāhe, labdhāhe (an).
6. Final dh and bh, before s, are changed (by r. 13.), the one to t the other to p. Thus, runadh with si becomes runatsi ; sedh with syāmi, setsyāmi; labh with sye, lapsye. And if the initial of the root be d or b, the aspirate, which has been rejected in the final, is thrown back on the initial; as, bodh with sye, bhotsye.
Combination of final 7 sh, q şh, # s, with t, th, s, dh. c. Final si sh, before and th, is changed to y sh; and the t, th, take the cerebral form 7, 7: thus, fx with te, fè; and TTT with thāh, y:.
d. Similarly, final q şh, before t and th, requires the change of t, th, to
Thus, 19 with ti, tre; and f54 with thah, fax:. e. Final 7 sh orq şh, before s, are changed to k, the s then becoming șh (r. 30. note): thus, all with si, afa; sing with si, द्वेक्षि; द्रश् with syāmi, द्रक्ष्यामि .
f. Final 7 orq, before the termination dhi of the imperat., are changed to gd, the dhi becoming fa dhi. Thus, fay with dhi, farfa. Similarly with dhwam, fag.
# 8, before the termination dhi of the imperat., is either dropped, or changed to d. Thus, chakās with dhi, either chakadhi or chakaddhi ; शास् with dhi, शाधि; हिंस् with dhi, हिंद्धि.
Combination of final <h with t, th, and s. h. Final h, before t and th, is changed to g, and both t and th then become y dh. Thus, duh (CF) with tah or thah becomes equally dugdhah; dah (GE) with tāsmi, dagdhāsmi. But if the root begin with any other letter but d or n, then its final p coalesces with the t or th of the termination into a dh; and the radical vowel, if short, is lengthened : as, F with ta, 4T; FE with ta, रूढ ; leh (लेह) with ti, ledhi (लेटि); and रोह with tāsmi, रोढास्मि. Similarly the final of Ge, before the termination dhi of the imperat.,
* There is a very remarkable parallel to this in the Greek tpepw, making in the future Opeyw, noticed by Prof. Bopp.
becomes dugdhi (gforu); and the final of fose blends with the same termination into dh (Fifa). i. Final T h before 8, follows the analogy of final श and
प्, and is changed to k, which blends with s into ksh. Thus, leh with si becomes lekshi ; de with syāmi, tafa.
And if the initial of the root be d or g, the aspirate which has been changed to k is thrown back on the initial. Thus, doh (CTE) with si, dhokshi ; दह् with syāmi, पक्ष्यामि ; अगुह् with sam, अघुवं.
92. If the root be of the 2d conjugation, the base is formed by substituting the Guna vowel for the vowel of the root, before those terminations only that are marked with P: before all the other terminations the original vowel of the root is retained. Thus, from vid, “ to know," is formed the base of the singular present, ved (vedmi, &c.), the base of the dual and plur. vid (vidwah, &c.): from dwish, “to hate,” the bases dwesh and dwight : from i, “ to go,” the bases e and i (1st sing. emi, cf. eiu; 1st pl. imah, cf. iuev): from Fray, “to awake," jāgar and jāgri (3d sing. du. pl. jāgarti, jāgritah, jāgrati,f r. 7.).
a. Those roots of this and the 3d and 7th conj. whose bases end in consonants reject the terminations of the 2d and 3d pers. sing. Ist pret. (excepting ad, “to eat,” which inserts a before h and t). But the final of the base is changed analogously to crudes of the 8th class in the nom. case (see p. 27. r. 45.). Thus, sing. avedam, avet, avet. Adwesham, adwet (way), &c.
&c. They also take dhi for hi in the imperative.§
* Bopp has noticed a corresponding lengthening of the vowel of the root before certain terminations in Greek. Cf. δίδωμι, δίδομεν, είμι, ίμεν. † The other forms of the base of dwish are seen in r. 91. e. f.
Roots of more than one syllable, and jaksh,“ to eat,” and shās, “ to rule,” and all roots of the 3d conjugation, necessarily reject the nasal of the 3d plur., of the pres., and imp. paras., and take uh for an in the 3d plur. 1st pret. Some other roots in the 2d conj. optionally take uh for an ; as, vid, dwish, pā, yā.
§ Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas ufu (kAubi).
b. Roots like ad, “to eat”; pā, “to protect”; yā,"“ to go,” having no Guna substitute, do not change at all (admi, &c.; pāmi, &c. ; yāmi, fc.). But daridrā, par. “to be poor,” makes its base daridri before the consonantal terminations not marked with
P, and daridr before ati, uh, atu (3d pers. sing. dual, plur. daridrāti, daridritah, daridrati), see note marked I, p. 69.
c. The root stu,“ to praise,” and some others in u, take Vriddhi before the consonantal P terminations,* changing u to uv before the vowel terminations. Hence, the three bases, stau, stu, stuv (stauti, stutah, stuvanti). Similarly, sū, ātm. “to bring forth,” makes suv before the vowel terminations (sūte, suvāte, suvate); a brū, “ to speak,” makes bravī before the consonantal P terminations, and bruv before the vowel terminations. Hence, in the par., the three bases, bravī, brū, bruv (bravīti, brütah, bruvanti); and in the atm. the two bases brū, bruv (brūte, bruvāte, bruvate).
d. Rud,“ to weep,” besides the usual Guna change, adds i to the root before all the consonantal terminations except y. Hence the three bases rodi, rudi, rud (roditi, ruditah, rudanti). Similarly, but without Guna, the roots swap, “ to sleep,” shwus and an, “to breathe,” jaksh, “to eat.” Han, “ to kill,” makes its base ha before t or th ; ghn before anti, an, antu ; and ja before hi (hanti, hatah, ghnanti ; 2d pers. imp. jahi).
e. NIRA , “ to rule,” makes its base fyty before t, th (which then become t, th) and y, and changes its final to t in the 20 and 3d sing. Ist pret. (ashāt).
“ to be," rejects its initial a, except in the 1st pret., and except before the P terminations of the other tenses.
ÇE, “to milk,” and foe,“ to lick,” form their bases as seen at r. 91. h, i.
Third Conjugation. 93. If a root be of the 3d conjugation, the base is formed by the reduplication of the initial consonant and vowel of the root, a being the reduplicated vowel for ā, i for ī or ri, and u for ū; and in the reduplication of the consonant, an unaspirated letter being substituted for an aspirated, and j for h. Besides the reduplication of the root, the radical syllable is subjected to the Guna change, but only before the P terminations, as in the 2d conj.
* By “the consonantal P terminations” is meant those terminations marked with P which begin with consonants.