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the base, or, in other words, an investigation into the changes which the root undergoes before the terminations are affixed; 2dly, the inflection of the base, or the union of the base with its terminations.
The first of these two subjects of inquiry will be found to be that in which consists all the difficulty of the subject; for, as far as the terminations are concerned, no dead language conforms more systematically to one general scheme, than the one with which we are concerned.
There are ten rules or conjugations, according to which the bases of verbs may be formed. But in these we have already noted a great peculiarity, and one which has much weight in a comparison between the difficulties of a Greek and Sanscrit verb. Of these ten conjugations, the first nine have reference only to the first four tenses; viz. the present, first preterite, potential, and imperative. Hence these are called the conjugational tenses. After passing these four tenses the conjugational structure of the base is entirely forgotten; and in the formation of the bases of the six remaining tenses all roots conform to one general rule, and are as if they belonged to one general conjugation. Hence these tenses are called non-conjugational. the conjugational structure of the base throughout all the tenses of the verb; but as this conjugation has no reference to primitives, but to causals only, no confusion can arise from this apparent inconsistency. Of the 2000 roots, about one half follow the 1st conjugation, about 130 follow the 4th, and about 140 the 6th. Of the remaining roots, not more than 20 in common use follow the 2d; not more than 5 follow the 3d; not more than 6 the 7th; not more than 4 the 5th; not more than 1 the 8th; not more than 12 the 9th.
The tenth alone retains
Primitive verbs, therefore, which constitute the first nine conjugations, will be divided into two grand classes, according as they fall under one or other of these nine conjugations. Regular primitive verbs will be those of the 1st, 4th, and 6th conjugations. Irregular primitives those of the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th conjugations. The first class we call regular, because under it are contained nearly all the common verbs in the language; the
second irregular, as comprehending only fifty or sixty useful verbs in all.
All causal verbs follow the 10th conjugation, and, in point of fact, constitute this conjugation; for all those primitive verbs which are said by grammarians to belong to the 10th conjugation, may be regarded as causal verbs.
All passive verbs are ātmanepada verbs of the 4th conjugation. The parasmaipada of the 4th conjugation is constituted of certain primitive verbs, which have a neuter signification.
†There seems no necessity for creating a tenth conjugation as distinct from the causal. So that it would greatly simplify the subject, if this conjugation were expunged altogether from the Grammar, and the addition of ay to the root considered, in all cases, as the mark of a causal verb. And it is plain that ay is not the sign of a separate conjugation, in the way that nu is the sign of the 5th conjugation, or in the way of any other conjugational sign, for it is retained throughout the other tenses of the verb, not only in the first four, just as the desiderative ish is retained throughout. And although there are many verbs given under the 10th conjugation, which have rather a transitive than a causal signification, yet there are also many causal verbs which are used only in a transitive sense. It will therefore make the subject less complex to consider that the affix ay is always the sign of the causal form, merely bearing in mind that causal forms do not necessarily imply causality.
It may also be questioned whether there be any necessity for creating a 4th conjugation as distinct from the passive. For since it is found that either a neuter or passive signification attaches to nearly all the verbs placed under the 4th conjugation, and that passive verbs are identical with its ātmanepada inflection, it may with reason be suspected that the occasional assumption of a neuter signification and a parasmaipada inflection by a passive verb, was the only cause which gave rise to the creation of this conjugation. And this theory is supported by the fact that many passive verbs (as, for example, jāyate, “he is born," from the root jan; and puryate, "he is filled," from the root pri) are confounded with verbs of this conjugation. So that it seems not unlikely, that, by making this 4th conjugation, Grammarians only meant to say that the passive form of verbs, or the addition of y to the root, is also the form that may be used to express a neuter or intransitive signification; the only difference requisite to be made between the two forms being exactly that which might be expected to exist between them; viz. that
the one should take the ātmanepada; the other, the parasmaipada inflection. At any rate this fact is clear that the par. of the 4th conjugation is the form used in numerous roots to yield a neuter signification; and that the atm. is identical with the form used to yield a passive sense. Hence it arises, that many roots appear in the 4th conjugation as neuter verbs, which also appear in some one of the other nine as transitive. For example, yuj, “to join," when used in an active sense is conjugated either in the 7th conjugation, or in the causal; when in a neuter, in the 4th. So also, push, "to nourish "; kshubh, "to agitate"; klish, “to vex"; sidh, "to accomplish."
SECT. I.-REGULAR PRIMITIVES, OR VERBS OF THE 1st, 4th, AND 6th CONJUGATIONS.
Obs., the terminations read downward; thus, ami
is the 1st pers. sing.; asi the 2d sing.; ati the 3d.
FORMATION OF THE BASE OF THE CONJUGATIONAL TENSES OF
REGULAR PRIMITIVE VERBS.
88. Obs., that it is an universal rule in every conjugation that the augment a is prefixed to the base of the first pret.; and that when this is prefixed to bases beginning with the vowels i, u, and ri, short or long, it blends with them into ai, au, ār (instead of e, o, ar, by r. 5.). Thus the base becomes in the first pret. aichchham, and ridhno, ārdhnot.
a. If a root be of the 1st conjugation, the rule for the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root throughout every person of every tense. Thus, from budh, "to know," is formed the base बोघ् bodh* (बोधामि, bodhāmi, &c.). From bhu, "to be," bho (bhavāmi, &c., r. 10.†). From ni, "to lead," ne (nayāmi, &c., r. 10.). From srip, sarp; from klrip, kalp (p. 2.†). In the first preterite the only difference in the base will be that a is prefixed; thus, abodh, abho, ane (abodham, &c., abhavam, &c., anayam, &c.). In the potential and imperative the base is exactly the same as in the present (bodheyam, &c., bodhāni, &c.).
b. Since there is no Guna of a, roots like pach," to cook," do not change (pachāmi, &c.). Nor does any change take place if the root ends in two consonants; as, nind, "to blame ": nor if the root contain a long vowel, not final; as, jv, "to live." OBS. It will be hereafter seen that this prohibition of Guna extends to the other tenses as well as to the conjugational.†
c. Some roots of the 1st conjugation form their bases in the first four tenses by a change peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses. Thus, from sthā, “to stand,” comes the base fra tishṭh (tiṣhṭhāmi, &c.); gachchh; from sad, ātm. "to sink,” sīd; from
from π gam, “to go,”
* Bopp has shewn that an analogous change takes place in Greek. Thus, the root φυγ (ἔφυγον) becomes φεύγω in the present.
†Thus, nind is in the 2d pret. nininda; in the 1st fut. ninditā; in the 3d pret. anindit; in the causal, nindayati.
ghrā, “to smell," fjighr; from pā, “to drink,” piv; and from दृश् drish, "to see,” the substituted base ч pashy; from yam, “to restrain," yachchh; from gup, "to protect"; gopay.
89. If a root be of the 4th conjugation, no Guna takes place, but the base is formed by the simple addition of y to the root. Thus, from fay sidh, "to succeed," is formed the base sidhy (sidhyāmi, &c.); from nrit, "to dance," the base nrity.
a. The following are anomalous changes. From ज़, “to grow old,” is formed the base, jury; from div, "to sport," divy; from kram, “to go,” krāmy; from bhram, “to whirl," bhrāmy; from bhransh, “to fall,” ч bhrashy; from jan, ātm. "to be born," jay; from vyadh, par. "to pierce," vidhy. See the remarks, p.
90. If a root be of the 6th conjugation, the general rule is, that no change at all takes place, and that the root stands also for the base. Thus, the root kship, "to throw," is also the base (kshipāmi, &c.). So also fe dish, So also fe dish, “to point out" (dishūmi, &c.).*
a. Some roots, however, take a change peculiar to themselves; as, from इष् ish, “to wish,” the base; from, "to ask,"
; and a final u or ū is changed
to shake,” dhuv; from a mṛi, ātm.
to uv, and ri to riy; and rī to ir. As, from dhū,
b. Some insert a nasal; as, from much,“ to let go,” the base munch (nfa, &c.); from lip, “to anoint," limp; from sich, “to sprinkle," sinch; from, “to cut," कृन्त् .
Having thus explained the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses of the regular primitive, it will be necessary to exhibit the irregularities presented in these same tenses by about
* Roots ending in consonants in the 6th conj. generally contain either i, u, or ri; and these vowels would have taken Guna had the root fallen under the 1st.