Imatges de pàgina


88. Obs., that it is an universal rule in every conjugation that the augment a is prefixed to the base of the first pret. ; and that when this is prefixed to bases beginning with the vowels i, ad, and ;ri, short or long, it blends with them into ai, au, ār (instead of e, o, ar, by r. 5.). Thus the base इच्द् becomes in the first pret. aichchham, and ridhmo, dirdhnot.

First Conjugatiom.

a. If a root be of the lst conjugation, the rule for the formation of the base in the conjugational tenses is, that the Guna be substituted for the vowel of the root throughout ecery person of epery tense. Thus, from बुध् budh, “ to know," is formed the base बोध्। Dodh* (बोधामि, bodhami, &c.), From bhā, “ to be," ८ho (Ghagami, &c., r. l0.f), From mi, " to lead," ne (ndyāmi, &e., r. 10.f), From grip, sarp ; from klrip, kalp (p. 2.f), In the first preterite the only difference in the base will be that a is prefixed ; thus, abodh, abh0, ame (abodham, &c., abhauam, &c., andyam, &c.). In the potential and imperative the base is exactly the same as in the present (bodheyam, &c., bodhāni &e),

८. Since there is no Guna of a, roots like पच् pach, “ to cook,' do not change (pachami, &c.), Nor does any change take place if the root ends in two consonants ; as, ?mind, “ to blame ': nor if the root contain a long vowel, not fimal ; as, jou, " to live.'' OBS. It will be hereafter Seen that this prohibition of Guna extends to the other tenses as well as to the conjugational."

c. Some roots of the Ist conjugation form their bases in the first four tenses by a change peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses. Thus,from स्यां sthā, “ to stand,' comes the base तिर् tishth (tishthdmi, &c.); from गम् gam, * to go,'' गच्छ् gachchh ; from सद् sad, ātm. “ to sink,' sād s from

* Bopp has shewn that an’ analogous change takes place in Greek. Thus, the r00t puy (ंpuryov) becomes petrya in the present.

f Thus, mind is in the 2d pret. mininda ; in the Ist fut. minditā ; in the 8d pret. amindit ; in the causal, mindog/uti.

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Fourt/ Corijagation. 80. If a root be of the 4th conjugation, no Guna takes place, but the base is formed by the .Simple addition of y to the root. Thus, from सिध् sidh, “ to succeed," is formed the base sidhy (sid/yānai, &c.); from नृत् nrit, “ to dance," the base mrity. “ , “ - ‘

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Sia:th Cojijagatiom. 90. If a root be of the 6th conjugation, the general rule is, that no change at all takes place, and that the root stands also for the base. Thus, the root kship, “ to throw,' is also the base (kshipāmi, &c.). So also दिशं dis/, “ to point out " (dishami, &c.).*

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jugational tenses of the regular primitive, it will be necessary to exhibit the irregularities presented in these same tenses by about fifty common roots belonging to the 2d

* Roots ending in consonants in the 6th conj. generally contain either i, u, Or ri ; and these wowels would have taken Guna had the root fallen under the Ist. K

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, 3d, 6th, 7th, Sth, and 9th conjugations, before we proceed to the remaining six tenses of the verb, the rules for the formation of which are common to all.

The student, however, who wishes for a continuous Survey of all the tenses of the verb will pass over the next section, and

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* This irregular Scheme of terminations corresponds to the technical scheme

given by native Grammarians, as applicable to all verbs. Let the reader compare

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These irregular primitives cause the chief difficulty of Sanscrit Conjugation ; for they not Only present an ever-varying form of base throughout the different persons of each tense, but also reguire a scheme of terminations which differs, in many important points from the regular Scheme, and more eSpecially in this, that the terminations begin generally with comsomants instead of vOwels.

In this last respect the above scheme resembles that of the first and second future, p. 73, and all the other non-conjugational tenses, p. 8l. Hence the combination of the final consonants of a base with the initial s or t of these terminations, and of those of the non-conjugational tenses, reguires an acguaintance with the following rules.

Combinatiom 0f fimal ch and j, foith t, th, and S.

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Combimation of fimal dh and bh, ?cith t, th, and S.

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this with the regular scheme at p. 68, and observe how essentially they differ. Let him also bear in mind that the total number of verbs, primitive and derivative (exclusive of Intensives and innumerable Nominals), that follow the regular Scheme, would amount to about eight thousand, whilst the total number that follow this irregular scheme would hardly exceed two hundred ; he will then understand that if any general scheme is to be propounded at all, it should rather be that at p. 68. This is another proof that native Grammarians are alt0gether wanting in clear

logical arrangement of their Subject.

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* There is a very remarkable parallel to this in the Greek rpcipo, making in the future 0pe.Jo, noticed by Prof. Bopp.

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