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PRONUNOIATION OR' THE WOWELS.
The following English words, written in the Sanscrit character, will furnish the best clue to the pronunciation of the vowels.
A as in रोमन् , “ Roman"; a as in लास्त् , “ last "; i and i as in the first and last syllables of इन् वलीद् , “ invalid"; a as in पुष् , “ push "; ā as in रूद्, “ rude '; ri as in ऋल्, “ rill "; rā as in शगृन् , “ chagrin'; e as in एर् , “ ere'; o as in सो, ‘‘ SO'; ai as in ऐल् , “ aisle'; aa८ as ou in और्, “ Our'; ar and ār as in the words “ inward,” “ regard.”
Since short a is inherent in every consonant, the student should be careful to acguire the correct pronunciation of this letter. There are a few words in English which will afford examples of its Sound, Such as Bomam, temperance, /iasbamdmam, tolerable. But in English this Sound is often represented by a, as in fam, 8adm ; Or by o, as in dome, som ; Or even by the other vowels ; as by e in her, permal ; by i in bird, sir. The perfection of the Devanāgar alphabet, as compared with the Roman, is at once apparent. Every wowel in Sanscrit has one invariable ( sound, and the beginner can never be in doubt what pronuncia
tion to give it, as in English, or whether to pronounce it long or Short, as in Latin.
PRONUNCIATION OE THE CONSONANTS.
The consonants are in general pronounced as in English. But g is always pronounced hard, as in gibe : 4/ is not pronounced as
in English, but is only t aspirated, and, when rapidly enunciated, hardly distinguishable from t.
The same remark applies to the other aspirated letters.
The true Sound of t/ is exemplified by the word amthill; So also p/, by a/phill, which might be written उफिल् . The .cerebral class of consonants only differs from the dental in being pronounced with a duller and deeper Sound. Each class of consonants has its own nasal ; thus the SOund ink would be written in Sanscrit इङ्; the Sound ijac/ं, इच् ; the word adjader अण्डर् ; the dental n would be written in the word country, pronounced as in Ireland ; the sound imp would be written ड्म्य् . So, also, three of the classes have sibilants peculiar to them. Thus the final sibilant of the word ततस् datas, when combined with the word च c/ia, must be written ततश्व /atashc/ia ; when combined with
टीका tikā, must be written ततष्टीका datashtikā ; when combined with तं dam, must be retained ततस्तं tatastam. So also each of the letters, /, /, r, !, o, is plainly referrible to its particular class. The ह h is pronounced from the throat, and therefore allied to the guttural class. The य y belongs to the palatal class, and in Bengali is always corrupted into j. The ग् is allied to the cerebral letters ड and ढ', and in Bengali these letters are often hardly distinguishable from r in sound. The ल ! is evidently a dental. The व', although partly dental, belongs to the labial class ; and is so allied to ब ।), that, in Bengali, it is always pronounced like ८, and, in Sanscrit, is often interchanged with it.*
* It may here be remarked, that although the column of nasals in the Table of Consonants (p. 1) has reference to the sibilants, aspirate, and Semi-wowels, as well as to the other cons0nants; yet the mark Anuswāra (*) is the proper nasal of these letters, and must always take the place of any other nasal that may be combined with them in the same word. Thus the preposition सम् and the participle स्मृत, whem united in one word, are written सँस्मृत; सम् and हार् , संहार्; सम and रागः, सँराग :f and so on. But in every one of these cases the Anuswāra takes the Sound of the nasal of the class to which the following letter belongs. Thus संस्मृत is sounded as if written सन् स्मृत; संहार् as if written सङ्ग् हार्; संलाप as if written सन् लाप. For the sake of brewity, howewer, the Anuswāra is, in many books, written as the representative of the nasal of any letter, and not merely of the
aspirate, Semi-wowels, and Sibilants.
* In Sanscrit, however, the letter व is always pronounced either like to or to s like g when it stands by itself or as the first member of a compound consonant, as in वा 0a, व्याध tgadha ; like u', when it forms the last member of a compound consonant, as in द्वार्.८ludra.
f सम्राज्, “an universal monarch,” and सम्यक्, “ properly,” are the only words which wiolate this rule.
Spor. I.-OO'MBINATION AND PERMUTATION OR I,ETTERS.
WE are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic changes of letters. Thus in, combined with rogo, becomes irrogo ; rego makes, in the perfect, not regsi but reksi, contracted into re:cā ; ueho becomes beksi or ueai ; oruy with "yv6an becomes oruryyv ं,an ; āv with ?\८,umro, 6?\A4,umro. These laws for the combination of letters are applied very extensively throughout the Sanscrit language ; and that, too, not only in combining two parts of one word, but in combining all the words in the same sentence. Thus the Sentence “ Bara agis in terris' would reguire, by the laws of combination (called, in Sanscrit, Sandhi) to be written thus, Joarāgir ins terri/; ; and would, moreover, be written without separating the words, Earāpirinsterrih. The learner must not be discouraged if he is not able thoroughly to understand all the numerous laws of combination at first. He is recommended, after reading them over with attention, to pass at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs : for to oblige him to learn by heart a number of rules, the use of which is not fully seen till he comes to read and construct semtemces, must Only lead to a waste of time and labour.
CHANGES OP WOWELS.
I. Nevertheless, there are some changes of letters which Come into immediate application in the formation and declension of nouns, and the conjugation of verbs ; and amongst these, the changes of vowels called Guna and Wriddhi should be impressed on the memory of the student, before he takes a single step in the study of the Grammar. When the vowels i and o are changed to e, this is called the Guna change, or a change in 7adality ; when i and ? are changed to ai, this is called the Wriddhi change, or an increase. Similarly, a८ and i are often changed to their Guna o, and Wriddhi aa ; ri and rā to their Guna ar, and Wriddhi ār ; and
COMBINATION AND PBRMUTATION OR LETTER.S. ?
a, though it have no corresponding Guna change, has a Wriddhi Substitute in a. 2. Let the Student, therefore, never forget the following rule, or he will be confused at every step. There is no Guna substitute for a, but a is the Wriddhi substitute for d ; e is the Guna, and di the Wriddhi Substitute for i and ? ; o is the Guna, and aa८ the Wriddhi Substitute for a८ and ā ; dr is the Guna, and ar the Wriddhi substitute for ri and ?. Again, let him never forget that y is the semi-vowel of i and क; o is the semi-vowel of a and ā ; r is the semi-vowel of ri and ??. 3. Lastly let him bear in mind that the Guna dipthong e is Supposed to be made up of a and i, and the Guna o, of a and a * So that a and i may often coalesce into e, and a and a into o. He will now understand the reason for the arrangement of vowels and semi-vowels given in the first Table. This Table is here repeated in the Roman character.
* In the Same way the Wriddhi diphthong ai is supposed to be made up of a or d and e, and the Wriddhi au of a or di and 0.
9. If a word end in e or o, when the next begins with a short, then e and o remain unchanged, and the initial a is cut off. Thus, te api are written te pi (ते-पि); so api are written so pi (सो-पि).
I0. If a word end in e, when the mext begins with any other vowel except a short, then e is supposed to be first changed to ay ; but the y is usually dropped, leaving the a uninfluenced by the following vowel. Thus, te āgatā/ becomes ta āgata/), (त स्रागता:),
* It so happens that o, as the final of a complete word, is newer likely to come in c0alition with any initial wowel but Short a. But in the case ofe or o, as the finals of roots or crude forms, when the termination to be annexed begins with any wowel, whether d, d, i, or any other, then e is changed to dg/, and o to au.
The following Table exhibits all the combinations of vowels at one view. Supposing a word to end in ii, and the next word to begin with aa, the student must carry his eye down the first column (headed “ final vowels ') till he comes to छ्, and then along the top horiZontal line of “ initial vowels," till he comes to aa. At the junction of the perpendicular column under da८ and the horiZontal line beginning ā, will be the reguired combination, wiZ. o aa८.