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“ he goes to his own house."* The gen. case of atman (p. 41.), or often the crude, is used with the same signification ; as, चात्मनो गृहं
84. भवत् bharat, “ your honour," reguiring the ad person of the verb, is declined like dhanacat (r. 6l.). Thus, nom. ८/apān, ८7aoantaa, Dharantah. It is used respectfully in place of the second personal pronoun ; as, Ghapām dharmam karotu, "let your honour practise virtue."
85. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chama, added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus, nom. sing. mase. कश्चित् kashchi८ “ somebody," “ any body "; acc. कश्चित् kanchit ; ins. kenachit ; dat. kasmaichāt ; loc. कस्मिंश्चित् kasminshchit (r. 20); nom. plur. masc. kechit. So also nom. को-पि ko'pi, कश्चन kashchama, “ Somebody "; ins. kemāpā, &c. By prefixing न, is formed the megative न कश्चित् , “ nobody."
# In the same way interrogative adwerbs are made indefinite. Thus, from kati, “ how many ?” katichit, **a few'; from kada, “ when?” kadachit, “ at some
86. This is expressed by prefixing the relative pronoun to the
87. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tad (r. 77.). Thus,
* In modern Sanscrit māja often takes the place of sura ; as, निजगृहं गच्छति .
f Prof. Lassen cites a remarkable example from the Rāmāyama, in which आात्मन् refers to the dual number. Putram ātmanah sprishtua mipetatah, * they two fell down after touching their Son.' Anthol. p. 171.
सङ्घै sarpa, "all ': nom. masc. sarrah, sarpaa, sarce; dat. sarcasmai ; nom. fem. sargā, &c. ; dat. sarpasyai, &c. But the nom. neut. is sarpam, &c., not sarpad. The following are the most useful of these pronominals. Eka, “ one'; prathama, “ first'; dipitāya, “ second"; tritāya, “ third''; alpa, “ few"; abha, “ both"; anya, “ other"; itara, “ other"; katara, “ which of the two?" (the three last also follow tad in the nom. and acc. neut. anyat, itarat, katara) But some of these are optionally declined like nouns of the first class ; thus, alpa, nom. plur, alpā/ or alpe.
ALTHOUGH the Sanscrit verb will be found somewhat intricate by one who follows it through all its windings, yet such a general view of its structure as will be Sufficient to answer the practical wants of the general reader may be easily given, and as easily apprehended. There is no part of the grammar So capable as this of plain exoteric explanation, whilst there is none so obscured by the esoteric and mystical teaching of native grammarians ; none, of which the general principles are so few and so close to the surface, whilst the abstruser truths, the niceties and refinements, are multiplied to an extent that tends to discourage, or even disgust the uninitiated learner. Hence it happens that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust his subject, is here not Only compelled to embarass and perplex an otherwise simple statement, by the diffuse exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the ordinary student, but is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a complication of technical phrases, conventional abbreviations, and symbolical letters, which are as puZZling at the first stage of his studies, as they may be useful in assisting his memory at a later period. And thus it is that a very false impression is formed of the difficulty of a language, the broad and useful principles of which lie wholly within the reach of the most moderate capacity. It will be the aim of the following pages to disentangle the Subject, as much as possible, from this superabundant weight of mystical Symbols and unusual tenses and forms, many of which exist more in the theory of grammarians than in the practice of approved writers; and although no part of the verb will be left unnoticed, the larger print will serve to attract the eye of the student to those points which are of general utility and real importance, whilst the smaller will indicate those portions of the Subject which are to be reserved for after-consideration.
Although the Sanscrit verb offers the most striking and interesting analogies to the Greek, nevertheless, So peculiar and artificial is the process by which it is formed, that it would be impossible, in treating of it, to adopt an arrangement which would be likely to fall in with the preconceived notions of the classical student.
There are ten tenseS. Seven of them are of common occurrence ; viZ. I. the present, 2. the first preterite, 3. the potential, 4. the imperative, p. the second preterite, 6. the first future, 7. the Second future. Three are of rare occurrence ; viZ. 8. the third preterite, 9. the benedictive, I0. the conditional. There is also an infinitive mood, and several participles. Of these tenses the present, the three preterites, and the two futures, belong properly to the indicative mood ; and the imperative, potential, benedictive, and conditional, are more properly moods than tenseS. Since, however, these moods do not comprehend other tenses under them, but are Susceptible of all times, present, past, and future, it can lead to no embaraSSment to COnsider them as tenses, and to arrange them indiscriminately with the others in the manner proposed above.
* Although the three preterites are used without much distinction, yet it Should be observed that they properly express different degrees of past time. The first pre
terite corresponds to the imperfect of Greek and Latin verbs, and properly has
reference to an event doing at some time past, and not ended. Thesecond preterito
has reference to an ewent done and past at some definite period. The third pre
terite, to an event done and past at S0me indefinite period, thus corresponding to the
Greek aorist. S0, als0, the tw0 futures properly express, the first definite, the
second indefinite futurity. The potential may generally be rendered in English by. some one of the auxiliaries “ may,” “ can,” “would,” “should,” “ought." The
conditional is used after the conjunction /adi, “ if”ः it occurs, however, but very
rarely, and the potential usually Supplies its place in conditional Sentences. The
benedictive is a tense Sometimes used in praying and bleSSing.
The infinitive mood generally hasan active, but is capable of a passive signification.
Every tense has three numbers, Singular, dual, and plural. There are two voices or systems of inflection, the one called Parasmaipada, the other Atmanepada.* The former is supposed to convey a transitive sense, the action passing parasmai, “ to another "; the latter, a reflexive sense, corresponding to that conveyed by the Greek middle voice, the action reverting atmame, “ to one's self."f This distinction, however, is very rarely preserved ; and we find verbS, transitive or intransitive, conjugated indifferently in the parasmaipada or ātmanepada, or both. When, however, the verb is conjugated in both, the ātmane may then sometimes yield its appropriate meaning, and give a kind of reflexive sense, or a sense directing the action in some way to the advantage of the agent. Passive verbs are invariably conjugated in the ātmanepada. From every root five kinds of verbs may, in theory, be elicited— a primitive, a cauSal, a paSSive, a desiderative, and intensive. Of these, the two last forms are very rarely met with, except in the nouns and participles derived from them ; and will therefore be but slightly noticed in these pages, So, also, from every noun,. certain nominal verbs may, in theory, be elicited. Wery few of these, however, are in freguent use. There are ten conjugations. Primitive verbs may belong to any one of the first nine conjugations, but by far the greatest number belong either to the ISt, 4th, Or 6th, the Other Six conjugations comprising So few verbs that they may be regarded rather as exceptions. These nine conjugations apply to the first four tenses only. The other tenses of the primitive are formed according to One rule. Causal verbs form the I0th conjugation. Every root has a passive form, entirely independent of the conjugational form assumed by the root ; and the student will observe, that the paSSive cannot, in Sanscrit, be considered a roice, according to the usual acceptation of the term. For, in that case, he would expect a verb in the passive voice to correspond in form with a verb in the active, in the way that audior Corresponds with audio, and dkogouott with dikogo, the terminations or System of inflection only being changed. But, in Sanscrit, the passive often varies entirely in form from the active verb, whilst the terminations may in both cases be the Same, viZ. those of the ātmanepada. It is rather a distinct derivative from the root, formed on one invariable principle, without the least community with the conjugational structure of the active verb. Thus, the root D/id, “ to divide,' is of the 7th conjugation, and makes Ghinatti or ८/in/e, “ he divides'; diois/, " to hate,” is of the 2d conjugation, and makes diceshti or dioishte, “ he hates'; but the passive of both is formed according to one invariable rule, by the simple insertion of y, without the least reference to the conjugational form of the active : thus, bhidyate, “ he is divided '; digis//are, “ he is hated.'' From these observations it is evident that the difficulty of the Sanscrit verb is as nothing when compared with the Greek. The Greek verb has three voices, and about ninety tenses and moods : the Sanscrit has only two voices, and not more than twenty-One tenses and moods. Besides which, a far greater number of verbs are susceptible of the three voices in Greek, than of the two in Sanscrit.
* If the term ooice has reference to the system of inflection, it is obvious that there can only be two voices in Sanscrit; and although the atmamepada, in one or two instances, has a middle sense, yet it cann0t be Said to correspond with the Greek middle voice, the chief characteristic of which is, that it takes a middle inflection, partly active, partly passive.
f The words parasmaipada and ditmamepada will often be contracted into