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Neuter, nom. acc. tat,te, f tāni; the rest like the
This pronoun is sometimes used emphatically with the other pronouns, like ille and ipse. Thus, as, “ille ego”; à, illi
T," ille ipse"; and,
REFLEXIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
78. The oblique cases of, "soul," "self" (declined p. 41.), are used reflexively in place of the three personal pronouns, like the Latin ipse. Thus, ātmānam (me ipsum) anāhāreṇa haniṣhyāmi, "I will kill myself by fasting"; ātmānam (te ipsum) mritavad darshaya, "show thyself as if dead"; ātmānam (se ipsum) nindati, "he blames himself."
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS DECLINED.
79. The third personal pronoun tat, "he," declined above, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify "that" or "this"; and by prefixing e to it, another common pronoun is formed still more strongly demonstrative; as, nom. : eṣhah (r. 30.), en etau, à ete"; acc. ei etam, &c.; ins. etena, &c.
There is another very common demonstrative pronoun, of which idam, "this," the nom. case neuter, is considered to be the crude, but is never used as such.
* The acc. m. may be, the acc. f. I.
†This pronoun affords the only example of the old form for the instr. plur. of
Neut., nom. acc. idam, ime, fa imāni; the rest like the masculine.
There is another demonstrative pronoun rarely used except in the nom., of which adas is taken as the crude: nom. m. asau, "this" or "he," ami, ami; acc. amum; ins. amunā, &c.
80. The relative may be formed by simply substituting y for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, crude form yad: nom. m. 4: yah, "who," yau, ये ye; acc. यं yam, "whom," &c.
81. As the relative is formed by substituting y, so the interrogative by substituting k for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, nom. m. kah, who?" kau, ke. In the nom. neut., however, the interrogative is f kim and not kad.* Kim is also the crude, and occurs in a few compounds; as, fat, account?"
82. These are formed by adding the affix iya (r. 38. XI.) to the crude of the personal pronouns; as, madiya, "mine" (nom. -ah, -ā, -am); twadīya, "thine"; asmadiya, “our." Observe, however, that the gen. case of the personal pronouns is more usually taken to express the possessive; as, y:, “his son.”
REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
83. ♬ swa (cf. suus), declined like sarva, r. 87. (nom. :, àì, a1), is used reflexively, in reference to all three persons, and may
"his own," "thy own,'
our own," &c.
stand for "my own,'
masculine nouns of the first class. This form is still preserved in the Vedas, and in accordance with this, the instr. plur. of deva (r. 48.) would be devebhih.
*. Kad, however, was the old form, and is retained in a few words; such as kachchit, "perhaps"; kadartha, " useless" (" of what use?"); kadadhwan, “a bad road" ("what a road!”).
† But the abl. and loc. sing. m., and nom. pl. m. may follow deva, r. 48.
"he goes to his own house." The gen. case of ātman (p. 41.), or often the crude, is used with the same signification; as, or आत्मगृहं गच्छति
bhavat, "your honour," requiring the 3d person of the Thus, nom. bhavān, bhavantau, bhavantah. It is used respectfully in place of the second personal pronoun; as, bhavan dharmam karotu, "let your honour practise virtue.”
verb, is declined like dhanavat (r. 61.).
85. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chana, added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus, nom. sing. masc. kashchit, "somebody," any body"; acc. af kanchit; ins. kenachit; dat. kasmaichit; loc. afif kasminshchit (r. 20.); nom. plur. masc. kechit. So also nom. कोsपि ko'pi, कश्चन kashchana, somebody "; ins. kenāpi, &c. By prefixing, is formed the negative af, "nobody."
† In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite. Thus, from kati, "how many?" katichit, a few"; from kadā, "when?" kadāchit, "at some time"; from katham, "how?" kathanchana, "some how."
86. This is expressed by prefixing the relative pronoun to the interrogative. Thus, :, “whosoever "; un fafan, “whatsoever. Or by repeating the relative; as, यो यः, यद् यद्.
87. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tad (r. 77.). Thus,
* In modern Sanscrit nija often takes the place of swa; as, nė uafi. † Prof. Lassen cites a remarkable example from the Rāmāyana, in which Putram ātmanah spṛishṭwā nipetatuh, “they Anthol. p. 171.
आत्मन् refers to the dual number.
two fell down after touching their son."
sarva, "all": nom. masc. sarvah, sarvau, sarve; dat. sarvasmai ; nom. fem. sarvā, &c.; dat. sarvasyai, &c. But the nom. neut. is sarvam, &c., not sarvad. The following are the most useful of these pronominals. Eka, "one"; prathama, "first"; dwitiya, "second"; tritiya, "third"; alpa, "few"; ubha, "both"; anya, "other"; itara, "other"; katara, "which of the two?" (the three last also follow tad in the nom. and acc. neut. anyat, itarat, katarat). But some of these are optionally declined like nouns of the first class; thus, alpa, nom. plur. alpah or alpe.
ALTHOUGH the Sanscrit verb will be found somewhat intricate by one who follows it through all its windings, yet such a general view of its structure as will be sufficient to answer the practical wants of the general reader may be easily given, and as easily apprehended. There is no part of the grammar so capable as this of plain exoteric explanation, whilst there is none so obscured by the esoteric and mystical teaching of native grammarians; none, of which the general principles are so few and so close to the surface, whilst the abstruser truths, the niceties and refinements, are multiplied to an extent that tends to discourage, or even disgust the uninitiated learner. Hence it happens that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust his subject, is here not only compelled to embarass and perplex an otherwise simple statement, by the diffuse exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the ordinary student, but is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a