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N. twam, “thou," yei yuvām, “ you two," yüyam," you."
युष्मान yushmān.* I. PAT twayā,
yangi yuvābhyām, getfr: yushmābhin. D. qui tubhyam, *
y ei yushmabhyam.* Ab. p twat,
Yer yushmat. G. Ta tava,* gerut: yuvayoh, *
yourlop yushmākam.* L. Rfy twayi,
युष्मासु yushmasu. . 77. a tat or qç tad, “he,” is taken as the crude of the sing. and plur. of the third personal pronoun.
With this pronoun cf. the Greek article.
N. HT sā, “she," 1 te, Ac. ni tām, -te,
tāh. I. तया taya, , ताभ्यां tābhyām,
atfir: tābhih. D. तस्यै tasyai,
: tābhyah. Ab. TRT: tasyāh,
tābhyah. G. tasyāh, mat: tayoh,
तासां tāsām. L. Trei tasyām,
tayoh, Neuter, nom. acc. ma tat, ħ te, mfa tāni; the rest like the masculine.
This pronoun is sometimes used emphatically with the other pronouns, like ille and ipse. Thus, as, “ille ego "; # agi, " illi nos"; a “ille tu”; a gri, “illi vos "; # D#:, “ille ipse "; ac ean,
* The acc. sing. may also be at; the dat. gen. 1; the acc., dat., gen. dual ai; the acc., dat., gen. plur. a: (cf. Lat. vos).
REFLEXIVE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
78. The oblique cases of wit, “soul," "self” (declined p. 41.), are used reflexively in place of the three personal pronouns, like the Latin ipse. Thus, ātmānam (me ipsum) anāhārena hanishyāmi, “I will kill myself by fasting "; ātmānam (te ipsum) mritavad darshaya, “show thyself as if dead "; ātmānam (se ipsum) nindati,
he blames himself."
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS DECLINED.
79. The third personal pronoun na tat, “he,” declined above, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify “ that” or “ this "; and by prefixing e to it, another common pronoun is formed still more strongly demonstrative; as, nom. 4: eshah (r. 30.), en etau, pa ete"; acc. pri etam, &c.; ins. eta etena, &c.
There is another very common demonstrative pronoun, of which idam, “this,” the nom. case neuter, is considered to be the crude, but is never used as such.
* The acc. m. may be i, the acc. f. PGI. + This pronoun affords the only example of the old form for the instr. plur. of
Neut, nom. acc. e idam, şu ime, sarfa imāni ; the rest like the masculine.
There is another demonstrative pronoun rarely used except in the nom., of which adas is taken as the crude : nom. m. asau, “ this” or “he,” amī, amī; acc. amum ; ins. amunā, &c.
RELATIVE PRONOUN—"who," " which.” 80. The relative may be formed by simply substituting y for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, crude form yad : nom. m. T: yah, “who," TT
' whom,” &c.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN—" who?" " what?"
81. As the relative is formed by substituting y, so the interrogative by substituting k for s and t, in the pronoun tad. Thus, , nom. m. qii kah, “ who ?” omat kau, ai ke. In the nom. neut., however, the interrogative is for kim and not kad. Kim is also the crude, and occurs in a few compounds; as, , “on what account?"
82. These are formed by adding the affix īya (r. 38. XI.) to the crude of the personal pronouns; as, madīya, “mine” (nom. -ah, -ā, -am); twadiya, “thine "; asmadiya, “our." Observe, however, that the gen. case of the personal pronouns is more usually taken to express the possessive ; as, neq gti, “his son.
REFLEXIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
83. a swa (cf. suus), declined like sarva, r. 87. (nom. :, , **), is used reflexively, in reference to all three persons, and may stand for “my own,” “thy own,'
our own," &c. It often occupies the first place in a compound ; thus, ad tefat,
masculine nouns of the first class. This form is still preserved in the Vedas, and in accordance with this, the instr. plur. of deva (r. 48.) would be devebhih.
*. Kad, however, was the old form, and is retained in a few words; such as kachchit, “perhaps"; kadartha, “ useless” (“ of what use ?”); kadadhwan, “a bad road” (“what a road!").
† But the abl. and loc. sing. m., and nom. pl. m. may follow deva, r. 48.
" he goes to his own house. The gen. case of ātman (p. 41.), or often the crude, is used with the same signification ; as, WiMAT TE or श्रात्मगृहं गच्छति. .
84. Han bhavat, “your honour,” requiring the 3d person of the verb, is declined like dhanavat (r. 61.). Thus, nom. bhavān, bhavantau, bhavantah. It is used respectfully in place of the second personal pronoun; as, bhavān dharmam karotu, “let your honour practise virtue.”
85. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chana, added to the several cases of the interrogative pronoun, give them an indefinite signification. Thus, nom. sing. masc. af en kashchit, “ somebody,"
any body"; acc. ofern kanchit; ins. kenachit; dat. kasmaichit; loc. afeifen kasminshchit (r. 20.); nom. plur. masc. kechit. So also nom. misfa ko'pi, ama kashchana,“ somebody "; ins. kenāpi, &c. By prefixing 9, is formed the negative a afun, "nobody."
f In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite. Thus, from kati, “ how many ?” katichit, a few"; from kadā, “when?” kadāchit, “at some time"; from katham, “how?” kathanchana, "some how.”
86. This is expressed by prefixing the relative pronoun to the interrogative. Thus, u: afya, “whosoever "; a fafen, “whatsoever.” Or by repeating the relative; as, , .
87. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tad (r. 77.). Thus,
* In modern Sanscrit nija often takes the place of swa ; as, faste Testo.
+ Prof. Lassen cites a remarkable example from the Rāmāyana, in which आत्मन्
refers to the dual number. Putram ātmanah spțishtwā nipetatuh," they two fell down after touching their son." Anthol. p. 171.
dat. sarvasmai ; nom. fem. sarvā, &c.; dat. sarvasyai, &c. But the nom. neut. is sarvam, &c., not sarvad. The following are the most useful of these pronominals. Eka, one”; prathama, “first "; dwitīya, second"; tritiya,
tritīya, “third"; alpa," few"; ubha,“ both"; anya, "other"; itara, "other"; katara, " which of the two?" (the three last also follow tad in the nom. and acc. neut. anyat, itarat, katarat). But some of these are optionally declined like nouns of the first class ; thus, alpa, nom. plur. alpāh or alpe.
General Observations. ALTHOUGH the Sanscrit verb will be found somewhat intricate by one who follows it through all its windings, yet such a general view of its structure as will be sufficient to answer the practical wants of the general reader may be easily given, and as easily apprehended. There is no part of the grammar so capable as this of plain exoteric explanation, whilst there is none so obscured by the esoteric and mystical teaching of native grammarians ; none, of which the general principles are so few and so close to the surface, whilst the abstruser truths, the niceties and refinements, are multiplied to an extent that tends to discourage, or even disgust the uninitiated learner. Hence it happens that the expounder of Sanscrit Grammar, who wishes to exhaust his subject, is here not only compelled to embarass and perplex an otherwise simple statement, by the diffuse exhibition of various forms, and tenses, and exceptions, which are of little utility to the ordinary student, but is forced, moreover, to bewilder the beginner by a